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The Historical Register 

of the 

University of Cambridge 

being a supplement to the Calendar 
with a record of university offices 
honours and distinctions to the year 

19 1 O 

edited by 
J.' RfTanner, Litt.D. 

Fellow and formerly Tutor of St John's College 




515753 



Cambridge : 

at the University Press 

1917 



LF 

101 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction .... 

Constitution of the University . 

University Offices . . - .• 

University Courts 

Professorships .... 

Readerships .... 

University Lectureships 

University Teachers . 

University Demonstrators . 

Assistants to" Professors 

Special Foundations . 

University Preachers . . 

University Ceremonies 

University Costume . 

University DiscipHne ... 

PubHc Buildings and Institutions 

University Scholarships 

University Prizes 

Old Degrees and Privileges 

The Tripos 

Honours Lists .... 
Ordo Senior itatis, 1499^1747 . 
Mathematical Tripos, 1748 — 1910 
aassical Tripos, 1824—1910 . 
Moral Sciences Tripos, 1851—1910 
Natural Sciences Tripos, 1851 — 1910 
Theological Examinations, 1856 — 73 
Theological Tripos, 1874—1910 
Civil Law Qasses, 1816—57 . 



358 
443 
602 
703 
737 
802 
812 
845 



PAGE 

r vii 
I 
14 
63 
70 
112 
117 
131 
135 
144 
147 
155 
180 
189 
190 
208 
259 
289 
343 
348 
355 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Honours Lists, continued 

Law Tripos, 1858—69 . 

Law and History Tripos, 1870 — 4 . 

Law Tripos, 1875—1910 

Historical Tripos, 1875—1910 

Semitic Languages Tripos, 1878 — 94 

Indian Languages Tripos, 1879 — 92 

Oriental Languages Tripos^ 1895 — 1910 

Medieval and Modern Languages Tripos, 1886- 

Mechanical Sciences Tripos, 1894 — 1910 

Economics Tripos, 1905 — 10 . 
Table of Matriculations, 1544—1910 . 
University Societies .... 
Indexes . 

Index to University Appointments . . . 1012 

Index to the Ordo Senioritatis, 1499—1747 . . 1065 

General Index . . . . . . ,1150 



-1910 



854 
859 
862 
895 
938 
942 
946 
951 
972 
981 



987 

991 

1011 



INTRODUCTION 

The following introductory note^ on tke history of the 
Unwersity Calendar has been contributed by S. C. 
Roberts, M.A., of Pembroke College, Assistant Secretary 
to the Press Syndicate: 

*In 1796, when William Pitt was High Steward of the 
University and one of its representatives in Parliament 
and Henry Gunning one of the three "Esquire Beadles,'' 
there appeared the first Cambridge University Calendar. 

It was a small volume of 190 pages, edited by 
G. Mackenzie, B.A., of Trinity, and contained "a list of 
the present members, the livings in the gift of each 
College, with their incumbents; some useful particulars 
concerning the Fellowships, Scholarships, etc.. Professors, 
OfBcere, Prizemen, etc." It was printed by Benjamin 
^ Flower and published at 2s. 6c?. by W. Page ; in the Preface 
a pious hope that it would be "neither useless nor un- 
interesting to the Members of the University " was coupled 
with a warning that " in the first attempt of a Work of this 
nature, perfection cannot be expected." 

A note on the Origin of the University occupied the 
first page : 

"The origin of Cambridge as an University is very 
doubtful. We are hoAvever uiformed that one Cantaber, 
a Spaniard, about 370 years before Christ, is intitled to 
this honour; Certaiti it is, that after many years laying 
desolate, Sigebert, King of the East Angles, restored it 
A.D. 630." 

^ This note has been already printed in the Introduction to the 
University Calendar, 1914 — 15. 



viii INTRODUCTION 

The second issue was more ambitious. Edited by 
T. Beverley, Esquire BedelF, it contained 60 more pages 
and cost one shilling more than its predecessor. 

In the " Advertisement " it claimed not only to supply 
defects in the previous issue but " to contain sevei-al new 
and very interesting articles." "The candor," the editor 
continues, "which many members of the University have 
shewn in contributing the utmost information in their 
power. ..claims every tribute of gi-atitude. The com- 
munications, however, in a few i)articular instances... have 
not been bestowed with such a spirit of liberality as might 
have been expected." A manuscript note in the Univei-sity 
Library copy of this issue runs : " Alluding to the Pres. of 
Queens' who refused to supply any information." 

The higher flights of the editor of 1797 are especially 
seen in the historical introduction, where a circumstantial 
account is given of the career of Cantaber — his flight to 
Britain about the year of the world 3588, his marriage 
with the daughter Of King Gurguntius, his building of- 
Cantabrigia, his foundation of the University on the 
Athenian model, with philosophers hired fi"om Athens — 
"this is the origin of the University of Cambridge, now 
one of the first and most eminent in the world." 

The inconsistencies of spelling in these early Calendai*s 
recall Dr Venn's description of the variations in the written 
records-. In the volume for 1796, for instance, there is 
Sydney Sussex in the text and Sidney in the index, 
" Registrar " in the text and " Register " in the index ; in 
the second issue we find Medalist on the title-page and 
Medallist in the text, "Bedell" in the text and "Beadle" 

^ A prominent figure in the Reminiscences of Henry Gunning. 
2 Matriculations and Degrees 1544 — 1659, p. xvii. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

ill the index. "Queen's" seems the accepted form 
throughout. 

Except for the year 1798, the Calendar has appeared 
annually since 1796. In 1803 the title was temporarily 
changed to The Cambridge University Register, and the 
folloAving year's issue, edited by " a member of the Senate," 
was dedicated to William Pitt and the Earl of Eustoii. 
The Calendar was printed at the University Press in 1803 
and 1804, and this has also been the case from 1826 to the 
present time. Finally, in 1914 the proprietorship of the 
work was transferred from Messrs Deighton, Bell & Co. to 
the Syndics of the Press, who are now responsible for its 
publication.' ^ 

The last issue of the Calendar in the old form, 
published in October 1913, had reached the unwieldy 
dimensions of cxxiv + 1423 = 1547 pages. The Syndics of 
the Press therefore decided to transfer the historical 
information hitherto contained in the annual Calendar to 
a separate volume, to be published at much longer 
intervals as an Historical Register. This re-arrangement 
has afforded an opportunity for additions to the customary 
information, the most important of which are the 
following : 

(1) The lists of the holders of University Offices, 
Professorships, Readerships, and Lectureships have been 
completed from the earliest date of which there is any 
record, and brief footnotes have been added to the names 
of notable men. The lists as printed in the Register end 
with 1910, but they are continued in the annual Calendar 
for 1911 and subsequent years. 

(2) New sections have been added on the historical 
jurisdiction and procedure of the University Courts, on 



X INTRODUCTION 

University Ceremonies, Costume, and Discipline, on Old 
Degrees and Privileges, and on the history of the 
Mathematical Tripos. 

(3) The Tripos Lists in the old Calendar have been 
collated with the original sources and a number of 
mistakes have been discovered and corrected. Aegrotats 
and honorary optimes have also been included, and the 
footnotes have been entirely rewritten. These are now 
restricted, as a rule, to service in Church or State, or to 
the Universities, but >vithin these limits they are much 
fuller and many more names have been identified As in 
the case of University Ofiices, the Tripos Lists extend only 
to 1910, but the lists for 1911 and subsequent years will be 
found in the annual Calendar. The footnotes have been 
corrected as far as the end of 1915. The Lists printed in 
the old Calendar began with 1748, but it is possible to 
obtain from the Gi-ace-Books an order of seniority which 
goes back, with a few lacunas, as far as 1498 — 9, and 
selections from this, with footnotes on the same plan as in 
the case of the Tripos Lists, are given in the present 
volume. These include many famous names, for instance : 
Latimer (1510 — 11), Cranmer (1510 — 11), and Ridley 
(1521—2); Sir Thomas Smith (1529—30), Sir John Cheke 
(1529—30), John Caius (1532—3), and Roger Ascham 
(1533—4) ; Archbishops Parker (1523—4), Grindal (1537— 
8), Sandys (1538—9), ^Vliitgift (1553—4), and Bancroft 
(1566—7); Edmund Spenser (1572—3), George Herbert 
(1612—13), and John Milton (1628—9); Abraham Cowley 
(1639—40), and Matthew Prior (1686—7); Archbishop 
Sancroft (1637—8), and Bishop Stillingfleet (1652—3); 
Sir Robert Cotton (1585—6), Thomas Baker (1650—1), 
and Richard Bentley (1679—80). 



INTRODUCTION xi 

The necessary identifications would scarcely have been 
possible, but for the publication of the Dictionary of 
National Biography, and of Dr Venn's Graduati, 1544 — 
1659. 

(4) Indexes have also been compiled to University 
Appointments and to the Ordo Senioritatis, 1498 — 1747, 
and the General Index to the whole volume has been 
much enlarged. It is hoped that these indexes will be of 
service to future biographers and genealogists. 



The Editor desires gi-atefully to acknowledge advice 
and help from many quarters. In particular, he owes a 
special debt of gratitude to the Reverend H. P. Stokes, 
LKD., Litt.D., Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, 
who has placed his profound knowledge of University 
history unreservedly at the disposal of the new enterprise. 
Dr Stokes has not only contributed from his own pen the 
section entitled 'Old Degrees and Privileges,' and an 
account of the history of the Antiquarian Society, but has 
provided material from his note-books for amplifying the 
lists of the early holders of University Offices, and has 
given valuable advice upon difficult and doubtful points. 

Special thanks are also due to the following: — A. C. 
Seward, M.A., Master of Downing College, Professor of 
Botany, for advice in connexion with the section dealing 
with the Constitution of the University ; Sir J. E. Sandys, 
LittD., Fellow of St John's College, Public Orator, and 
F.J. H. Jenkinson,M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Librarian, 
for notes on the history of their respective offices, and for 
other kind help ; C. S. Kenny, LL.D., Downing Professor 
of the Laws of England, for contributing the section on 
University Courts; Stephen Gaselee, M.A., Fellow of 



xii INTRODUCTION 

Magdalene College, for suggestions for the section on 
University Ceremonies ; E. C. Clark, LL.D., late FeUow of 
St John's College, Emeritus Professor of Law, and 
Mr Barnet W. Beales, Mayor of Cambridge, for help and 
advice in connexion with University Costume ; W. W. 
Rouse Ball, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, for reading 
the proofs of the section on the Tripos, and making 
suggestions; John Venn, ScD., Fellow and President of 
Gonville and Caius College, for advice on numerous 
questions connected with the older Honours Lists;" J. A. 
Venn, M.A., of Trinity College, for his experienced assist- 
ance in preparing and indexing the Ordo Senioritatis, 
and for compiling the Table of Matriculations, 1544 — 
1910; Mr Robert Bowes, for notes on early University 
Printers; G. D. Liveing, ScD., Fellow and President of 
St John's College, for notes on the history of the 
Philosophical Society; Sir W. H. St John Hope, LittD., 
of Peterhouse, for providing the proper blazons of the 
arms of the University and of the Regius Professors ; 
and the Professors and Heads of Departments, and others, 
for verifying the statements made in the section entitled 
' Public Buildings and Institutions.' 

The Editor desires especially to acknowledge the 
Registi'ary's valuable advice and ready help over the 
entire field of the work. He also owes much to the 
unfailing kindness of the Assistant Registrary and to the 
expert knowledge of Mr C. J. Stonebridge, Registrary's 
Clerk, whose time and trouble were always at his disposal. 
Finally, he would like to express his appreciation of the 
skill and care of the stafi" of the University Press in dealing 
with an unusually exacting piece of work. 

St John's College 
1 J/«y 1917 



THE 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 




HINC LUCEM ET POCULA SACRA 



DEUM TIMETO: REGEM HONORATO : VIRTUTEM COLITO : 
DISCIPLINIS BONIS OPERAM DATO. 

Statutes of the Uni-versity 



Constitution of the University^ 

The University of Cambridge may be said to have originated 
in the 12th century, and it is almost certain that before the 
beginning of the 13th century it was a recognised centre of 
study2. The myth of its early foundation by 'Cantaber, a 
Spanish king,'^ is as unhistorical as the corresponding legend that 
the University of Oxford was founded by King Alfred*. Nor can 
greater weight be given to the claim made on behalf of ' Sigebert, 
King of the East Angles,' although a cautiously- worded sentence 
in the Commemoration Service included him, until lately, among 
'Royal Benefactors' (see p. 165). 

1 In preparing the historical portion of this section the Editor was greatly indebted to Dr MuIIinger's 
Hittory of the University of Cambridge. 

2 It was not, however, until 1S18 that Cambridge received from Pope John XXII formal recognition as a 
^luiinm Oeneraf-e or Universitas. 

3 In Bishop Fisher's oration as Chancellor, on the occasion of the visit of King Henry VH to Cambridge 
in 1506, he appears .is C.wtaber, a king of the East Saxons, who had been educated at Athens. Fisher 
also claimed that the University of Paris owed its origin to Cambridge, which had been known as a seat of 
learning long before the time of Charlemagne. 

4 Maitland, addressing an Oxford audience, remarked, ' The oldest of all inter-university sports was a 
lying match. Oxford was founded by Mempricins in the days of Samuel the prophet, and Cambridge by 
the Spanish Cantaber in the days of Gurguntius Brabtntc.' 

H. B. 1 



2 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

That early in the 13th century Cambridge was famous as a 
•seat of learning appears from the fact that the Mendicant Orders 
began to establish themselves there^ — first the Franciscans in, 
or soon after, 1224, on the present site of Sidney Sussex ; next 
the Carmelites, who about the middle of the century settled 
near the present site of Queens', having been driven from their 
habitation at Newnham by the winter floods ; next the Domini- 
cans in, or shortly before, 1275, who built a friary where Emmanuel 
now stands; and last the Augustinian Friars, who towards the 
close of the century took up their residence near the site of the 
old Botanic Garden, about where the new University Lecture 
Rooms were erected in 1911. But the 13th century is also im- 
portant in our history in other ways. The earUest University Exhi- 
bitions were those founded ( 1256) by William de Kilkenny, Bishop 
of Ely from 1254 to 1256, for two priests, students of Divinity, 
who were to pray for his soul and to receive annually ten marks 
from the revenues of Barnwell Priory. Academic disciphne^ also 
may be said to have begun with a University ordinance of 1276, 
issued with the special approval of Hugh de Balsham, the suc- 
cessor of William de Kilkenny in the Bishopric of Ely, providing 
that no one was to receive a scholar, presumably either as a lodger 
or a pupil, unless such scholar ' had a fixed master within fifteen 
days after his entry into the University.' Thus University disci- 
pline preceded, though not by many years, the establishment of 
College discipline. Peterhouse was founded by Hugh de Balsham 
in 1284, and its statutes, closely modelled upon those drawn up 
in 1264 for the College of Walter de Merton, the founder of the 
Collegiate system at Oxford, were received from Simon de Monta- 
cute, Hugh de Balsham's successor as bishop, about 1338. But 
meanwhile Michaelhouse, founded in 1324, had received statutes 
at the time of its foundation, and these may therefore claim to be 
the earliest College code. 

It was not until the 14th century that the University equipped 
itself with buildings. The earUest part of the PubUc Schools 
Quadrangle, the north side, was not completed until 1400 ; and 
the entire quadrangle, as it stood down to the reign of Greorge I, 
was finished during the I5th century. Before 1400, therefore. 
University lectures must have been given in buildings which were 
not the property of the University or were not specially appropri- 
ated to University purposes. In 1309 a house opposite St Mary's 
Church was hired from a townsman, Nicholas the Barber, for 
lectures in Theology and the Canon and Civil Law, and another 
house, situated on ground now occupied by the Old Court of 

1 It has been pointed out by the Ma-'<ter of Jesus that when the Gilbertines of SeniprinKham (White 
CnnonsI cuiie to CambridKe in 1291 their objei t was undoubtedly educational. Their house was in 
Trumpington Street, nearly opposite Peteriiouse (Arthur Gray, 'Robert Bruce in Camtridge.' Cambridge 
tterieic for April 43, 19151. 

i Gf. Fuller, f/isrori/ of the Unii^ersitjf, p. 22, where he refers under date 1231 to 'a crew of pretenders to 
scholar^ip* who ' lived under no discipline, having no Tutor (savinx him who teacheth all mischief).' 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 3 

Caius, was rented as an Arts School^. Lectures were also given 
at the Franciscans or the Dominicans, while larger University- 
meetings generally took place at Great St Mary's^. The use of 
this church by the University seems to have been fully established 
before the end of the 13th century. In 1275 there is a distinct 
account of a Grace passed at a Congregation held there, and in 
1303 notices of University sermons begin. 

The organisation of the medieval University of Cambridge was 
profoundly affected by the example of the University of Paris, 
and its earlier statutes, like those of Oxford, had been little more 
than a transcript from Paris. The government of the University 
was vested in a Chancellor and the two academic Houses — the 
Regents, who were the acting body of teachers, and the Non- 
Regents, or other permanent residents in the University, who 
were no longer concerned with the work of education. The House 
of Non-Regents had no control over teaching, but it exercised 
a concurrent jurisdiction with the other House in all questions 
relating to the property, privileges, and common weal of the 
University. The Chancellor was chosen every two years by the 
Regents^, and was sometimes continued in office for a third year. 
He summoned Congregations, presided in his own Court to hear 
and determine cases in which a scholar was concerned, and 
generally administered University discipline; and no Graces 
could be proposed or passed without his assent. He could 
delegate some of his duties to a Vice-Chancellor appointed by the 
Regents from year to year, but the more important part of his 
functions could not be so delegated. His authority, although 
confirmed, and extended by royal charters, was ecclesiastical 
both in its nature and origin, and he enjoyed the power of 
excommunication and absolution, derived in the first instance 
from the Bishop of Ely and ultimately from the Pope. The 
practice of kneeling to receive a degree is evidence that he was 
regarded as an ecclesiastical superior*. In earlier times the 
authority of the Chancellor to veto or sanction Graces was not 
controlled in any way, but later^ a council called the Caput was 
instituted to advise the Chancellor, and to discuss and approve 
Graces before they were submitted to the Senate. This consisted 
of the Vice-Chancellor and five other members, one of whom was 
always the 'senior doctor religiosus,' and later the Pubhc Orator, 
but the rest were generally Heads, nominated by the Vice- 
Chancellor but liable to rejection by either House. As the Capid 
was usually appointed afresh at the beginning of each Congrega- 

1 See Dr Stokes's paper on 'Early University Property' (Cambridge Antiquarian Society, C.oinmuniea- 
Hans, No. LIII. (1909), p. \Ti). 

2 Great St Mary's Church is older than it loolts, as it was rebuilt in the 15th century. The work was 
beiiun in 1479, and took forty years to finish. 

3 Tlie statutes of 1549 rested the election of the Chancellor in the whole body, both Regents and Non- 
Regents. 

4 Mullinger, UiMory of the University, 1. 141. 

3 The Caijut makes its first ap])earance in 1526—7 (see Grace-book, Y- P- nxv). 

1—2 



4 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

tion it possessed comparatively limited powers, notwithstanding 
the fact that each member enjoyed the technical right of himself 
vetoing any Grace. But by an important change of statute made 
in 1570 it was reserved to the Heads to nominate annually two 
candidates for the Vice-Chancellorship, one of whom was to be 
chosen by the Regents ; and the Caput, consisting of the Chan- 
cellor, a doctor of each of the three faculties (Divinity, Law, 
and Medicine), a Non-Regent, and a Regent, was to be appointed 
at the beginning of the academical year and to hold office until 
the end of it. In the election of the Caput the Chancellor and 
each of the two Proctors prepared separate lists of five persons 
each, the ultimate choice being left to the Heads and the doctors 
of all faculties. The effect of these changes was to confer extra- 
ordinary powers upon the Heads, who now became, as Dean 
Peacock described them, 'a distinct and separate estate in the 
government of the University,' for the choice of the Vice- 
Chancellor was in their hands and they had a large share in 
constituting the Caput, which now became a very powerful body. 

At the same time a change was effected in the position and 
powers of the Proctors. Under the medieval constitution they 
had been the most important administrative officers in the 
University. They were chosen every year on the 10th of October 
by the Regents, and when chosen they exercised very wide powers. 
They regulated disputations in the Schools, and all the public 
ceremonies of the University; superintended the markets with 
a view to the supply of wine and provisions for the scholars; 
controlled University finance; conducted examinations; ad- 
ministered oaths of admission to all degrees; and they alone 
could confer the privilege of the regency. The statutes of 1570 
instituted nomination by a cycle of Colleges for the approval 
of the Regents in place of a free election by them, and many of the 
proctorial functions, including financial control, were transferred 
either to the Chancellor or to the Vice-Chancellor. The office 
thus lost much of its ancient importance ; the Proctors ceased to 
be the official representatives of the House of Regents and became 
strictly subordinate to the authority of the Chancellor. 

The other officers of the medieval University were the two 
Bedels, the Scrutators, and the Taxors. The Bedel of Theology 
and Canon Law, and the Bedel of Arts were elected by Grace by 
the concurrent authority of the two Houses, and were required 
to be in perpetual attendance upon the Chancellor and Proctors, 
and at all disputations in the Public Schools. The two Scrutators 
were elected by the Non-Regents at each Congregation to collect 
the votes and announce the decisions in their House in the same . 
way as was done by the two Proctors in the House of Regents. 
The two Taxors were Regents appointed by the House of Regents 
to tax or fix the rent of the hostels and houses occupied by 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

students, and to assist the Proctors in making the assize of bread 
and beer and in regulating the markets^. 

An outstanding feature of the medieval University of Cambridge 
is the way in which the larger powers were placed in the hands 
of those who were actually engaged in the teaching work of the 
University. And when the Elizabethan Statutes of 1570, while 
extending the necessary period of Regency to five years, made 
the Masters of Arts after that time ipso facto Non-Regents, this 
had the effect of concentrating a great part of such authority 
as was not exercised by the Chancellor and Heads in the hands 
of the younger Masters of Arts. The House of Regents, although 
the junior House, was the more important House. And the 
Constitution, as modified in 1570, continued to govern the 
University until the greater changes of the 19th century. 

The University, as an incorporation of students in all and 
every of the liberal aits and sciences, was incorporated by 13th 
EUz. c. 29 under the name of ''The Chancellor, Masters, and 
Scholars of the University of Cambridge.'''' 

The body thus incorporated received a grant of arms, gules 
a cross ermine and four gold leopards with a book gules upon the 
cross, from Robert Cooke, Clarencieux King of Arms, 9 June 
1573. The origin of the motto, Hinc hicem et pocula sacra, is not 
known. 

The present code of Statutes for the University was approved 
by Queen Victoria in Council in 1882. 



The legislative body of the University is called the Senate, 
and the place in which it assembles is called the Senate-House. 
The Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Doctors of Divinity, Law, 
Medicine, Science, Letters, and Music, Bachelors of Divinity, 
and Masters of Arts, Law, Surgery, and Music, having their 
names upon the University Register, are ' members of the Senate ' 
and have votes in this assembly. Those whose names are re- 
moved from the Register lose the right of voting, but may 
recover it by replacing their names on the Register and paying 
all University dues from the time of removal of their names, 
180 days being first allowed to elapse after the replacing of the 
names^. 

The Electorai, Roll is the body of resident members of 
the Senate, which elects the central administrative council of 
the University known as the Council of the Senate. It is con- 

1 Fuller describea the office of Taxor as one 'of profit and credit, aa employed in matters of weiRlit, and 
to see tlie true ^ause of all measures, especially sucli ,•« concern the victuals of sciiolars : for. where tiie 
belly is abused in its food, the brains will soon be distempered in tlieir study' (p. a5). Elsewhere (i). 109) 
he further develops his view of the influence of diet upon study. 'True it is that a body surfeited with 
food is unfit for study. Scholars, like hawks, flying best wlien sharp, and not full gorged.'. .'However, 
there may be a fault as well in tlie defect as on the excess : and there is a distention as well of wind and 
emptiness as of flesh and fulness, equally impeditive to a studious mind.'. . 

2 In 1914 new Regulations with regard to University dues were adopted for all members matriculating 
after the end of the Lent Term, 1915. These will be found in the current issue of the Umvmity Calendar. 



6 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

stituted annually in October under the Cambridge University 
Act of 1856 (19 and 20 Vict. c. 88), and consists of those members 
of the Senate who have resided within one mUe and a half of 
Great St Mary's Church for fourteen weeks at the least between 
the first day of the preceding Michaelmas Term and the first day 
of October; together with all Officers of the University being 
members of the Senate, the Heads of Houses, the Professors, 
and the Public Examiners^. 

The Council of the Senate^, also constituted under the 
Cambridge University Act of 1856, consists of the Chancellor, 
the Vice-Chancellor, four Heads of Colleges, four Professors of 
the University, and eight other members of the Senate to be 
chosen from the Electoral Roll, such Heads of Colleges, Pro- 
fessors, and members of the Senate being elected by the persons 
whose names are on the Electoral RoU; provided always that 
there shall never be more than two members of the same College 
among the eight elected members. The members of the Council 
hold office for four years, but the ordinary elections are biennial, 
as two of the Heads of Colleges, two of the Professors, and four 
of the other members of the Council retire every two years. 
The elections for fiUing these vacancies take place on November 

7 (or on November 8 if November 7 should be a Sunday) in the 
years in which the date is an even number. The principal duty 
of the Council of the Senate is to consider and prepare all Graces 
to be offered to the Senate, whether proceeding from individual 
members of the Senate or from Syndicates, and no Grace may 
be offered to the Senate without the sanction of the major part 
of those voting upon it in the Council. The Council also nomi- 
nates to the Senate members appointed by Grace to serve on 
Boards, Syndicates, and other bodies. 

The FiKANCiAii Board is appointed for the care and manage- 
ment of the property and income of the University, and consists 
of the Vice-Chancellor, two members of the General Board of 
Studies elected by that Board, four members of the Senate 
elected by the Colleges in common, and four members of the 
Senate elected by Grace on the nomination of the Council of the 
Senate. Of the members of the Board elected by the Colleges in 
common, not more than one may belong to any one College. The 
members serve for four years. The quorum of the Board is five. 

The General Board of Studies consists of the Vice- 
ChanceUor, one member of each Special Board of Studies elected 
by that Special Board, and eight members of the Senate elected 
by Grace. The members of the Board serve for four years. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 7 

It is the duty of the General Board to consult together from 
time to time on all matters relating to the studies and examina- 
tions of the University, including the maintenance and improve- 
ment of existing institutions, and the estabUshment and main- 
tenance of new institutions. They are required to prepare, 
whenever it appears to them desirable, and present to the Vice- 
Chancellor, a report to be published by him to the University. 
They are also required to issue from time to time regulations and 
instructions in respect to the subjects and character of the 
lectures to be delivered, the subordination when necessary of the 
Readers and University Lecturers to the Professors, the extent 
to which in any cases discourses shall be supplemented by oral 
or written examinations, the times and places of lecturing, the 
arrangements to be made for the distribution of students among 
the different teachers, so as to secure classes of suitable size, and 
to group separately the more and less advanced students, and any 
other matters affecting the method of instruction to be pursued, 
with the view of providing suitable and efficient education in all 
subjects of University study for all students whether more or less 
advanced who may require it. 

The General Board is also required to consider the schemes for 
lectures in every year submitted to it by the several Special 
Boards, and to approve the said schemes or remit them for 
further consideration with alterations and amendments, or, if 
necessary, frame schemes; provided that, in case the General 
Board of Studies and any of the Special Boards shall be unable 
to agree as to any scheme, the question shall be referred to a 
meeting of the members of the General Board and of the 
Special Board deUberating together, whose decision shall be 
final. When such schemes have been finally determined, the 
General Board presents them to the Vice-Chancellor for publi- 
cation. 

Readers and University Lecturers are appointed by the 
General Board of Studies, subject to the confirmation in every 
case of the Special Board with which the Readership or Lecture- 
ship is connected. If the General Board and Special Board do 
not agree within twelve weeks after the vacancy in the case of 
a Readership, or within four weeks after the General Board have 
communicated an appointment to the Special Board in the case 
of a University Lectureship (days of vacation not being reckoned 
in either case), the appointment lapses to the Council of the 
Senate. 

The General Board has also certain functions in connexion 
with the residence of Professors and Readers within the Uni- 
versity during term-time. The current Ordinances governing 
residence are printed in each annual issue of the University 
Calendar. 



8 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

The Chancellor and six persons, called the Sex Viri, elected 
singly by Grace for two years, or four at least of the number, of 
whom one must always be the Chancellor, adjudicate respecting 
aU persons not in statu pupillari charged with offences against 
the Statutes or Ordinances of the University. They may punish 
offenders at their discretion, by deprivation or suspension of 
Degree, or any lighter sentence ; but appeal may be made to the 
Senate within twenty -four hours after judgment given, in the 
manner described in Statute A, Chapter vm. 

If the Chancellor and the Sex Viri, or four at least of their 
number, of whom the Chancellor must be one, report to the 
Council of the Senate that it has been proved to their satisfaction 
that a Graduate of the Universitj' has been convicted of a crime 
for which he has been sentenced to penal servitude or imprison- 
ment and that such crime is one which renders him unfit to be 
a Graduate of the University, then the Council of the Senate may 
propose to the Senate a Grace depriving him of his Degree or 
Degrees and of all privileges enjoyed by him as a Graduate of 
the University, and in case the Grace is approved by the Senate 
he is deprived accordingly. 

The Chancellor and the Sex Viri have power to admonish the 
Orator, the Registrary, the Librarian, and the Esquire Bedells, 
or to remove them from their offices for serious neglect of duty 
or for other grave misconduct. They have also power to ad- 
monish or to deprive Professors and Readers, but in such cases 
an appeal lies to the Senate within twenty-four hours after 
judgment given, in the manner described in Statute A, 
Chapter vni. 

The Court of Discipline for persons in statu pupillari con- 
sists of the Chancellor and six Heads of Colleges appointed by 
Grace to serve for three years in such manner that two of the 
six go out of office every year but are capable of re-election. 
No sentence involving deprivation of Degree, rustication, or 
expulsion is valid without the concurrence of the ChanceUor 
and three at least of the other members of the Court. 

If the Head of the College to which a person in statu pupillari 
charged with any offence belongs is not a member of the Court, 
notice must be given to him to enable him to be present as an 
Assessor, but he is not entitled to vote. 

Regulations for the procedure of the Court must be made by 
the Court from time to time, subject to the approval of the 
Senate. The Regulations' at present in force will be found in the 
Book of Ordinances. 

Elbctors to Professorships. In those cases in which the elec- 
tion t(J a Professorship is governed byStatuteB,theelectionismade 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 9 

by' a Board consisting of the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons 
elected by the Senate, two of such persons being nominated by 
the Council of the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, 
and three by the Special Board of Studies to which the Professor- 
ship is assigned. With a view to the representation of opinion 
outside the University, one at least of the three persons nomi- 
nated by the General Board, and one at least of the three 
persons nominated by the Special Board, are required to be 
persons who are not resident in the University nor officially 
connected with it. The members of these Boards of Electors 
serve for eight years, one retiring every year. No election of 
a Professor may be made unless two-thirds at least of the 
number of the existing Board be present at the time of voting; 
and in the final voting no election may be made unless a majority 
of votes of the members present be given for some one person. 
If no election be made within twelve weeks from the day for 
electing, the appointment of the Professor for that turn lapses 
to the Chancellor. 

In the case of the Downing Professorships of the Laws of 
England and of Medicine the Master of Downing College is an 
additional Elector; and in the case of the Dixie Professorship 
of Ecclesiastical Historj^ the Master of Emmanuel College is an 
additional Elector. For the Hulsean Professorship of Divinity, 
the Sadleirian Professorship of Mathematics, the Whewell Pro- 
fessorship of International Law, the Elrington and Bosworth 
Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, the Slade Professorship of Fine 
Art, and the Quick Professorship of Biology there are specially 
constituted Electoral Boards. The Regius Professors of Divinity, 
Hebrew, and Greek are elected by the Council of the Senate; 
the Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity is elected by the 
Vice-Chancellor together with the Doctors and Bachelors of 
Divinity who are also members of the Senate; the Lucasian 
Professor of Mathematics, the Norrisian Professor of Divinity, 
and the Disney Professor of Archaeology are elected by the 
Heads of Colleges; and the Lowndean Professor of Astronomy 
and Geometry is chosen by certain ex officio Electors. The 
Regius Professors of Civil Law, of Physic, of Modern History, 
and the King Edward VII Professor of English Literature are 
appointed by the Crown. 

Syndicates. The routine business of the University is 
largely managed by Committees appointed by Grace of the 
Senate and technically known as Syndicates. These have the 
right to report to the Senate on all matters within their 
jurisdiction, and the recommendations contained in such reports, 
if approved by the Senate, become Ordinances and are binding 
on the whole University. In addition to the permanent 



10 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Syndicates, occasional Syndicates are from time to time ap- 
pointed to superintend particular changes, as for instance the 
erection of new buildings, or to enquire into and report on par- 
ticular questions of University pohcy or reform. 

The Non-Collegiate Students Board, for admitting and 
superintending students who are members of the University 
without being members of any CoUege, consists of nine members 
of the Senate elected by Grace to serve for three years, three 
retiring by rotation every year. Four members form a quorum, 
the Chairman (or his deputy formally appointed by the Board) 
being one. 

The Board of Examinations is charged with the general 
superintendence of certain University Examinations. It con- 
sists of eight members of the Senate elected by Grace to serve 
for four years, two of them retiring by rotation every year; 
and of the Chairmen of the Examiners for Part I and for Part II 
of the Previous Examination and for the General Examination, 
each serving as a member of the Board for one year from the 
first day of the Easter Term next following the date of his election 
as an Examiner. 

The University is required by Statute to appoint Special 
Boards of Studies for aU important departments of study re- 
cognised in the University, to consist of the Professors assigned 
by Statute to such Boards severally, together with such Readers, 
University Lecturers, Examiners, and other persons as may be 
appointed from time to time by Grace of the Senate. The 
University has power to vary the number and designation of 
Special Boards from time to time on the recommendation of the 
General Board of Studies, provided that the whole number of 
such Boards shall never be less than eight. The University also 
has power to vary by Grace from time to time on the recom- 
mendation of the General Board of Studies the assignment of 
Professors to the several Special Boards, and to appoint any 
Professors ex officio members of one or more Special Boards other 
than those to which they shall have been severally assigned by 
Statute. 

It is the duty of every Special Board to consult together from 
time to time on aU matters relating to the studies and examina- 
tions of the University in its department, and to prepare, when- 
ever it appears to them desirable, and present to the Vice- 
Chancellor, a report to be pubUshed by him to the University. 
The Board is also required, after consultation with the Professors, 
Readers, and University Lecturers connected with its depart- 
ment, to frame a scheme of lectvu-es in every year: taking care 
to provide that the subject of the said lectures be determined with 
regard to the general objects of every particular Professorship, 
and so to distribute the several branches of learning in the 



THE COLLEGES 11 

department among the said Professors, Readers, and University 
Lecturers ; having regard also to the regulations and instructions 
which the General Board of Studies may have issued. Every 
scheme so settled by any Special Board must be submitted to 
the General Board of Studies, and no scheme may be taken to 
be final until it has received the approval of the General 
Board. 

Two or more Special Boards may deliberate together, and 
take such action in common as may appear to them desirable. 

The current Regulations determining the constitution of the 
different Special Boards are printed in each annual issue of the 
University Calendar. 

In addition to these * Special ' Boards, established by Statute, 
other Boards of Studies have been constituted by Ordinance to 
superintend more recent departments of study, such as Agricul- 
ture, Anthropologyy, Architecture, Geography, and Mihtary 
Studies. There are also permanent committees with similar 
functions, such as the Forestry Committee and the Foreign 
Service Students Committee. 



The Colleges are corporate bodies distinct from the corporate 
body that forms the University. They possess and manage 
their own property ; they are self-governing and elect their own 
officers; and for nearly all purposes they are independent of 
University control. The University existed before the Colleges, 
but it is almost impossible now to conceive of the University 
apart from the Colleges, for the connexion between them is of 
the most intimate kind. The University is in part supported by 
contributions from the Colleges; certain officers of Colleges 
have special privileges in the University, and some Professors of 
the University are entitled to certain privileges and emoluments 
in the Colleges; and without any formal agreement to that 
effect the University and the Colleges do as a matter of fact 
recognise each other's regulations. This intimacy of connexion 
is explained by the fact that nearly all the members of the 
University belong to the Colleges, and nearly all the members of 
the Colleges belong to the University. Thus the same persons 
acting in different capacities manage the business of the Colleges 
and the business of the University, and so the good understanding 
which makes this dual organisation possible is maintained easily 
and without an effort. 

There are seventeen Colleges and one Pubhc Hostel in the 
University of Cambridge, and among these the whole of the 
resident undergraduates are distributed, with the exception of 
those who are entered as Non- Collegiate Students. 



12 THE COLLEGES 

The Colleges were founded in the following order : 

(1) Peteehouse or St Peteb's College, founded in 1284 by Hugh 
of Balsham, Bishop of Ely. 

(2) Clahe College, founded in 1326 by the Lady Elizabeth, sister 
and co-heir of Gilbert, Earl of Clare. 

(3) Pembroke College, founded in 1347 by Mary de S. Pol, the 
widow of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. 

(4) GoNviLLE AND Caius COLLEGE, founded in 1348 as Gonville 
Hall by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington, Norfolk, and refounded 
in 1557 by John Caius. 

(5) Tkixitt Hall, founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of 
Norwich. 

(6) Corpus Chhisti College, founded in 1352 by the united Gilds 
of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

(7) King's College, founded in 1441 by King Henry VI. 

(8) Queens' College, founded in 1448 by Queen Margaret of Anjou, 
consort of Henry VI, and refounded in 1465 by Elizabeth Widville 
consort of Edward IV. 

(9) St Catharine's College, founded in 1473 by Robert Woodlark, 
Chancellor of the University and Provost of King's. 

(10) Jesus College, founded in 1496 by John Alcock, Bishop of 
Ely. 

(11) Christ's College, founded in 1505 by the Lady Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII. 

(12) St John's College, founded in 1511 by the same Foundress, 
and dedicated in honour of St John the Evangelist. 

(13) Magdalene College, founded in 1542 by Thomas, Baron 
Audley of Walden. 

(14) Trinity College, founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII. 

(15) Emmanuel College, founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, 
Queen EUzabeth's Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

(16) Sidney Sussex College, founded in 1596 under the Will of 
the Lady Frances Sidney, Countess Dowager of Sussex. 

(17) Dow^^NG College, founded in 1800 under the Will of Sir 
George Downing, Bart., of Gamlingay Park in the County of Cam- 
bridge. 

Selwyn College, a Public Hostel, was founded by public subscription 
in 1882 in memory of George Augustus Selwyn, late Bishop of Lichfield 
and formerly Bishop of New Zealand. 

Non-Collegiate Students were first admitted to the University in 
1869, and in 1892 Fitzwilliam Hall was acquired to serve as the centre 
of their corporate life. 

The ultimate responsibility for the administration of a CoUege 
rests upon its Head. The Head of King's CoUege is styloid 
Provost; of Queens', President; and of every other CoUege, 
Master. But a large part of the actual business of a CoUege 
devolves of necessity upon certain CoUege Officers, who are as 
a rule selected from the general body of the Felxows of the 
College. Of these the most important from the point of view 
of the undergraduate are (1) the President or Vice-]\Lvster, 
who presides over the High Table in HaU, acts as the Master's 
deputy in his absence, and sometimes discharges other important 
functions; (2) one or more Tutors, whose duty it is to advise 
their pupUs (to whom they stand in loco parentis) not only about 



THE COLLEGES 13 

their studies, but also on every kind of problem arising out of 
College and University life on which a young man is likely to 
need counsel; the Tutor also represents undergraduates in their 
dealings with the University, controls the educational and 
business arrangements arising out of their relation to the College, 
and exercises a large and undefined discipUnary authority; 

(3) one or more Deans, who are responsible for the services in 
the College ChapeP, and usually also for College discipUne; 

(4) a staff of Lecturers, who undertake College teaching; 

(5) one or more Bursars^, who have control of the College pro- 
perty; (6) a Steward, who superintends the College commis- 
sariat and is responsible for the Hall and Kitchen^; (7) a Prae- 
LECTOR (or Father of the College), who presents its members 
for degrees; and (8) a Librarian. Some Colleges have also 
(9) an Organist. 

Besides the Head, Fellows, and College Officers, who con- 
stitute what is known as 'the Society,' each College may include 
among its members the following : 

1. Noblemen Graduates*, Doctors in the several faculties, 
Bachelors in Divinity, Masters of Arts, Masters of Law, 
and Masters of Surgery, who are not on the foundation. 

2. Bachelors of Arts, Law, Medicine, and Surgery. 

3. Fellow-Commoners, whom the University Calendar has 
been accustomed to describe as ' the younger sons of the nobihty, 
or young men of fortune' who 'have the privilege of dining at 
the Fellows' table, whence the appellation originated.' 

4. Scholars, who are generally foundation members of their 
respective Colleges, and who enjoy various advantages in con- 
formity with the conditions of their foundation. They are for 
the most part elected, by direct examination or otherwise, at 
different periods either prior or subsequent to the commence- 
ment of their residence at the University, from the most pro- 
mising and distinguished students. 

5. Pensioners, who form the great body of the students, 
and pay for their commons, chambers, &c., in full. 

6. Sizars are generally students of limited means. They 
usually have their commons free, or an equivalent allowance, 
and receive various emoluments. 

1 Some Colleges have one or more Chaplai.vs in addition to tlie Dean, who may be, althoiish he is 
not usually, a layman. 

2 At Pembroke the official correspondinK to tlie principal Bursar is called Treasurer. 

3 In a few Colleges there is no Steward, this department beiiix under the control of one of the Bursars. 

4 This class is .ilmost extinct As noblemen can no lonxer proceed to Degrees ./wre dignitatis, they now 
usually enter as Pensioners and proceed to Degrees in the usual way. See pp. 345—6 below. 



University Offices^ 

CHANCELLOR 

The office of Chancellor is held 'in accordance with the ancient 
laws and customs of the University' for 'two years complete' or 
for such a length of time beyond two years as the tacit consent 
of the University permits. The longer tenures begin with 
Bishop Fisher's Chancellorship, 1504 — 35, and from that time 
the practice of electing magnates appears to have been regularly 
adopted. 

The election of a Chancellor is governed by Statute A, c. iv. § 1, 
which provides that when a vacancy of the office is certainly 
known to the Vice- Chancellor, he shall call a Congregation as 
soon as possible, and ' openly declare the fact through the Senior 
Proctor,' and assign a day, not before the seventh nor after the 
twelfth day next following, for another Congregation for the 
election of a new Chancellor. The election must be completed 
before the fifteenth day after that on which the vacancy was 
declared. If the vacancy becomes known in the Vacation after 
the end of the Easter Term, the Congregation for declaring the 
vacancy and assigning the day of election is held on the first day 
of the JkOchaelmas Term ensuing. On the day assigned for the 
election the Vice-ChanceUor and Proctors stand in scrutiny. 
They first give their own votes in writing, and then take the 
votes in writing of all other persons present who have the right 
of voting. The person for whom the greatest number of votes 
is given is declared by the Vice-Chancellor to be elected. An 
instrument of election of the Chancellor must be sealed and 
delivered to him without delay. Under § 32 of the Cambridge 
University Act of 1856 the University may provide by statute 
that members of the Senate may vote at the election of a 
Chancellor by proxy. 

1 For the University offices and their holders reference should be made to Dr John Caiiu's Hitoryofthe 
University, to Matthew Stolcys's Book, to Richard Parker*s History and Antiquities of the Cnirersity t^f 
Carnbridge, and to Fuller's nittory of the Unirersity.eiiteA by Prickett and Wright. Lists of office- 
holders, compiled by Romilly and brought up to date by Luard. are printed at the end of their editions of 
the (rraduati. but these are not in all cases correct or complete, although on the whole, as might be ex- 
pected, they maintain a high level of accuracy. 

Where not otherwise sfited. the fiwtnotes to the names in the following lists are from the Dictionary 
of National Bio^aphy. Fellows of Colleges are so described, hut the almost impossible task has not been 
attempted of distinguishing between past Fellows and those who were actually Fellows at the time 
of their appointment to the University offices concerned. 

In dating appointments, the New Style has been adopted throughout. 



THE CHANCELLOR 15 

The more general powers of the Chancellor are thus described 
in Statute A, c. v. § 1 : 

The Chancellor shall have power to call Congregations, to admit 
candidates to degrees and to reject those who have not fulfilled the 
required conditions, to see that all officers of the University duly per- 
form their duties and to punish members in statu pwpiUari for dis- 
obedience to the Statutes or Ordinances of the University by suspension 
of Degree or other lighter sentence at his discretion. The Chancellor 
shall decide whether or not any person charged with any offence 
shall be prosecuted in his Court. The Chancellor shall have the 
custody of the box in which the University Seal is kept. The box shall 
have two keys of different make, one of which shall be kept by the 
Chancellor and the other by the Registrary, and they shall not allow 
the seal to be affixed to any document without the authority of a 
Grace of the Senate. Except where it is otherwise specially pro- 
vided, in case of an equality of votes at an election under the 
Statutes of the University or on a question at a meeting where tlie 
Chancellor presides he shall have a second or casting vote. Except 
where it is otherwise specially provided, whatsoever in the Statutes of 
the University is authorised to be done by the Chancellor may be done 
by the Vice-Chancellor in his absence, or even when the office of 
Chancellor is vacant. 

The fabulous history of the University which assigned its 
foundation to Cantaber and recognised the Greek philosophers 
Anaximander and Anaxagoras among its earlier Tutors, com- 
menced the list of Chancellors in a.d. 289 with Amphibalus 
the Martyr. The following list begins, however, with the earUest 
Chancellor of which there is any record. 

BLKCTBD 

1 [l"i4t)] Hugli de Hottun. 

1256 Reginald de Gerninghall. 

1257 Stephen de Hepwortli, M.A. Uenefactor. 

1259 William de Ludliam. 

1260 Richard de Gednev, M.A. Benefactor. 
12()1 Itichard Dry field. " 

1267 Jolin de Asgarby, M.A. Uenefactor. 
21270-5 John Hooke. 

1276 Roger de Fulbourn. 

1283 Andrew de Giselhain, M.A. Benefactor. 

1286 Thomas de Skeringham (Sherlngham). 

1287 Stephen de llepworth, again. 

1289 Ralpli de Leicester. 

1290 Geoffrey de Pakeiihani. 
1291 

1292 

1293 Ilenrv de Boitou. 

1294 

1295 .John de Bradenhani, M.A. Benefactor. 

1296 Thomas de Slieringliam, again. 
1298 

li:99 Stephen de llepwortli, again. 
1300 Stephen de Haslingtield, M.A. Benefactor. 
1301 
. 1303 
130(5 Stephen de Segrave, Doctor of Canon Law. Benefactor. Archbisliop of 
Armagh, 1323. 

1 It is known that Hujjh (le Hottun was Oliancellor in A.D. 1346, but the date of his election is uncertain. 

2 During John Hooke's tenure of office certain important compositions were made : see University 
Commissioners' Documents, i. 310, where the date is wrongly given. 



16 



THE CHANCELLOR 



KLBCTRD 

1307 Stephen de Haslingfield, again. 
1315 Richard de Aston. Doctor of Canon Law. 
<•. 1.320 Thomas de Cobham. Benefactor. Bishop of Worcester, 1317. 

1320 Roger de Xorthburgh. Archdeacon of Richmond, 1317. Bishop of Lichfield 

and Coventry, 1322. Lord Treasurer, 1328 and 1340. 
1326 Richard de Badew, Founder of University Hall'. 
1329 Thomas de Foxton, LL. D. Benefactor. " 
? 1330 Robert de Wvnwjk. Master of Peterhouse, c. 13.30. 
1331 John de Unglev, D.D. 

1334 Robert de Milde'nhall, D.D. .Master of Peterhouse, c. 133«. 

1335 Henry de Herewarden -, LL.D. 
133S 

1337 Richard de Harling (or Lin^), LL.D. of Norfolk. Benefactor 8. Ai-clideacon 

of Norwich. 
1339 

1340 Robert de Claydon. 

1341 Thomas de Northwood. 
1344 

1345 Ricliard de Harling, again. 

1346 John de CrakhalM. Benefactor. 
1347 

1348 (9 June) „ 

1348 Thomas de Grantchester. 

1348 (15 Dec) William de Lvmbei^h. 

1349 (21 Jan.) Richard de HarliuK, again. 

1349 Richard de Wetherset (Wetlieringsett) {alias de CantabrigiaX of Norfolk. 

1351 Richard de Harlins:, again. 

1352 Anthony de Grantchester. 
1352-9 William Tvnkell. 

1359 Thomas de Sutton. 

1360 Richard de Wetherset, ai;ain. 

?1361 Michael de Haynton, M.A. Benefactor. 

1.301 Michael de Cawston, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. Benefactor. Master of 
Michaelhouse. 
5 1362 

1363 

1366 William de Gotham, M..\., Master of ^lichaelhouse. Benefactor*. 

1369 Thomas de Stcwklev. Abbot of Colchester. 

1371 John de Dunwich, .M.A. Benefactor. Master of Clare Hall, 1371. 

1373 .\dam de Lakynheth. 

1374 John de Dun»ich, again. 
1376 William de Gotham, again. 

1378 (28 Apr.) Richard de Scrope, LL.D., son of Henry le Scrope, first Baron 
Scrope of Masham. Bishop of Lichfield, 1.386. Archbishop of York, 1398. 

1380 (28 Feb.) Guy de la Zouch, LL.D., son of Loi-d Zouch of Harriugworth. 

Benefactor. Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 

1381 Sir John de Cavendish. Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 1372. 

1382 (28 Oct.) Guy de la Zouch, again. 
1.382 John de Broiuyard, Dominican. 

1383 John de Neketon, D.D. Master of Corpus, 1389. 

1384 (14 Nov.) John de Burgh ?. 

1385 Thomas Hetherset. Warden of King's Hall, 1385. 

1386 John de Burgli, again. 

13S8 William Colvile. Master of Michaelhouse, 1395. Abbot of Canterbury. 
1.390 (22 Jan.) „ 

1390 Richai-d de Dereham, D.D. Warden of King's Hall, 1399. Archdeacon of 

Norfolk. 

1391 (9 Nov.) William CoMle, again. 

1392 John de Neketon, again. 
1394 William Colvile, again. 

1 Afterwards Clare Hall. 

2 Henry de Herewarden was imprisoned in Newgate for maintaining the privilege* of the University. 
See Fuller, p. 9;, and Cooper's AnnnU, i. 86. 

3 Richard de Harling was the founder of a ' chest * for loans to poor students in return for a mass cele- 
brated once a jrear for the repose of his souL An account of this system is given in the introduction 
to Mr Stanley Leatbes's edition of Grare Book A (p. xlli). 

4 See John tiarel. under ' Fourteenth Century Chancellors of uncertain date.' p. 19 below. 

5 John de Donewick or Diniwich was confirmed in tills year by the bishop of Ely ; but he was chosen 
contrarr to statute. See Cooper, Annalt, i. lOB. 

6 Willtam de Gotham was the founder of a chest. See note 3 above. 

7 Author of PupiUa OculL 



THE CHANCELLOR 17 

ELECTKI) 

1396 Guy tie la Zoucli, agniii. 

1400 (28 May) Kicliard de Billingford, D.D., Master of Corpus. Benefactor i. 
-1«2 „ „ 

1404 Richard de Dereham, agaiu. 

1408 ■ „ 

1409 Richard de Billingford, again. 
'■' 1412 [Thomas Asliwell, Friar.] 

1413 Itichard de Billingford, agaui. 

1414 Stephen le Scrope, LL.D. Archdeacon of Richmond. 

1415-21 John de Rickingale, B.U. Master of Gonville Hall, 1416. Bishop of 

Chichester, 1426. ^ 
1422 Thomas de Cobliam. 
1424 Robert Fitzhugh'', LL.D., 'son of Henry, Lofd Fitzhugh. Benefactor 

AVarden of King's Hall, 1424. Bishop of London, 1431. 
1425 

1426 William Wvmbell, Master of Clare Hall. 

1427 Marmaduke Lumley, LL.B. Master of Trinity Hall, 1429. Bishop of 

Carlisle, 1430. 'Lord High Treasurer of England, 1447. Bishop of 
Lincoln, 1450. 
1428 

1429 John de Holbroke, D.I)., Master of Peterhouse. 

1430 „ „ Died 1430. 

1430 John de Itickingale, again, 

1431 William Lascells. " 

1432 liichard de Billingford, again. 

* 1433-5 Richard Cawdrey, SVardeu of King's Hall. Archdeacon of Norwich. 

Archdeacon of Be<lford. 

* 1436-43 John de Langton, Master of Pembroke Hall. Benefactor. Bishop of St 

David's, 1447. 
1445 Nicholas de Kenton, Carmelite. 
1447 John de Langton, again. 
1447-8 Robert de Ascough, LL.D., B.D. (afterwards D.D.), Warden of 

King's Hall. Benefactor". Archdeacon of Colchester. Archdeacon of 

Dorset. 

1450 Nicholas Close, D.l)., King's. Archdeacon of Colchester. Bishop of Carlisle, 

1460. Bishop of Lichtield, 1452. 

1451 William Percy, son of the Karl of Northumberland. Bishop of Carlisle, 1452. 
1463 

1456 

1456 Laurence Booth, Master of Pembroke Hall. Provost of Beverley, 1453. 

Dean of St Paul's, 1456. Bishop of Durham, 1457. Keeper of the Great 

Seal, 147.3. Archbishop of York, 1176. 
1457 

1458 (.30 June) „ 

1458 Williiim Wilflett. Master of Clare Hall, c. 1446-55. 
1459-60 Robert Woodlark, D.D., Provost of King's. Benefiu;tor. Founder of 

St (.'atharine's College. 

1461 Richard Scroope, Warden of King's Hall. Bishop of Carlisle, 1464. 

1462 Robert Woodlark, again. 

1463 John Booth. Bishop of Exeter, 1466. 

1464 William Wilflett, again. 

1465 John HerrisonS, M.l). 

1466 William Wilflett, again. 

1468 1-Mward Story, Pembroke, Master of Michaelhouse. Bishop of Carlisle, 
1468. Bishop of Chichester, 1477. 

1 Richanl <le Billingford was the founder of a chest ; see p. 16, note 3. 

2 III 1401 Boniface IX decreed 'ne Cancellarius confirniationem elcctionis suae ab Kpiscopo Eliensi 
quaerat, sed ipso facto electionis confinnatis habeatur' (Luard, Graduati, p. 597 71.). 

3 See under Vice-Clmncellor, 1412. 

4 As Cliaiicellor, Kobert Fitzhugh delivered a speech which was much admired for the elegance of its 
Latinity, He proposed as a renie<ly for the decrease of students at the University that the richer English 
benefices shoufd be bestowed solely on graduates of Cambridge and Oxford. 

o Sir T. D. Hanly's edition of Le Neve's I^isli (iii. tiOO) inserts Nicolas Swaflfham as elected in 14:55. 

6 The same authority inserts Thomas Bourchier as elected 'circa 1443.' Bourchier had been 
Cliancellor of the University of Oxford from 14M-7, and Bishop of Worcester 1434-43. He was not 
confirmed in the bishopric of Ely, an appointment which would have brought him within reach of 
Cambridge, until 1444. He was afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (14.W), Lord Chancellor (1456), 
and Cardinal (1467). His intimate connexion with Cambridge Is, however, shewn by his benefaction of 

7 He gave the University 'a goblet of eight ounces' (Fuller, p. 161). 
" 8 University chronicler. 

H.R. 2 



18 



THE CHANCELLOR 



ELBCTED 

14«)9 Thomas Uotlierliam >, D.D., Kind's. Hisliop of Kochester, 1468. Provost of 

Beverley, c. 14<)8. Bishop of Lincoln, 1471. Lord Cliancellor of lingland, 

1474. Archbishop of York, 1480. Master of Pembroke Uall, 1480. 
1471 Mward Story, again. ' 

1473 Thomas Rotlierham, again. 
1475 
1478 

1479 John Boynton. 
1483 Thomas Rotlierliam, again. 
1485 Thomas Northwood. 
1488 Hicliard Badew. 
1490 Thomas Cosyu, Master of Corpus, l^ady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 

1504. 
1494 John Blythe^, Warden of King's Hall. Arclideacon of Huntingdon, 1478; 

of Richmond, 1485. Master of tlie Rolls, 1492. Bishop of Salisbury, 

1494. 
1496 

1496 John Fitzhugh. [? George Fitzliugh : see 1502.] 
1500 Richard Fox^, Doctor of J)ecrees, Magdalen College, Oxford. Bishop of Bath 

and Wells, 1492. Bishop of Durham, 1494. Bishop of Winchester, 1501. 

Master of Pembroke Hall, 1507. 

1502 George Fitzhugh, D.D. {see louo). Master of Pembroke Hall. 

1503 Thomas Rutliall (or Rowthall), D.D. (incorporatefl from Oxford). King's 

Secretary, c. 1499. Archdeacon of Gloucester, 1503. Dean of Lincoln, 

1505. Bishop of Durham, 1509. Keeper of the Privy Seal, 1516. 
■*1504 John Fisher, Master of Michaeliiouse. First Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, 1502. Bishop of Rochester, 1504. President of Queens', 1505. 

Acted "for the Lady Margaret in the foundation of Christ's, 1505, and 

St John's, 1511. Cardinal, 1535. 
51514 „ „ Executed, 1535. 

1535 Thomas Cromwell. Chancellor of the Exchequer, 153.3. King's Secretary, 

1534. Master of the Rolls, 1534. High Steward of the University, 1534. 

Vicar-General, 1535. Lord Privy Seal, 1536. Dean of Wells, 1537. Earl 

of Essex, 1540. Executed, 1540. 
1539 Stephen Gardiner, LL.D. Master of Trinity Hall, 1525-49; re-elected, 1553. 

Bishop of Winchester, 1531. Lord Chancellor of England, 1552. 
1547 Edward Seymour, Duke of .Somerset. Lord High Admiral, 1542. Protector, 

1547. ICxecuted, 1552. 
•*1552 John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. Earl Marshal, 1551. Executed, 1553. 
1553 Stephen Gardiner, again. 
1556 Reginald Pole, Magdalen College, Oxford. Dean of Rxeter, 1527. Cardinal, 

1536. Archbishop of Canterbury, 1556. 
1559 Sir William Cecil, M.A., St John's. Queen's Secretary, 1558. Lord 

Burghley, 1571. Lord High Treasurer of England, 1572. 
1598 Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, M. A., Trinity. Earl Marshal, 1597. Executed, 

1601. 
1601 Sir Robert Cecil. High Steward of the University, 1591. Queen's Secretary, 

1596. Earl of Salisbury, 1605. Lord High Treasurer of England, 1608. 
1612 Henry Howard, 1-^rl of Northampton', King's and Trinity Hall. Lord Privy 

Seal, 1608. 
1614 Thomas Howard, Earl of Suflfolks, M.A., St John's. High Steward of the 

University, 1601. Lord High Treasurer of England, 1614. 

1 Second Founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, as well as a great benefactor to the University of Cam- 
bridKe. 

2 Delivered an omtion as Chancellor before Henry VII, the Lady Marsaret. the Countess of Pembroke, 
jind Prince Arthur at Cambridge, a manuscript copy of which is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

3 Founder of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, and a benefactor of Magdalen College, Oxford, and 
Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

4 In Luard's Appendix to the Oraduati (p. .%ei Fisher appears as Chancellor in 1501, but as he was 
Vice-Chancellor in that year this seems improbable, and it is not supported by the authorities, nor is 
there any record to this effect in the Registry. Of this, the first election of a Chancellor for life. Fuller 
(p. 17.5) writes: "The University perceived it was troul)lesome every year to choose a new Chancellor: 
wherefore, having now pitched on a person of much merit for the place, (so that they could not change hut 
to lossi this year they concluded his continuance therein for term of life, which act of the University was 
mino 1514 more solemnly confirmed * (see note 5J, 

5 In 15KJ. on Wolsey's promotion to the see of Lincoln, Fisher offered to retire from the office of 
Chancellor in his favour, Wolsey, however, declined the honour, and Fisher was re-elected. 

6 Northumberland was at tlie same time High Steward of the Borough, "two offices,' says Fuller 
(p. 250), 'wliich never before or since met in the sanie person.' 

7 Charles, Duke of York, afterwards Charles I, was also considered for the office. For an account of the 
election see Cooi>er, Annals, iii. 47 and Fuller, p. '3^. Bacon chose Northampton 'as tlie learnedest 
councillor' of the kingdom to present bis 'Advancement of Learning' to James I. 

8 'An hearty old gentleman, who was a good friend to Cambridge, and would have proved a better if 
occasion had been offered ' (Fuller, p. 310). 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR . 19 

ELECTED 

1626 George Villiers, first Uuke of Buckingham. Lonl High Admiral, 1619. 

IG'28 Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, M.A., Emmanuel. 

1648 Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester, Sidney. Ejected, 1651. 

1651 (27 Nov.) Oliver St .John, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas', Queens', 

1660 Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester, Sidney, restored. 

1671 George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham-', M.A., Trinity. 

1674 James Scott, Duke of Monmouth. Deprived, 1682. Executed, 1685. 

1682 Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle''. 

1689 (8 Mar.) Charles Seymour, Diike of Somerset ■•, Trinity. 

1748 Thomas Holies Pelliani, Duke of Newcastle, LL.D., Clare. Secretary of 

State, 1724. High Steward of the University, 1737. First Lord of the 

Treasury, 1754. Lord Privy Seal, 1765. 
1768 Augustus Henry Fitzrov, Duke of Grafton «, M.A., Peterhouse. Secretary of 

State, 1765. Prime "Minister, 1766. Lord Privy Seal, 1771 and 1782. 
1811 (26 Mar.) His Koyal Highness William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester, Hon. 

LL.D., Trinity 6. 
1834 John Jeifrevs Pratt, Marquis Camden, Hon. LL.D., Trinity. Lord-Lieutenant 

of Ireland, 1794. Secretary of State for War, 1804. Lord President of the 

Council, 1805 and 1807. 
1840 Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland, Hon. LL.D., St John's. Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, 1829. High Steward of the University, 1834. 
1847 (27 Feb.) His Roval Highness Prince Albert, Hon. LL.D., Trinity. 
1861 (31 Dec.) William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, Hon. LL.D., Trinity. 

Second Wrangler, eighth Classic, and first Smith's Prizeman, 1829. M.P. 

for the University, 1829, 1830. 
1892 Spencer Compton Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, Hon. LL.D., Trinity. 

Secretary of State for War, 1866. Postmaster-tJeneral, 1870. Chief 

Secretary for Ireland, 1870. Secretary of State for India, 1880. Lord 

President of the Council, 1895. 
1908 John William Strutt, Daron Ravleigh, M.A., Hon. Sc.D., O.M., Trinity. 

Cavendish Professor of E.tpefimental Physics, 1879-84. Past- President 

of the lloyal Society. 

Fourteenth Century Chancellors of uncertain date 

Gilbert de Segrave, M.A. Benefactcjr. 

Oliver de Deincourt, M.A. Benefactor. 

John Clarel, M.A. =:perliaps John Clarkhall= John de Crakhall, Cliancellorin 

1346 [q.v.]. Benefactor. 
Simon de Walpol, M.A. Benefactor. 
Richard de Godlington, M.A. Benefactor. 

VJCE-CHANCELLOR 

The old University Statutes'^ required that the Chancellor 
should reside. He was not to be absent for more than a month 
between the beginning of the Michaelmas Term and the beginning 
of the Long Vacation, and if he was absent more than fifteen 
days the nomination of a Vice-Chancellor (vicarms) passed from 
him to the House of Regents^. The result of the practice of 
electing magnate Chancellors who were non-resident was to 

1 One of the counsel for John Hamixlen. 

'2 The ' Zimri ' of Dryden's Absnloni and Achitophel. 

3 Sir T. D. Hardy's edition of Le Neve's Fasti (iii. 602) gives under date 1688 George Legge, Lord 
Dartmouth, vice the Duke of Albemarle. There seems to be no authority for this. After Allwmarle's 
death in 1688 James II directed the University to appoint Lord Dartmouth as his successor, hut no election 
took place until 15 Dec. 1688, when William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, was elected Chancellor, 
but he declined to accept the honour, 

4 The Duke of Somerset held otRce as Chancellor for GO years ! 

5 As Chancellor he was instrumental in appohiting the poet Gray to the Regius Professorship of Modern 
History. 

6 On the occasion of his installation the Duke gave a sumptuous dinner to nearly one thousand persons 
in the cloisters of Nevile's Court (Gunning, ReininUcences, ii. 277K 

7 Commissioners' Documents, i. 311. 

8 Grace-Book A, p. xxxii. 

2—2 



20 THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 

increase the importance of the Vice-ChanceUor, for with a 
non-resident Chancellor he holds office continuously. This 
point is noted by FuUer^, who under date 1417 remarks, 'The 
Chancellors of Cambridge being lately either persons of noble 
birth or great employment, whose occasions often caused their 
absence, it was fashionable henceforward to substitute Vice- 
ChanceUors in their room.' 

The election of the Vice-ChanceUor is now governed by 
Statute A, c. iv. § 2: 

The Vice-Chancellor shall be elected yearly some time before he 
enters upon his office, and the day of dection and the day of entering 
upon office in every year shall be jjrescribed by Grace from time to 
time as the University may find expedient. 

On the day preceding the day of election the Coimcil of the Senate 
shall assemble in the Senate House. The Members of the Council in 
order of seniority of Degree shall severally nominate one of the Heads 
of Colleges for the office. They shall then severally mark two of the 
persons so nominated for election. The two persons to be proposed 
to the Senate for election must be so marked that in a first, or second, 
or third scrutiny each of them has more marks than any of the other 
persons nominated. If in none of these three scrutinies two, but in 
the third scrutiny one, shall be found to have the required greater 
number of marks, the Kegius Professor of Divinity, or, if he be a mem- 
ber of the Coimcil, the Vice-ChanceUor of the next preceding year who 
is not a member of the Council, shall nominate one of the persons who 
have each an equal number of marks next less than the highest. 

If in the third scrutiny neither two nor one of the persons nominated 
be found to have more marks than any other, the said Regius Pro- 
fessor, or the said Vice-Chancellor of a preceding year, shall nominate 
two of those who have each an equal number of marks greater than 
any other. 

The Chancellor shall on the same day publish the names of the two 
persons thus nominated to the members of the Senate. 

On the next day the election of the Vice-Chancellor shall be made 
as follows: * 

The Proctors shall stand in scrutiny with the two senior Doctors 
then present in the Senate House, or if no Doctors be present, the two 
senior Bachelors of Divinity present. They shall first give their own 
votes in writing and then take the votes in WTiting of all persons present 
who have the right of voting. That one of the two persons nominated, 
for whom the greater number of votes is given, shall be declared to be 
elected. 

If the election of a Vice-ChanceUor becomes void before the day of 
entering upon office by the death of the person elected, or by any other 
cause, or if the office of Vice-Chancellor becomes vacant during his 
year of office, a new Vice-Chancellor shaU be elected as nearly as possible 
in the same manner, as soon as possible after certain knowledge of 
the vacancy. 

The Vice-ChanceUor may nominate one or more Deputies at his 
discretion. 

The Vice-Chancellor's year of office formerly commenced at 
the beginning of November, but in 1884 the experiment was 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 21 

tried of making it coincide with the civil year and begin in 
January. In 1889, however, the academical year was adopted, 
and the Vice-Chancellor now enters upon office at or about 
October 1. The Regulations at present prescribing the day of 
election and the day of entering upon office will be found in the 
current issue of the University Calendar. 

By Grace of May 3, 1815, a stipend of £400 was attached to 
the office, and a Grace of Nov. 26, 1908, empowered the Vice- 
Chancellor to spend in each year a sum not exceeding £50 for 
additional clerical assistance. 

By a determination made in 1599 by the Earl of Essex, 
Chancellor of the University, in his capacity of Earl Marshal of 
England, and 'judge' of 'all places and precedencies,' the 
Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge is to be in commission before the 
Mayor ^. This decision was supported in 1606 by a royal letter 
addressed by James I to the Lord Chancellor 2, and in 1612 by an 
Order in CounciF, in which reference was made to ' the example 
of almost 200 years.' In 1647 also the general question of the 
right of precedence came before the House of Lords, and judg- 
ment was given in favour of the Vice-Chancellor and his suc- 
cessors*. The same view was taken by the House of Commons 
in 1666 when they amended a bill by inserting the Vice-Chan- 
cellor before the Mayor^. The Town has, however, always 
pleaded ancient usage to the contrary, and although in 1705 the 
Mayor, under the pressure of a Grace discommuning him, 
admitted the claim of the University®, it was still being resisted 
ra hundred years later'. The Municipal Corporations Acts of 1835 
and 1882 both assigned to Mayors precedence in all places within 
their respective Boroughs, but in both Acts the rights of the two 
older Universities were reserved by a special clause, that in the 
Act of 1882 being as follows: 'Nothing in this Act shall entitle 
the Mayors of Oxford and Cambridge respectively to any pre- 
cedence over the Vice-Chancellors of those U^niversities respec- 
tively.' This enactment accordingly preserves the previous rights 
as to precedence — whatever they may be. Fortunately the old 
dispute no longer arouses the old ill-feeling. 

BLECTBD 

81-112 Thomas zVshwell, Friar ». 

1417 Henry Stockton. 

1418 Nicholas de SwaflFham, Carmelite. 
1454-5 Nicholas Gay, Peterhouse. 

1457 William Milliiigton. Provost of King's, 1441-6. 
1463-4 .John Roclvtfe, Peterhouse. 
1 1465-6 Thomas Stoyle lo. Master of Clare Hall, 1466. 
1466-7 Henry Boleyn. 

1 Cooper, AnnaU, ii. 694. 2 lb. Hi. 20. 3 lb. iii. 54. 4 lb. iii. 409. 

.■5 lb. iii. 621. 6 lb. Iv. 74. 7 lb. iv. 820. 

8 Le Neve ( Ftuti, iii. 602) rem.trks that tlie lists of Vice-Clmncellors and Proctors are not to he relied 
upon before 1601, and Lnard in tbe Appendix to the Oraduati follows Le Neve in l>eg;inning at that date : 
but the Grace Books and other sources make it possible to carry the list further back. 

9 Friar Ashwell was appointed ' President of tbe University' during the absence (in Rome) of the 
Chancellor, Richard de Billinitford. 

10 See pp. 52 and 54 below. 



22 THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 



BIKCTBD 

1467-8 William rttyng, M.A. 

1470-1 Ivdiuuiid Conisborough, Corpus. Archbishop of Armagh, 1471. 

1471-2 The same. 

1472-3 Thomas Stoyle, again. 

1473-4 The same. 

1474-5 The same. 

1475-6 William Towu. 

1485 Thomas Tuppiu, D.l). 

1487-8 John Kiplmgham, D.D., Vice-President of Uueens*. Benefactor to St 

John's. 
1489 John Camberton, D.U., Fellow of Pembroke. 
1493 William liawsou, Fellow of Pembroke. 
1494-5 William Stockdale, D.I>., Fellow of Peterhouse. Benefactor to St 

Catharine's. 
1496 John Dolman (or Dowman^), LL.D. Archdeacon of Suffolk. Benefactor to 

St John's. 

1496 Henry Rudd, LL.l)., A'icar-General of Ely. 

1497 Jolin Smith, D.U., Fellow of King's. Canon of Lincoln. 
1499-1500 The same. 

1500 Henry Babington '•', D.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. 

IfiOl John" Fisher, D.I)., Master of Michaelhouse. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, 1502. Bishop of Rochester, 1504. President of Queens', 1605. 

Cardinal, 1535. 

1502 Humphrey Fitzwilliam, D.D., Fellow of Pembroke Hall. 

1503 Geoffrey Knight, D.D., [Fellow of] Queens'. 

1504 Julm .^mith, again. 

1505 Richard Burton, D.l). Archdeacon of Worcester, 1479. 

1506 John Eccleston, D.D., Master of Jesus. 

1507 William Robson, D.D. 

1508 William BuckenhamS, D.l). Master of Gouville Hall, 1513. 

1509 The sjimc. 

1610 Thomas Thompson, DsD., Master of Christ's. 

1511 The same. 

1512 John Fawne, D.D., Vice-President of Queens'. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, 1515. 

1513 The same. 

1514 John ICccleston, again. 
1615 The same. 

1516 Robert Dowsing (or Dussing), D.D. 

1517 Jilmund Natures (or Natares), D.D., Master of Clare Hall. 
1618 John Watson, D.D., Master of Christ's. 

1519 The same, 

1520 Fdmund Natures (or Natares), again. 

1521 Thomas .Stackhouse, D.D., Master of Michaelhouse. 

1522 John I'Mmunds, D.D. Master of Peterhouse, 1523. 

1523 Thomas Green (or Grene), B.D., Master of Catharine Hall. 

1524 Henry Bullock, D.D., Fellow of Queens'. 
1625 I'Mmund Natures (or Natares), again. 
1526 The same. 

1627 John I'Mmunds, again. 

1528 The same. 

1529 William Buckmaster, D.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. Fellow of King's Hall, 

1532. Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1532. 
1630 John Watson, agabi. 

1531 The same. 

1532 Simon Hevnes, D.l)., President of Queens'. Dean of E veter, 1537. 

1633 The same." 

1634 John Cravford*, M..\., Master of Clare Hall. Canon of Cardinal College, 

Oxforll, 1525. D.L). 1535. Archdeacon of Berks, 1545. Master of 
Fniversity College, Oxfoi-d, 1546. 

1 The Founder of Pocklington School. The benefaction is associated with Dolman at Pocklinxton and 
Dowiiian at St John's, but a piece of carve<l work on a beam at the school represented as the Founder's 
rebus three doves with MAN below Cdow' in dialect=*dove'|. 

2 'Spectabilis et scientificus vir' {see Cooper, Athen. Cant. i. 20). 

3 When Vice-Chancellor, he compiled a collection of documents relating to the University known as the 
Old Black Book (Cooper, Atftetnw Cantabriqietts"g, i. 72). Tills is probably the book still preserved in the 
Registi^', and called the ' BL-kck parchment book.' 

4 'Hitherto,' s.iys Fuller (p. Ho), ' none were chosen Vice^Cbancellors of the University save such who 
before their election were actual doctora. Cruyford was the first who innovated herein, bein}; Vice- 
chancellor before a doct^ir.' He adds, quotinj; Dr Caius, that he was ' gladiator melior quam Procancel- 
larius.' ' who in a fury cut off the hand from one Pindar, and cast out a fellow out of the Regent House, 
catcbini; bim up on bis shoulders by main force.' 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 23 

ELECTED 

1535 The same. 

1536 Francis Mallet, 1).U. Master of Michaclliouse, 1543. Canon of Windsor, 1543 ; 

of Westminster, 1563. • Dean of Lincoln, 1654. 

1537 George Day, D.l)., Master of St John's. Public Orator 152*-37. Provost of 

King's, 1538. Bishop of Chichester, 154-3. 

1538 William Buckniaster, again. 

1639 The -same again. / 

1540 Francis Mallet, again. 
John Edmunds, again. 

1541 Richard Standish, LL.D. 

1642 John Edmunds, again. 
Richard Standish, again. 

1643 John Edmunds, again. 

[Sir] Thomas Smith', LL.I)., Vice-President of Queens'. Public Orator, 1538. 
Regius Professor of Civil Law, 1542. Provost of Eton, 1647. Dean of 
C'arlisle, 1647. Knighted 1648. King's Secretary, 1648 ; Queen's Secretary, 
1672. 
1544 The same. 

1645 (Jan. 25) Matthew Parker, D.D., Master of Corpus. Dean of Lincoln, 1552. 

Archbisliop of Canterbury, 1559. 
John Madew, B.D., Itegius Professor of Divinity. D.D. 1646. Master of 
Clare Hall, 1549. 

1646 The same. 
1547 The same. 

1648 (Feb. 7) Matthew Parker, again. 

William Bill, D.D., Master of St John's. Master of Trinity, 1651. Provost of 

Eton, 1669. Dean of Westminster, 1560. 
1549 Walter Haddon, LL.D., Fellow of King's. Regius Professor of Civil Law, 1551. 

Master of Trinity Hall, Feb. 1662. President of Magdalen College, O.xford, 

Oct. 1662. 
1560 John Madew, again. 
1651 Andrew Perne, [B.D.], Vice-President of Queens'. D.D. 1652. Master of 

Peterhouse, 1554. Dean of Ely, 1557. 

1562 Edwin Sandys^, D.D., Master of Catharine Hall. Bishop of Worcester, 1659; 

of London, 1670. Archbishop of York, 1676. 
[Edward Hawford, M.A., Fellow of Clifist's. As Senior Proctor he pro- 
bably acted as Vice-Chancellor on the arrest of Sandys. Master of 
Christ's, 1559.] 

1563 John Young, D.D. Master of Pembroke Hall, 1654. Regius Professor of 

Divhiity, 1665. 

1564 William Glyn^, D.D., President of Queens'. Lady Margaret's Professor 

of Divinity, 1644. Bisho]) of Bangor, 1656. 
Cuthbert Scott (or Scot), D.D., Master of Christ's. Bishop of Chester, 1666. 

1565 The same. 

1556 Andrew Perne, again. 

1567 Robert Brassey, D.D., Provost of King's. 

1568 The same'*. 

Edmund Cosvn^, B.D., Master of St Catharine's Hall. 

John Porie"(or Pory), B.D., Master of Corpus. D.D. 1569. Canon of 
Canterbury, 1604 ; of Westminster, 1568. 
1659 Andrew Perne, again. 

1560 Henry Harvev, LL.D., Master of Trinity Hall. Archdeacon of Middlesex, 

1661. Canon of Ely, 1667. 

1561 Philip Baker, B.I)., Provost of King's. 

1562 Francis Newton, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1663. Dean of Winchester, 

1665. 

1663 Edward Hawford, B.D., Master of Christ's (,see 1552). 

1664 Robert Beaumont, D.D., Master of Trinity. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, 1559. Canon of Ely, 1564. 
1565 Jfihn Stokes, D.D., President of Queens'. Archdeacon of York, 1560. 

1666 Robert Beaumont*', D. D., again. 

1667 (June) Roger Kelke, D.D., Master of Magdalene. Archdeacon of Stow, 1663. 
Richard Longworth, D.D., Master of St John's. Dean of Chester, 1673. 

1568 John Young, D.D., Master of Pembroke Hall. Canon of Whidsor, 1672. 
Bishop of Rochester, 1578. 

1 See p. 48, note 5, ,iiid p. £0, note 11. 

2 Was ejected from the Vice-Chancellorship for supporting the cause of Lady Jane Grey. 

Glyn resigned the Vice-Chancellorship. The inECription on his tomb says of him, ' Komam vidit.' 

4 Dr Brassey died in November, 1558. His successor was elected November 8. 

5 Resigned November 25, 1558, either from ill-health, or in consequence of the ecclesiastical changes 
which followed the accession of Queen Elizabeth. 

6 Died in office June H 1567. 



24 THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 



BUCTBD 

1569 John Mav, D.D., Master of Catharine Hall. Arclideacon of the East Riding, 

1569." Bishop of Carlisle, 167T. 

1570 John Whitgift, D.D., Master of Trinity. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Dirinity, 1563 ; Kegius Professor, 1567. Dean of Lincoln, 1571. Bishop 
of Worcester, 1577. Archbishop of Canterbury, 1583. 

1571 Roger Kelke, again. 

V 1572 Thomas Bynge, LL.D., Master of Clare Hall. Public Orator, 15C5. Regius 
Professor of Civil Ijiw, 1574. Dean of Arches, 1595. 

1573 John Whitgift, again. 

1574 Andrew Perne, again. 

1575 John Still, D.D., Master of St John's. Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 

1570. Master of Trinity, 1577. Archdeacon of Sudbury, 1577. Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, 1593. " 

1576 Roger Goad, D.D., Provost of King's. 

1577 Richard Howland, B.D., Master of St John's. Master of Magdalene, 1576. 

D.D. 1578. Bishop of Peterborough, 1584. 

1578 Thomas Bynge, again. 

1579 John Hatcher, M.l)., Fellow of St John's. Regius Professor of Physic.c. 1564 ? 
' 1580 Andrew Perne, again. 

1581 William Fulke, D.D., Master of Pembroke Hall. 

1582 Jolm Bell, D.D., Master of Jesus. Dean of Ely, 1589. 

1583 Richard Howland, again. 

1584 Robert Xorgate, D.D., Master of Corpus. 

1585 Humphrey Tindall, D.D., President of Queens'. Dean of Ely,. 1591. 

1586 John Copcot, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Master of Corpus, 1587. 

'Dr Copcot,' says Fuller (p. 281), 'when chosen Vice-Chan- 
cellor, was only FeUow of Trinity College, within which he gave 
upper hand to Doctor Still (then Master) but took it out of him 
when out of the waUs of the College ; but before the year ended 
he was chosen Master of Bene't College, and an act made amongst 
the Doctors that "for the time to come none but heads of houses 
should be chosen Vice-ChanceUors." ' This explains the change 
in the form of the lists^. 

BLBCTED ELECTED 

1587 Thomas Legge, LL.D., Caius. 160.{ John Cowelis, LL.D., Trinity Hall. 

1588 Thomas Xevile, D.D., Magdalene. 1604 The same. 

Master of .Trinity, 1593. 1605 Richard aavton*, D.D., St John's. 

1589 Thomas Preston, LL.D., Trinity Hall. Master of Magdalene, 1593. 

1590 Robert Soame, D.D., Peterliouse. 1606 Samuel Harsnett, D.D., Pembroke. 

1591 The same. , Bishop of lliichester, 1609; of 

1592 Jolm Still-, again. | Norwich, 1619; Archbishop of 
Thomas Legge, again. • York, 1629. 

1593 John Duport, D.D., Jesus. i 1607 Roger Goad, again. 

1594 The same. 1608 Thomas Jegon, D.D., Corpus. 

1595 Roger Goad, again. 1609 John Duport, again. 

1596 John Jegon, D.D., Corpus. Bishop of 1610 Fogge Newton, D.D., King's. 

Norwich, 1603. 

1597 The same. 

1598 Tlie same. 

1599 Robert Soanic, again. 



1611 Baniabas Goche, LL.D., Magda- 

lene. 

1612 Valentine Carv.D.D., Christ's. Bishop 
of Exeter, 162L 



1600 John Jegon. arain. ' 1613 Clement Corbet, LL.D., Trinity 

1601 John Duport, again. | Hall. 

1602 William Smith, D.D., Clare. Provost 1614 The Bishop of Cliichester [see 1606]. 

of King's, 1612. i 1615 Owen Gwjn, D.D., St John's. 

1 It will also be noticed that cross-references to other University offices held by Vice^'haiicellore are 
no longer given. 

2 Resigned office on his appointment as Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

i? Well-known as the author of Cowell's Intrrpreter, 1807, a law dictionary censured by the House of 
Commons in 1610 for its expression through an uncongenial medium of strong al^lutist opinions. 

4 ' Nothing memorable besides [the plague] happeneil under Df Clayton's Vice-Oiancellorehip except 
an order for the observance of the fifth of November in a verj- solemn manner in the University ' I Baker, 
Hittory of St JohnM Coll-ge, p. IW. Tliis onier, dated Oct. 20. 1606. provides for a sermon in St Mary's 
* at nine of the clock in the forenoon, after solemn prayers and thanksgivings be ended.* and in the 
afternoon an oration in King's College Chapel, 'after the end of which onition it is thought meet that 
solemn service should presently follow in the same place with joyful singing and hearty tbank^ving.' 

And this assembly to be solenmized in scarlet ' (Cooper, Annalt, iii. 23). 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 



25 



BLECTED 

1616 John Hills, D.D., St Catliarine's. 

1617 John Richardson, D.U., Trinity. 

Master of Peterhouse, 1608. 

1618 William Branthwaitei, D.D., Caius. 
John Gostlvn, M. D., Caius. 

1619 Robert Scott, D.D., Clare. 

1620 Samuel Ward, D.D., Sidney. 

1621 Leonard Mawe, D.D., Peterhouse. 

Master of Trinity, 1625. Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, 1628. 

1622 Jerome Beale, D.D., Pembroke. 
162;? Thomas Paske, D.D., Clare. 

1624 John Mansell, D.D., Queens'. 

1625 John Gostlyn '^, again. 

Henry Smyth, J).D., Magdalene. 

1626 The same. 

1627 Thomas Bainbridse, D.D., Christ's. 

1628 Matthew Wren, D.D., Peterhouse. 

Bishop of Hereford, 163-1 ; of Norwich , 
1636 ; of Ely, 1638. 

1629 Henry Butts^, D.D., Corpus. 

1630 The same. 

1631 The same. 

Tliomas Comber, D.D., Trinity. 

1632 Benjamin Lanv, D.D., Pembroke. 

Bishop of Peterborough, 1660; 
of Lincoln, 1663; of Elv, 1667. 

1633 Richard Love*, D.D., Corpus. 

1634 William Beale, D.D., St John's. 

Master of Jesus, 1632. 

1635 Henry Smyth, ajfain. 

1636 Thomas Comber, again. 

1637 Ralph Hrownrigg,D.I).,StCatharine's. 

Bishop of Exeter, 1641. 

1638 The same. 

1639 John Cosin,D.D., Peterhouse. Bishop 

of Durham, 1660. 

1640 Richard Holdsworth, D.D., Em- 

manuel. 

1641 The same. 

1642 The same. 

1643 The Bishop of Exeter [see 1637]. 

1644 The same. 

1645 Thomas Hill, D.D., Trinity. 

1646 The same. 

1647 John Arrowsmith, D.D., St John's. 

Master of Trinity, 1653. 

1648 Anthony Tuckney *, D.D., Emmanuel. 

Master of St .John's. 1663. 

1649 Thomas Horton, D.D., Queens'. 

1650 Benjamin Whiclicote, D.D., King's. 

1651 Samuel Bolton, D.D., Christ's. 
1662 Richard Minshulis, D.D., Sidney. 

1653 Lazarus Seaman, D.D., Peterhouse. 

1654 John Lightfoot, D.D., St Catharine's. 



ELECTED 

1665 Theophilus Dillingham, D.D., Clare. 

1656 The same. 

1657 John Wofthington, D.D., Jesus. 

1658 John Bond, LL.D., Trinity Hall. 

1659 William Dillingham, D.D., Em- 

manuel. 

1660 Henry Feme, D.D., Trinity. Bishop 

of Chester, 1662. 

1661 The same. 

(19 Mar.) Theophilus Dillingham, 
again. 

1662 Edward Rainbowe, D.D., Magdalene. 

Bishop of Carlisle, 1664. 

1663 James Fleetwood, D.D.7, King's. 

Bishop of Worcester, 1676. 

1664 Anthony Sparrow, D.D., Queens'. 

Bishop of Exeter, 1667 ; of Norwich, 
1676. 

1665 Francis Wilford, D.D., Corpus. 

1666 The same 8. 

John Howorth (or Haworth), D.D., 
Magdalene. 

1667 The sameS. 

James Fleetwood, again. 

1668 Edmund Boldero, D.D., Jesus. 

1669 James Duport, D.D., Magdalene. 

1670 John Breton, D.D., Emmanuel. 

1671 Robert Mapletoft, D.D., Pembroke. 

1672 William Wells, D.D., Queens'. 

1673 John Spencer, D.D., Corpus. 

1674 Edmund Boldero, again. 

1675 Isaac Barrow, D.D., Trinity. 

1676 Sir Thomas Page, M.A., King's. 

1677 Thomas Holbech, D.D., Emmanuel. 

1678 Francis Turneri", D.D., St John's. 

Bishop of Rochester, 1683; of Ely, 
1684. 

1679 John Eachard, D.D., St Catharine's. 

1680 Humphrey Gower, D.D., St John's. 

Master of Jesus, 11 July 1679; of 
St John's, 3 Dec. 

1681 Nathaniel Coga (or Cogha), D.D., 

Pembroke. 

1682 John Copleston, D.I)., King's. 

1683 Henry James, D.D., Queens'. 

1684 Samuel Blvth. D.D., Clare. 

1685 William Saywell, D.D., Jesus. 

1686 John Peachell'i, D.D., Magdalene. 

1687 (17 May) John Balderston, D.D., 

Emmanuel. 
(4 Nov.) The Hon. John Montagu, 
D.D., Trinity. 

1688 John Coyell, I).D., Christ's. 

1689 James .Johnson, D.D., Sidney. 

1690 Charles Roderick^ LL.D., King's. 



I Die<l of consuniption while in office. 
*i Also died in office. 

3 On April 1. ISS, ' being Easter Day,' ' Dr Henry Butts. Vice-Chancel lor, luniK himself in his chamber 
at Corpus Christi CoUese, of which he was Mjister' (Cooper, Annals, iii. 231). He liad been conducting 
a strenuous and heroic struggle against the plague. 

4 See p. 7:*, note 8. 

5 ' Wlulst he was Vice-Chancellor he was very zealous for tlie conversion of the Indians and propagating 
the gospel in America, and promoted that design very vigorously with tlie assistance of the He.ids ' 
(Baker, p.ZtO). 

H ' In 1663 Dr Minshul the Vice-Chancellor at the Commencement being seized witli a strange sort of 
deafness, Dr Tiickney moderated for him, after which the Vice-Chancellor was happily restored to the use 
of his ears' (Baiter, p. 230). 

7 M.A. Cambridge ; but D.D. Oxford for his services at the battle of Edgehill. 

8 Died in office. 

9 Died in office, like his predecessor. 

10 One of tlie Seven Bishops. 

II Deprived in ISSI for refusing as Vice-Chancellor to admit the Benedicrine monk, Alban Francis, to 
a degree until he had taken the necessary oaths. 



26 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 



BLBCTBD 

1691 Gabriel Quadring, D.l)., Magdalene. 

1692 George Oxenden, LL.I)., Trinity Hall. 

1693 William Stanlev, l).I).^Corpus. 

1694 Thomas Browne, 1).1>., Pembroke. 

1695 John Richard, again. 

1696 Henry James, i^ain. 

1697 The same. 

1698 Sir William Dawes, D.D., St Cath- 

arine's. Archbishop of York, 1713. 

1699 Thomas Greeni.D.U., Corpus. Bishop 

of Norwich, 1721 ; of Ely, 1723. 

1700 Richard Bentlevi, D.D., Trinitv. 

1701 Thomas Richardson, D.I).. Peter- 

house. 

1702 Charles Ashton, D.D., .Jesus. 

1703 George tiramston, LL.D., Trinity 

Hall. 

1704 Sir John FUlvs, M.D., Caius. 

1705 Bardsey Fisher, D.D., Sidney. 

1706 John Balderston, again. 

1707 Edward Lany, I). I)., Pembroke. 

1708 John Covell, again. 

1709 Cliarles Roderick, again. 

1710 Sir Nathanael Llovd, LL.1)., Trinitv 

Hall. 

1711 Gabriel Quadring, again. 

1712 John Adams, D.D., King's. 

1713 Thomas Green, again. 

1714 Thomas Sherlock^ D.D., St Cath- 

arine's. Bishop of Bangor, 1728 ; of 
Salisbury, 1734 ; of London, 1748. 

1715 Daniel Waterland, B.D., Magdalene. 

D.l). 1717. 

1716 William Grigg,.M. A., Clare. D.D. 1717. 

1717 [Sir] Thomas Gooch, D.D., Caius. 

Bishop of Bristol, 1737 ; of Norwich, 
1738; of Ely, 1747. 

1718 The same. 

1719 The same. 

1720 Thomas Crosse, D.D., St Catharine's. 

1721 The same. 

1722 Andrew Snape, D.D., King's. 

1723 The same. 

1724 William Savage, D.D., Emmanuel. 

1725 John Davieii, D.D., Queens'. 

1726 Joseph Craven, D.D., .Sidney. 

1727 Robert Lambert, D.D., St John's. 

1728 John Frankland, D.D., Sidney. 

1729 Robert Lambert, again. 

1730 Matthias Mawson^, D.l)., Corpus. 

Bishop of Llandaff. 1739; of Chi- 
chester, 1740; of Ely, 1754. 

1731 The same. 

1732 Cliarles Morgan, D.D., Clare. 

1733 Roger Long, D,D., Pembroke. 

1734 William Towers [D.D.], Christ's. 



BLECTSD 

1735 John Adams, D.D., Sidney. 

1736 John Wilcox, D.D., Clare'. 

1737 William Richardson, D.D., Em- 

manuel. 

1738 John Whallev, D.D., Peterhouse. 

1739 Edward Hubbard, D.D., St Oith- 

ariue's. 

1740 [Sir] Edward Simpson, LL.D., Trinity 

Hall. 

1741 William Sedgwick, D.D., Queens'. 

1742 Robert Smith*, D.D., Trinity. 

1743 William George, D.D., King's. 

1744 Kenrick Prescot, B.D., St Cath- 

arine's. 

1745 George Henry Rooke, D.D., Clirist's. 

1746 Edmund Castle, B.D., Corpus. 

1747 Francis Sawyer Parris, D. 1)., Sidney. 

1748 Thomas Cliapman, LL.D., Magda- 

lene. 

1749 Edmund Keene, D.D., Peterhouse. 

Bishop of Chester, 1752; of Elv, 
1771. 

1750 The same. 

1751 John Wilco.x, again. 

1752 Philip Yonge, D.D., Jesus. Bishop 

of Bristol, 1758 ; of Nor»-ich, 1761. 

1753 The same. 

1754 Hugh Thomas, D.D., Christ's. 

1755 Edmund Law, D.D., Peterhoase. 

Bishop of Carlisle, 1768. 

1756 John Sumner, D.D., King's. 

1757 John Green, D.D., Corpus. Bishop 

of Lincoln, 1761. 

1758 Lyuford Caryl, D.D., Jesus. 

1759 Sir James Burroughs, .M. A., Caius. 

1760 George Sandby, D.D.. Magdalene. 

1761 Robert Plumptre*, D.D., Queens'. 

1762 Peter Stephen Goddard, D.D., Clare. 

1763 William Elliston, M..\., Sidney. 

1764 John Barnardiston, D.D., Corpus. 

1765 William Samuel Powell, D.D., St 

John's. 

1766 John Smith, D.D., Caius. 

1767 [Sir] James Marriott, LL.D., Trinity 

Hall. Judge of the Court of 
Admiralty, 1778. 
1763 John Hincliliffe.D.D., Trinity. Bishop 
of Peterborough, 1769. 

1769 William Richardson, again. 

1770 John Sumner, again. 

1771 James Brown, D.D., Pembroke. 

1772 William Cooke, D.D., King's. 

1773 I.,ynford Carvl, again. 

1774 Hon. Barton Wallop', M.A., Magda- 

lene. 

1775 Richard Farmer?, D.D., Emmanuel. 



1 The proce«dings .i^inst Bemley in 173J were taken before his pre<lecessor in the oBBce of Vice-Chan- 
celtor, then Bishop of Ely. 

2 During his Vice-Chancellorship, Sherlocic arranged the University archives, and vindicated the rights 
of the University a>niinst Bentiey, then Archdeaoin of Ely, who nicknamed him ' .Ailjeroni.' 

3 Matthias Mawson's term of office iis Vice-Cliancellor was signalised by 'several useful reform^.' 
' .Academic exercises were made more stringent and orderly : capricious migration from Collexe to UwU^e 
was checked ; and the practice of exhuming bodies from the neighbouring^ churchyard for dissection by 
students of nie<licine was prohibited.' 

<4 Founder of the Smith's Prizes. See also p. 87, note 'i 

5 As an amateur architect of some skill and reputation in the University, Burrough bad a considerable 
share in the Cambridge buildings of the time, an(l esi>ecially in the Senate House. 

t) He was a fairly good scholar, and the storj' that he introduced into his Vice-Chancellor's speech tlie 
line ■ Rogerus immeinur Rolitrtum denStat hebetem' is probably a calumny. 

7 A son of the Earl of Portsmouth. 

8 During his tenn of office the University voted an address to the King in support of the policy of the 
Government towards America. A member of the Caput, however, refused to give up the key of the place con- 
tainiug the University seal, vhereuix)ii Farmer forced the door with a sledge-hammer. See Gunning, i, 175. 



THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 



27 



1T76 Jolin aievallier, I).l)., St John's. 

1777 Hugh Thomas, againi. 

(8 Dee.) Kobert Plumptre, again. 

1778 William Colman, D.I)., Corpus. 

1779 Lowther Yates, D.D., St Catharine's. 

1780 John Barker, D.D., Christ's. 

1781 Richard Beadon, D.D., Jesus. Bishop 

of Gloucester, 1789; of iiath and 
Wells, 1802. 

1782 The same. 

1783 John Torkiiigton, B.D., Clare. 

1784 Peter Peckard, M.A., Majjdalene. 

1785 Joseph Turner, D.D., Pembroke. 

1786 (Xov. 4) Sir James Marriott 2, again. 
(Nov. 18) William Elliston, again. 

1787 Richard Farmer, again. 

1788 Francis Barnes, D.D., Peterhouse. 

1789 William Pearce», D.D., Jesus. 

1790 William Craven, D.D., St John's. 

1791 Thomas Postlethwaite, D.D., Trinity. 

1792 Isaac Milner, D.D., Queens'. 

1793 William Colman, again. 

1794 Lowther Yates*, again. 

1796 Philip Douglas^, D.D., Corpus. 
179() Richard IJelward, D.D., Caius. 

1797 Robert Towerson Cory, D.D., Em- 

maimel. 

1798 Humphrey SumnerS, D.D., Provost of 

King'^. 

1799 William Lort Mansel, D.U., Trinity. 

Bishop of Bristol, 1808. 

1800 William Gretton, D.D., Magdalene. 

1801 Joseph Procter, D.D., St Catharine's. 

1802 Humphrey Sumner, again. 

1803 Martin Davy?, M.D., Caius. 

1804 John Torkington, D. D., Clare, again. 
1806 .Joseph Turner, again. 

1806 William Pearce, again. 
180" Francis Barnes, again. 

1808 Edward Pearson, D.D., Sidney. 

1809 Isaac Milner, again. 

1810 Philip Douglas, again. 

1811 Thomas Browne, D.D., Christ's. 

1812 John Davie*, D.D., Sidney. 

1813 (11 Oct.) Robert Towerson Cory, again. 
(4 Nov.) William Chafy, B.D., Sidney. 

1814 George Thackeray, D.D., King's. 

1815 John Kaye, D.D., Christ's. Bishop of 

Bristol, 1820 ; of Lincoln, 1827. 

1816 James Wood, D.D., St John's. 



ELECTED 

1817 William Webb, D.D., Clare. 

1818 Hon. George Neville'-', M.A., Magda- 

lene. 

1819 William Frere, M.A., Downing. 

1820 Christopher Wordsworth^, D.D., 

Trinity. 

1821 William" French, D.D., Jesus. 

1822 Henrv Godfrey, D.D., Queens'. 

1823 John Lamb, JJ.D., Corpus. 

1824 Thomas Le Blanc,LL.D., Irinity Hall. 
1826 Joseph Procter, again. 

1826 Christopher Wordsworth, again. 

1827 Martin Davy, again. 

1828 Gilbert Ainslie, M.A., Pembroke. 

1829 William Chafyii, D.D., Sidney, again. 

1830 George Thackerav, again. 

1831 John Graham, B.b., Christ's. Bishop 

of Chester, 1848. 

1832 William Webb, again. 

1833 Joshua King, M.A., Queens'. 

1834 William French, again. 

1835 George Archdall, D.D., Emmanuel. 

1836 Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., Pembroke, 

again. 

1837 Thomas Worslev, M.A., Downing. 

1838 William Hodgson, D.D., Peterhouse. 

1839 Ralph Tatham, D.D., St John's. 

1840 John Graham, D.D., Christ's, again. 

1841 George Archdall, again. 

1842 William Whewell, B.D., Trinity, 

1843 William Hodgson, again. 

1844 Robert Phelps, D.D., Sidney. 
1345 Ralph Tatham, again. 

1846 Henry Philpott, B.D., St Catharine's. 

liishop of Worcester, 1860. 

1847 Robert Phelps, again. 

1848 Henry AVilkinson Cookson, D.D., 

Peterhouse. 

1849 James Cartmell, D.D., Clirist's. 

1850 George Elwes Corrie, B.D., Jesus. 

1851 Richard Okes, D.D., King's. 

1852 James Pulling, B.D., Corpus. 

1853 Thomas Charles Geldart, LL.D. 

Trinity Hall. 
)^854 Edwin Guest, LL.D., Caius. 

1855 William Whewell, . D.D., Trinity, 

again. 

1856 Henry Philpott, D.D., St Catharine's, 

again. 

1857 The same. 



1 He was about 70 when re-elected, and declined to serve on the Krouiid of ill-healtli, and a Grace was 
brought forward to excuse him on his paying £100 by way of mulct : Cole sjiys that he opiiosed this, and 
adds that it was superfluous, for being over CO he was exempt from any sucli service (Peile's llUtory 
of Chritt's CoUege, p. 'iH). 

2 Sir James Marriott declined office, claiming exemption on the ground that he was a Judge of tlie 
Court of Admiralty Isee Gunning, Ileminisrencefi, i. 125). 

3 'Dr Barnes laid down his office on the 3rd of November, .and the greater part of his speech consisted 
of a violent Philippic against the Bishop of Ely. On the following <iay Dr Pearce was elected: .and.. 
Dr P.'s speech, from beginning to end, was au unqualified eulogium on the sjime prelate, from whom he 
had received the Mastership or Jesus' (Gunning, Ueminvwenccs, i. 119). 

4 See Gunning, ii. 7. 5 See p. 6S, note 14. 

6 In November, 1798, .addresses were voted by the University and the Corporation congriitulating the 
King on the battle of the Nile. ' It unfortunately happened that several of our deput.ation were not par- 
ticularly well calculated to make a good figure in a procession. The Vice-Cliancellor was a m.artyr to the 

fout, and so extremely deaf that he never knew wiiether he was speaking in a high or low lone. Dr 
•ouglas had but one eye and was a perfect skeleton. The Kegistrary (George Borlase) was afflicted with 
black jaundice ; «nd Broderip, of King's, was just recovering from yellow j.aundice. Another of the 
deputation was a cripple, but I cannot just now remember his name ' (Gunning, Re^niniscenceK, ii. 104). 

7 See Gunning, ii. ISB-aO-J. 

8 'The delicate state of his health m.ade him ill fitted for the office; but so anxious w.as he not to 
neglect his duties, tluit his life was sacrificed before the expiration of his Vice-Chancellorship' (Gunning, 
Rertiiniscencen, ii. 285). 

9 Second son of Lord Braybrooke. 10 Brother of William Wordsworth, the poet 

11 'After liis election he invited, according to ancient custom, the members of the Senate to drink wine 
with him. The numbers had for some years been decreasing, but the Vice-Chancellor's win.e bore so high 
a cliaracter that there was a strong nuister on this occasion. Chafy's covetousuess (which in many 
respects was almost inconceivable), did not extend to his entertainments ' (Gunning, JteminUcences, ii. SGi). 



28 



THE HIGH STEWARD 



SLECTBD 

1858 William Heury Bateson, D.D., St 

John's. 

1859 Hon. Latimer Neville, M.A., Magda- 

lene. Lord Braybrooke, 1902. 

1860 The same. 

18t)l George Phillips, U.D., Queens'. 

1862 Edward Atkinson, IXI>., flare. 

1863 Henry Wilkinson Cookson, again. 

1864 The same. 

1865 James Cartmell, agaui. 

1866 Tlie same. 

1867 AVilliam Hepworth Thompson, D.D., 

Trinity. 

1868 Edward Atkinson, again. 

1869 The same. 

1870 John Power, M.A., Pembroke. 

1871 The same. 

1872 Henrv Wilkinson Cookson, again. 

1873 The same. 

1874 Samuel George Phear, I).l)., Emman- 

uel. 

1875 The same. 

1876 Edward Atkinson, again. 

1877 The same. 

1878 John Power, D.D., Pembroke, again. 

1879 Edward Henrv Perowne, D.H., Corpus. 

1880 The same. 

1881 James Porter, D.D., Peterhouse. 

1882 The same. 

18841 >forman McLeod Ferrers, D.D., 

Caius. 
1885 Cliarles Anthonv Swainson, D.D., 

Christ's. 



BLECTED 

1886 Charles Taylor, D.D., St John's. 

1887 The same. 

1888 Cliarles Edward Searle, D.D., Pem- 

broke. 
1889* The same. 

Henry Montagu Butler, D.D., Trinity. 

1890 Tlie same. 

1891 John Peile, LittD., Christ's. 

1892 The san.e. 

1893 ' Augustus Austen Leigh, M. A., King's. 

1894 The same. 

1895 aiarles Smith, M.A., Sidney. 

1896 The same. 

1897 Ale.x Hill, M.D., Downing. 

1898 The same. 

1899 William Chawner, M.A., Emmanuel 

1900 The same. 

1901 [Sir] Adolphus William Ward, LittD., 

Peterhouse. 

1902 Frederick Henrv Chase, D.D., Queens'. 

Bishop of Ely, 1905 

1903 The same. 

1904 Edward Anthony Beck, M.A., Trinity 

Hall. 

1905 The same. 

1906 Ernest Stewart Roberts, M.A., Caius. 

1907 The same. 

1908 Arthur James Mason, D.D., Pem- 

broke. 

1909 The same. 

1910 Robert Forsyth Scott, M.A., St 

John's. 



HIGH STEWARD 

The election of the High Steward is to be made ' in the manner 
prescribed for the election of the Chancellor.' His functions are 
described on p. 64 below. 

ELECTED 

1418 Thomas Lopliani. 

" ? Sir Reginald Bray. High Steward of the University of Oxford, 1494. 
« 1504 Sir Roger Onnston. 

■•1504 Sir John Mordaunt. Speaker of the House of Commons, 1487. 
1504 Sir Richard Empson. Speaker of the House of Commons, 1491. 
1509 Sir Thomas Lovell. Speaker of the House of Commons, 1485. President of 
the Council, 1502. High Steward of the University of Oxford, 1509? 

1524 Sir Richard Winkfield (or Wingfield). 

1525 Sir Thomas More, Canterbury Hall*, Oxford. Speaker of the House of 

Commons, 1523. Lord Olianccllor of England, 1529. 
?1529 William Blount, Baron Mountjov^. 

1634 Thomas Cromwell. Chancellor of the Exchequer, 15,^3. High Steward, 1534. 
King's Secretary, 1534. Master of the Rolls, 1534. Vicar-General, 1535. 
Cliancellor of the University, 1535. Lord Privv Seal, 1536. Baron Cromwell, 
1536. Dean of Wells, 15.37. Earl of Essex, 1540. Executed, 1540. 
1540 Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk?. Lord High Admiral, 1513. Lord High 
Treasurer of England, 1522. Eari .Marshal, 1533. 

1 The dat« of the Vice-Chancellor's entering upon office was changed from November to January, and 
Dr Porter wiis not succeeded by Dr Ferrers until Jan. 10, 1881. This accounts for the missiuK year. 18SS. 

2 Tlie date of the Vice-Clmncellor's entering ujion office was this year chaiiKed from January to October. 
Dr Searle was re-elected and held office from January until October 1888, when Dr Butler succeeded him. 
This explains why there were two Vice-Cliancellors in 1889. 

;i Sir Reginald Bray was appointeil at some uncertain date before 1508. 
4 Both .*5ir Roger Onpston and Sir John Mordaunt died in 1504. 
■5 Canterbury Hall was afterwards merxeil in Christ Church. 

6 Lord >fountjoy was a famous patron of leaminK, who studied in Paris under Erasmus, and brought 
him to England in 1498. For some ye.-irs Erasmus was domiciled in Mountjoy's house, and during the 
whole of his stay in England he was larsely dependent upon his bounty. 

7 The name of his son. Henry, Earl of Surrey, the poet, was joined with his in the patent of appointment. 
Surrey was executed and Norfolk imprisoned in 1547. and from that date until his release in 156:5 the duties 
of his office were discharged by Sir William Paget, afterwards Lord Paget of Beaudesert. In liW the Duke 
resumed office, and held it until his death in the following year. 



THE DEPUTY HIGH STEWARD 29 



ELBCTBD 

1554 William Paget, Baron Paget of Beaudesert, Trinity Hall. King's Secretary, 

1543. Lord Privy Seal, 1566. 
1663 Lord Robert Dudley. Earl of Leicester, 15ti4. Chancellor of the University of 

• Oxford, 1564. 
1588 Sir Christopher llatton, St Mary Hall, Oxford. Lord Chancellor of England, 

1587. Chancellor of the University of Oxfoi-d, 1588. 
1591 Sir Robert Cecil. Q,ueeu's Secretary, 1596. Baron Cecil, 1603 ; Viscount 

Cranborne, 1604; Earl of Salisbury, 1605. Lord High Treasurer of 

England, 1608. 
1601 Thomas Howard, Baron Howard de Walden, St John's. Earl of Suffolk. 1603. 

M.A. 1605. Lord High Treasurer of England, 1614. Chancellor of the 

University, 1614. 
1614 Sir Edward Cokei, M.A., Trinity. University Counsel, 1586. Cliief Justice 

of the King's Bench, 1613. 
1634 Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester, Christ's. Chief Justice of the King's 

Bench, 1616. Lord High Treasurer of England, 1620. 
1642 Thomas Wriotliesley, Earl of Southampton, Magdalen College, Oxford. Lord 

High Treasurer of England, 1660. 
1667 William Craven, Earl of Craven, M.A. 
1697 Cliarles Montagu, Earl of Manchester, M.A., Trinity. Secretary of State, 

1702. Duke of Manchester, 1719. 
1722 Arthur Annesley, Earl of Anglesey, M.A., Magdalene. M.P. for the 

University, 1702, 1705, 1708. 
1737 Thomas Holies Pelliam, Duke of Newcastle, LL.I)., Clare. Secretary of 

State, 1724. Chancellor of the University, 1748. First Lord of the 

Treasury, 1754. Lord Privy Seal, 1765. 
1749 Philip Yorke, Baron llardwicke. University Counsel, 1724. LL.D. 1753. 

Lord Chancellor of EnijJand, 1737. Earl of Hardwicke, 1754. 
1764 Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardvncke, LL.D., Corjius. 
1790 Right Hon. William Pitt, M.A., Pembroke. M.P. for the University, 1784— 

1806. 
1806 Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, M.A., Queens'. 

1834 Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland, LL.D., St John's. Chancellor of the 

University, 1840. 
1840 John Singleton Copley, Baron Lvndhurst, LL.D., Fellow of Trinitv^. M.P. 

for the University. 1826. Lord Chancellor of England, 1827. Cliief Baron 

of the Exchequer, 1831. 
1863 Edward James Herbert, I'jirl of Powis, LL.D., St John's. 

1891 Thomas de tirey. Baron Walsingham, M.A., Trinity. LL.D. 1891. 

DEPUTY HIGH STEWARD 

The Deputy High Steward is appointed by the High Steward 
by Letters Patent; but the appointment is subject to the ap- 
proval of the Senate. 

31806 Thomas Harrison, M.A., Fellow of Queens'. Commissary, 1814. 
1824 John Lodge Hubbersty*, M.D., Fellow of Queens'. Jlecorder of Lancaster. 

1835 The same reappointed. 

1839 John Cowling, M.A., Fellow of St John's. University Counsel, 1841. 

1840 The same reappointed. 

1856 Francis Barlow, M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1863 The same reappointed. 

1887 Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, LL.D., Trinity. Home Secretary, 1852, 
1858-9, 1866. M.P. for the University, 1856-82. 

1892 The same reappointed. 

1899[-1913] [Right Hon.] Alfred Lyttelton. M.A., Trinity. Recorder of Hereford, 
1894. Recorder of Oxford, 1895—1903. Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
1903-5. Privy Councillor, 1903. 

1 See also p. B6, note 5. 2 Second Wrangler. Vi9i. 

a As a stipend of £4 a year is paid to tlie Deputy Hijtli Steward, it would be possible to complete tliis list 
by researcii into tile University accounts, but the result would scarcely repay the iaiiour involved. A list 
in the KeKistry, however, contains tlie following earlier names :— 1549, George Frenyle [Freville?]; 1566, 
E[(lwardfl Stanhope, M.A. ; 160H, Israel Frere. George Freville was Recorder of Cambridge. 1.9K), and a 
Baron of the Exchequer, 15.*KJ— 79. Edward Stanhope may possibly be the elder brother of Sir Edward Stan> 
hope. Fellow of Trinity, 1564, also name<i Edward and educated at Trinity ; he was Recorder of Doncaster. 
Gunning (i. '211| also mentions John Fislier, LL.D., Fellow of Christ's, as ap|X>inted Deputy High 
Steward c. 1790. He was aUo Commissary (see p. 33 t)elow). 

4 ' He was described in the Gutette as '" Fellow of Queens', Master of Arts, Doctor of Medicine, Bar- 
rister-at-Law, Recorder of Lancaster, aCotton Spinner, and a Bankrupt " ' (Gunning, Iteminincettces, i. 'J64). 



30 REPRESENTATIVES IN PARLIAMENT 



REPRESENTATIVES IN PARLIAMENT? 

James L, by his Charter in the first year of his reign, granted 
power to the Chancellors, Masters, and Scholars of 'the two 
Universities, to elect and return two persons in each, to repre- 
sent them in Parliament. Whenever there is a vacancy in the 
representation, the Sheriff sends the precept to the Vice-Chan- 
ceUor, who proceeds to election within six days after receipt of 
it, giving three clear days' notice at least of the day of election. 
At the time of election the two Proctors stand in scrutiny with 
the Vice-Chancellor, who is the returning officer. The members 
of the Senate give their votes in writing in person or by voting 
papers tendered for them. 

PARLIAMENT 

1 1604 Henry Mowtlow, LUD., Fellow of King's. Public Orator, 1589. 
Nicholas Steward (or Styward), LL.U., Trinity and Trinity Hall. 
2161i Sir Francis Bacon3,.M. A., Trinity. University Counsel, 1613. Lord Chancellor of 
England, 1618. Baron Verulam, 1618. Viscount St Albans, 1621. 
Barnabas (loche, LL.D., Master of Magdalene. Commissary, 1615. 
1621 Sir Robert Xaunton, M.A., Fellow of Trinity, and afterward^ of Trinity Hall. 
Public Orator, 1594. Secretary of State, 1618. 
Barnabas Goche, LL.U., again. ^ * 

1624 The same two again. 

1625 Sir Robert Xaunton, again. 

Sir Albertus Morton, M.A., Fellow of King's. Secretary of State, 1625. 

1626 Sir John Coke (or Cooke), .M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Secretary of State, 1625, in 

succession to Morton, deceased. 
Thomas Eden, LL. D., Master of Trinity Hall. • 

1628 The same two again. 
1640 (13 Apr.) Thomas Eden, LL.D., again. 

Henry Lucas*, M.A., St John's. 
1640 (3 Nov.) The same two again. 

(27 Nov. 1645) Nathaniel Bacon* (vice Thomas Eden, deceased). 
«1654 Henry Cromwell'. M.A. 1654. 
* 16-56 Richard Cromwell 8. 

1659 .John Tliurioe^. 

Thomas Slater, M.D., Fellow of Trinity. 

1660 George .Monck (or .Monk). Duke of Albemarle, 7 July 1660. 
Thomas Crouch, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

(22 June 1660) [Sir] William Montagu, Sidney (vice George Monk, elected for 
Devonshire^. Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 1676. 

1661 Sir Richard Fansbawe, Jesus. 
Thomas Crouch, M.A., again. 

(S Mar. 1667) Sir Charles Wheeler, M. A., Fellow of Trinity (vice Sir R. Fanshawe, 
deceased). 
1679 (6 Mar.) Sir Thomas E.xton, LL.D., Master of Trinity Hall. 

„ James Vernon, M.A. (by incorporation from Christ Church, Oxford), 
St John's. Secretary of State, 1698. 
1679 (17 Oct.) Sir Thomas Exton, LL.D., again. 

„ .Sir William Temple'**, Emmanuel. 
1681 Robert Brady, M.D., Master of Caius. Regius Professor of Physic, 1677. 

Sir Thomas Exton, LL.D., again. 
1685 Sir Thomas Exton, LL.D., again. 
Robert Brady, M.D., again. 

1 In the retnrn of members of Parliament contained in the official Blue-book of 1878 these names are 
not «iven, the entry for the year being 'writ only,' but see ViUversity AudU Book, 1515 — 1&59. pp. 197, 
201, 203, and Index to Documeiitt in the Regiftry. iii. ;f61. 

2 The Blue-l)ook substitutes Sir Miles Sandes for Goche, but a copy of the return is among the docu- 
ments in the Registry (vol. 90 (21, p. 1). 

3 See also p. ,% note 9. 4 Founder of the Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics. 

5 Master of Requests during Richard Cromwell's Protectorate. 

6 During the Interregnum the University was allowed one member only. 

7 Son of Oliver Cromwell 

8 Son of Oliver Cromwell ; succeeded him as Lord Protector. 

9 Secretary to Cromwell's Council of State. His correspondence is the chief autliority for tlie history 
of the Protectorate. 

10 The famous diplomatist and author. 



REPKESENTATIVES IN PARLIAMENT 31 

PARLIAMENT 

1689 Sir Robert ISawyeri, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. Speaker of the House of 

Comiuons, ItiZS. 
[SirJ Isaac Newton-, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Lucasian Professor of Matliematics, 
1669. Knighted, 1705. 

1690 Sir Robert Sawyer, M.A., again.' 

Hon. Edward Fniclv', M.A., Fellow of Clirist's. 

(21 Nov. 1692) Hon. Henry Boyle-*, M.A., Trinity (vice Sir Robert Sawyer, 
deceased). Secretary of State, 1708. Baron Carleton, 1714. ■ 
1695 (Jeorge O.venden, LL.O., Master of Trinity Hall. Regius Professor of Civil Law, 
1684. Dean of Arches, 1688. 
Hon. Henry Royle, M.A., again. 
1698 Hon. Henry Boyle, M.A., again. 

Anthony Hammond, M.A., St John's. 
1701 (6 Feb.) The same two again. 

1701 (30 Dec.) Hon. Henry Boyle, M.A., again. 

,, [Sir] Isaac Newton, M. .A., again. 

1702 Hon. Arthur Annesley, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. Afterwards Earl of Anglesev. 

High Stewanl, 1722. 

Hon. Henry Boyle, M.A., again. 
1705 Jlon. Arthur Annesley, M.A., again. 

Hon. Dixie Windsor5,"M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1708 The same two again. 
1710 Hon. Dixie Windsor, M.A., again. 

Thomas I'aske, LL.D., Fellow of Clare. 

(18 July 1712) Hon. Dixie Windsor, M.A., again ; re-elected after accepthig office.. 
1713 Hon, Dixie Windsor, M.A., again. 

Thomas Faske, LL.D., again. 
1715 The same two again. 

(19 Dec. 1720) Hon. Thomas Willougliby, M.A., Jesus {vice Thomas I'aske, 
deceased). 
1722 Hon. Dixie Windsor, M.A., agahi. 

Hon. Thomas Willougliby, M.A., again. 
1727 Hon. Edward Finch, M.A"., Trinity. 

Hon. Thomas Townslieud", M.A., ('hire. 
1734 The same two again. 
1741 The same two again. 

(23 July 1742) Hon. Edward Finch, M.A., again ; re-elected after accepting office. 
1747 Hon. Edward Finch, M.,\., again. 

Hon. Thomas Townshend, M.A., again. 
1764 The same two again. 

(14 June 1757) Hon. Edward Finch, M.A., again ; re-elected after accepting office. 

(14 Jan. 1761) Hon. Edward Finch, M.A., again ; re-elected after accepting office. 
1761 Hon. Edward Finch, M.A., again. 

Hon. Thomas Townshend, M.A., again. 
1768 Hon. Charles Yorke", M.A., Corpus. University Counsel, 1757. Lord Chancellor 
of England, 1770. 

Hon. Thomas Townshend, M.A., again. 

(1 Feb. 1770) William de (Irey, M.A., Trinity Hall (elected vice Yorke). University 
Counsel, 1770. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1771. Baron Walsinghara, 
1780. 

(4 Feb. 1771) Richard Croftes, M.A., St John's (elected vice de Grey). 
1774 John Manners, Marquis of GranbyS, M.A., Trinity. Duke of Rutland, 1779. 

Richard Croftes, M.A., again. 

(10 June 1779) [Sir] James Mansfield, M.A., Fellow of King's {vice the Marquis 
of Graiiby). Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1804. Knighted, 1804. 
1780 Hon. John Townshend '•*, M.A. , St John's. LL.D. ISIL 

[Sir] James Mansfield, M.A., again. 

(3 Apr. 1782) Hon. John Townshend, M.A., agahi ; re-elected after accepting office. 

(11 Apr. 1783) Hon. John Townshend, M. A., again ; re-elected after accepting office. 

(26 Nov. 1783) [Sir] James Mansfield, M.A., again; reelected after accepting office. 
1784 Eight Hon. William Pitt, M.A., Pembroke. High Steward, 1790. 

George Henry Fitzroy, Earl of Euston'", M. A., Trinity. Duke of Grafton, 1811. 
1790 The same two again." 

(18 Dec. 1792) Right Hon. William Pitt, M.A., again; re-elected after accepting 
office. 

1 'Chamber fellow' with Samuel Pepys. Knighted, 1S77; Attorney-General, 1681; senior counsel for the 
Seven Bishops, 2 See p. Si, note 2. 

3 Fifth son of the first Earl of Nottingham. He was a composer, principally of cliurch music. 

4 Third son of Lord Clitt'ord. He was a patron of Addison. 

6 Second son of tlie first Earl of Plymouth. 6 Second son of the second Viscount Townshend. 

' 7 Second son of the first Earl of Hardwicke. 

8 Eldest son of the third Duke of Rutland. 9 Second son of the first Marquis Townshend. 

10 Eldest sou of the third Duke of Grafton, who was Chancellor of the University at the time (1768— 
1811). 



32 



REPRESENTATIVES IN PARLIAMENT 



FABIJAX85T 

(5 Apr. 179-4) Earl of Euston, M.A., again; re-elected after accepting office. 
1796 Right Hon. William Pitt, M.A., again. 

Earl of Euston, M.A., again. 
1802 The same two a^in. 

(17 May ISOi) Right Hon. William Pitt, M.A., again; re-elected after accepting 

office. 
(7 Feb. 1806) Right Hon. Lord Henry Petty, M.A., Trinity {vice the Right 
Hon. William Pitt, M.A., deceased). Marquis of Lansdowne, 1809. LL.D. 
1811. 

1806 Earl of Euston, M.A., again. 

Right Hon. Lord Henry I'ettv, M.A., again. 

1807 Earl of Euston, M.A., again." 

Sir Vicarv Gihbs, M.A., Fellow of King's. Justice of the Common Pleas, 1812; 

Qiief Justice, 1814. 
(27 Mar. 1811) Henry John Temple, Viscount I'almerstoni, M.A., St John's (vice 

the Earl of Euston). 
(9 June 1812) John Henry Smyths, M.A., Trinity {vice Gibbs). 
1812 Viscount Palmerston, M.A., again. 

John Henry Smyth, M.A., again. 
1818 The same two again. 
1820 The same two again. 

(27 Nov. 1822) William John Baukes, M.A., Trinity {vice Smyth deceased). 
1826 Viscount Palmerston, M..\., agaui. 

Sir John Singleton Copley, ALA., Fellow of Trinity. Lord Chancellor of 

England, 1827. Baron' Lvudhurst, 1827. Chief Baron of tlie Exchequer, 

183L LL.D. 1835. High Steward, 1840. 
(16 Dec. 1826) Sir .J. .S. Copley, M.A., again; re-elected after accepting office. 
(11 May 1827) Sir Nicholas Conyugham Tindal, M.A., Fetlow of Trinity (vice 

Copley). Cniversitv Counsel, 1825. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 

1829. 
(18 June 1829) William Cavendish, M. A., Trinity (ivVf Tindal). Eafl of Burlington, 

1834. . LL.D. 1835. Duke of Devonshire, 1858. Cluuicellor of the I'niver- 

sitv, 186L 

1830 Viscount Palmerston, M.A., again. 
William Cavendish, M.A., again. 

(30 Nov. 1830) Viscount Palmerston, M.A., again; re-elected after accepting office. 

1831 Right Hon. Henry Goulburn, M..V., Trinity. Home .Secretary, 1834. 
William Yates Peel>, M.A., St John's. 

1833 Right Hon Henry Goulburn, M.A., again. 

Right Hon. Sir Charles .Mauners-Sutton, LL.D., Trinity. Si)eaker of the House 
of Commons, 1817-35. Viscount Canterbury, 1835. 
1835 Right Hon. sir Charles Mauners-Sutton, LL.D., again. 
Riglit Hon. Henrj- Goulburn, M..\.., again. 

(21 Mar. 1635) Hon. Charles Ewan Law*, M.A., St John's (vice Manners-Suttou). 
LL.D. 1847 
1837 Right Hon. Henry (ioullmru, M.A., again. 

Hon. C. E. Law, .Si. A., again. 
1841 The same two again. 

(15 Sept. 1841) Riglit Hon. Henry Goulburn, M.A., again ; re-elected after accepting 
office. 
1847 Hon. C. E. I^w, M..\.., again. 

Right Hon. Henry Goulburn, M.A., again. 

(4 Oct 1850) Loftiis Tottenham Wigrara, M.A., Trinity (vice Law, deceased). 
1852 Right Hon. Henry Goulburn, M.A., again. 
L. T. Wigram, M.A., again. 

(11 Feb. 1856) Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.A., Trinitv (vice Goulburn 
deceased). Home Secretary, 1852, 185*-9, 1866. LL.D. I860". Deputy High 
Steward of the University, 1887. 
1857 Right Hon. S. H. Walpole, M.A., again. 
L. T. Wigram, M.A., again. 

(4 Mar. 1858) Right lion. S. H. Walpole, M^A., again ; re-elected after accepting 
office. 
1859 Right Hon. S. H. Walpole, M.A.. again. 

[Sir] Charles Jasper Selwyu, M.A., Trinity. Commissary, 1855. LL.D. 1862. 
Knighted, 1867. Lord Justice of Appeal, 1868. 
1865 Right Hon. S. H. Walpole, LL.D., again. 
C. J. Selwj-n, LL.D., again. 

1 Elder son of the second Viscount PHlmerston, in the peerage of Ireland. 

2 Grandson of the third Duke of Grafton, Chancellor of the University, 1768—1811. 

3 Younger brother of Sir Robert Peel, the statesman. 

4 Second son of the first Lord Ellenborough. He is referred to in favourable terms by GunniiDi (Re- 
miHiioencrt, ii. 280—2). 



THE COMMISSARY 33 



PARLIAMENT 

(11 July 1866) Kight Hitii. S. H. Walpolc, LL.D., again; re-elected after accepting 

office. 
(22 July 1867) C. J. Selwyn, LL.D., again; re-elected after accepting office. 
(24 Feb. 1»68) Alexander James IJeresford Beresford-Hope, LL.I)., Trinity {vice 
Selwyn). 
1868 Right Hon. S. 11. Walpole, LL.D., again. 

A. J. B. Beresford-Hope, LL.U., again. 
1874 Tlie same two again. 
1880 The same two again. 

(29 Nov. 1882) Right Hon. Henry Cecil Raikes, M.A., Trinity Ivkf Walpole). 
Postmaster-General, 1886-91. ' 

1886 (12 Jan.) Right Hon. A. J. B. Beresford-Hope, LL.D., again. 

Right Hon. H. C. Raikes, M.A., again. 
1886 (5 Aug.) The same two agiiin. 

(17 Nov. 1887) [.Sir] George Gabriel Stokes, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke (ivVf Beres- 
ford-Hope, deceased). Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, 1849. lion. LL.U. 
and ScU. 1888. Baronet, 1889. Master of Pembroke, 1902. 
(10 Oct. 1891) [Sir] Richard Claverhouse Jebb, Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity {vice 
Raikes, deceased). Public Orator, 1869. Regius Professor of Greek, 1889. 
Knighted, 1900. O.M. 1905. 
1892 [Sir] R. C. Jebb, Litt.D., again. 

Uiglit Hon. Sir John Eldon Gorst, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Solicitor-General, 
1885-6. Under-Secretary for India, 1886-91. Financial Secretary to the 
Treasury, 1891-2. Vice-President of Connnittee of Council on Mucation, 
1895-1902. 
1895 The same two again. 
1900 Sir R. C. Jebb, Litt.U., again. 

Right Hon. Sir J. K. Gorst, M.A., again. 
1906 Samuel Henry Butcher, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Professor of Greek in the 
University of Minburgb, 1882-1903. Died 29 Dec. 1910. 
John Frederick Peel Rawlinson, LL.M., Trinity. Recorder of Cambridge, 1898. 
Commissary, 1900. 
1910 The same two again. 

COMMISSARY 

The Commissary is appointed by the Chancellor by Letters 
Patent. His functions are indicated under 'University Courts' 
(pp. 63—9 below). 

1501 ?.Jackson, LL.D. 

1578 Thomas Itliell, LL.D., Master of Jesus. 

1579 Thomas Legge, LL.D., Master of Caius. Begins Professor of Civil Law, c. 1570. 
1605 Otwell Hilli, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

16i0 Robert Xewconie, LL.D., Clare. 

1615 Biirnabas Goche, LL.D., Master of Magdalene. M.P. for the University, 1614. 

1626 John Smithson, M.A., Fellow of King's. LL.D. 1630. Die<i 16.35. 

i«9>) (Robert King, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. Master of Trinity Hall, 1645^. 

^''**'*tCliarles Kden, M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 

1656 Robert Twells, LL.B., Fellow of Trinity Hall. LL.D. 1671. 

1696 William Pasliley, M.A., Fellow of Jesus. 

1717 William Bramston, LL.D., Queens'. 

1726 William Greaves, M.A., Fellow of Clare. 

1779 Andrew Pemberton, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1789 Jeremiah Pemberton, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1790 John Fisher, LL.D., Fellow of Christ's. Deputy High Steward, c. 1790. 
1814 Thomas Harrison, M. A., Fellow of Queens'. Deputy High Steward, 1806. 
1824 'Sir] Jonathan Frederick Pollock, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Knighted, 1834. 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 1844. Baronet, 1866. 
1835 John Hildvard, M.A., St John's. 
1865 [Sir] Charles .Jasper Selwyn, M.A., Trinity. LL.D. 1862. M.P. for the 

University, 1859. Knighted, 1867. Lord Justice of Appeal, 1868. 
1868 William Forsyth, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1893 The same re-appointed. 
1900 John Frederick Peel Rawlinson, LL.M., Trinity. Recorder of Cambridge, 

1898. M.P. for the University, 1906. 

1 He held office jointly with Dr Legge. 

2 Robert King was first elected Master in 1646, but he was ejected the same year and not restored until 

leeo. 

H. R. 3 



u 



THE PROCTORS 



PROCTORS 

' Proctors ' or ' rectors ' are first mentioned in a Grace dated 
July 8, 1275^, and their names are on record, with a few lacunae, 
from 1314 to the present time. 

In earlier times it was their duty to regulate the hours of 
disputing and lecturing, of burial services, inceptions, and 
festivals, and to act for the University in all kinds of business. 
They destroyed bad herrings exposed for sale, bought vestments, 
bell-ropes, and candlesticks, and had charge of the University 
Chest. They also patrolled the streets to repress disturbances, 
and exercised jurisdiction over improper persons^. The decline 
of the office from its earUer position of great importance is 
referred to on p. 4 above; but by the Cambridge Award Act 
of 1856 the exemption of the Proctors and their men from the 
summary jurisdiction of the Justices of the Peace is expressly 
recognised, and the Cambridge University and Corporation Act 
of 1894 gives them the powers of constables and authorises them 
to enter Ucensed premises and places of pubUc entertainment. 

The insignia of the proctorial office are, for the Senior Proctor 
a lintstock and a small partizan, and for the Junior Proctor 
a halberd. The halberd is a ceremonial weapon only, but it may 
be as early as late 16th century, and may perhaps be identified 
with the halberd presented to the University in 1591 by John 
Townsend, a member of Trinity. The Untstock probably belongs 
to the 18th century. Associated with these is an instrument 
commonly called a ' butter measure ' and supposed to be used for 
'regulating the yard of butter ' ; it is also said to be an apparatus 
for measuring Uquids in casks ^. The weapons and the measure are 
brought to the Senate House when the incoming Vice-ChanceUor 
is to be installed by the Proctors at the beginning of the 
academical year. The Proctors also carry clasped books, dating 
from 1785, which contain the earlier University Statutes. 

The nomination of the Proctors is vested in the Colleges. In 
every year two Colleges nominate persons for Proctors in the 
order prescribed in the following cycle of 50 years. The earliest 
proctorial cycle was established by a statute of August 11, 1514. 



1911 Chr. 


1917 


King's 


1923 Mai<d. 


1929 


Wa. 


Corp. 




Emm. 


Joli. 




Cath. 


1912 Pemb. 


1918 


Triu. 


1924 King's 


1930 


Corp. 


Cla. 




Pet. 


Je*. 




Qu. 


1913 Mag(l. 


1919 


J oh. 


1925 .Cai 


1931 


King's 


Trin. 




Cath. 


Sid. 




Trin. 


1914 Jes. 


1920 


Pemb. 


1926 Pet. 


1932 


Trin.H 


Job. 




Chr. 


Rmm. 




Joli. 


1915 Qu. 


1921 


aa. 


1927 Trin. 


1933 


Magd. 


TrinJl. 




Corp. 


Pemb. 




Down. 


1916 Cai. 


1922 


Qu. 


1928 Joh. 


1934 


Pet. 


Sid. 




Trill. 


Chr. 




Cai. 


1 See Old Statute 5 


" ; cf. also Statute 4, Corny 


nittutnert fioeummtg, i 


sm and iisL 



2 Grace Book A, pp. xvili, xxxir. 

S Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Rffiortt and Communicatiom, xl. 22) and US. 



THE PROCTORS 



35 



Pemb. 


1942 


Pet. 


1949 


•Cai. 


1956 


Qu. 


Jes. 




Cai. 




Trin.H. 




Sid. 


Trin. 


1943 


Pemb. 


1950 


Corp. 


1957 


Cai. 


Clir. 




Magd. 




Trin. 




Emm. 


Joh. 


1944 


Jes. 


1951 


Joh. 


1958 


Down. 


Sid. 




Clir. 




Pet. 




Cath. 


King's 


1945 


Trin. 


1952 


Pemb. 


1959 


Trin. 


Emm. 




King's 




Chr. 




Pet 


C'la. 


1946 


Joh. 


1953 


King's 


1960 


Joh. 


Cath. 




Sid. 




Magd. 




King's 


Qu. 


1947 


Ola. 


1954 


Jes. 






Trin. 




Emm. 




Trin. 






Corp. 


1948 


Qu. 


1955 


Cla. 






Joh. 




Cath. 




Joli. 







Each of the two Colleges nominates one person, who must be 
a member of the Senate of at least three years' standing, and 
must have resided in the University for the major part of each 
of three terms during the preceding two years. He must be 
presented to the Vice-Chancellor, in the presence of the Registrary , 
by the Head of his College, or by some one in his name, before 
the end of the Easter Term. 

If the office becomes vacant before the expiration of the year, 
Trinity Hall nominates a Proctor for the remainder. 

The Proctors are elected by the Senate on the first day of the 
Michaelmas Term. The Regulations governing the election will 
be found in the current issue of the University Calendar. The 
stipend of each office is at present (1915), £250. The Proctor's 
men each receive £25 a year and a livery (see p. 197) provided 
by the University. 



ELECTED 

11314-15 Hugh de Leveryngton and . 

?1325 Hobert de Claydon and •. 

13.S0-31 Joliii de Sliipeden. 
Thomas de Kuclvnam. 
1335-6 Nicholas de Hanewortli and . 

1362 Thomas de Byngliam^'. 
Jolin de Kent. 

1363 John de Kent. 
Nicholas de Hotlesham. 

?1365 John Chaterys^ and . 

1366-7 Ralph Pvemur and . , 

1373-4 Robert de Thurkylby and . 

1386-7 Richard Maycenard and . 

1388-9 John Wace. 

Richai'd Barton, Micliaelliouse. 
1391-2 Thomas Hadlev, Clare. 

Peter Shelton, Trinity Hall. 

1394-5 Thomas Hougham and ■■ . 

1396 William WymbelH, Clare, and . 

1397-8 William Allen, Fellow of Clare. 

•John HolbrokeS, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1399-1400 Robert Wales and . 

1417-18 Thomas Thurkill. 

Thomas Markaunt, Fellow of Corpus. 
1428-9 William Wolpett. 

John Botwrights, Fellow of Corpus. 



ELECTED 

1430 Ralph Duckworth. 
[ John Hvlle, Fellow of Gouville Hall. 

! 1431-2 \\illian-i Gull?, Clare. 
I Hush DamlcttS, Pembroke. 

! 1433 Nicholas Close, Fellow of King's. 
I John Forshede. 

i 1434-5 Nicholas Close. 
1 William Raddvke. 

? 1435-6 John Hollande. 
! Richard Croft. 

1441 William Hatteclyffe, Fellow of King's. 
I Thomas Stovle, Fellow of Clare. 

! 1442 Thomas Rreton. 
I Richard Barker. 

I 1443 Thomas .Stoyle, Fellow of Clare. 
i Roger M.trschall. 

1 1444-5 Tliomas Stoyle, Fellow of Clare. 
I .John Penswall, Fellow of Corpus. 

1446 William Bingham" and . 

I 1447 John Penswall, Fellow of Corpus. 

Edward Story, Fellow of Pembroke. 
^ 1448 William Towne. 

William Wadnow (Whatnoo). 

1449 John Thwaytes. 
John Smith. 

1450 John Shyrwood. 

Geoffrey' Fercloth, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 



1 The names from 1S14 to 14'>4 are in the list jdven in Gracf-Book T, pp. xli— xiv, and xxxviii. 

2 Master of Pembroke, 1384. 3 Master of Clare, 1392. 

4 Master of Clare, 1421. 5 Master of Peterhouse. c. 1418. 

(i Master of Corpus. 1443. 7 Master of Clare, c. 1440. 

8 Master of Pembroke, 1447. 9 Master of God's House. 

3—2 



36 



THE PROCTORS 



KLKCTKD 

1451 Robert Baker, Fellow of Corpus. 
John Thornor. 

1452 William Uttyng. 
Thomas Asty. 

1453 John Flemynge, Felow of Pembroke. 
Edmund Hampden. 

1454 Henry Boleyn. 

John Gunthorpei, Jesus? 

1455 Henry Boleyn. 
John Bolton. 

•146ti Robert Hawburgh. 

Gerard Skipwith, Fellow of Pembroke. 
1467 William Duntliom-, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 
Richard Warburton. 

1458 Robert Stewkyn, Fellow of Pembroke. 
John Yottyu," Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1459 Richard Morgan. 

Oliver Kvug^*, Fellow of King's. 

1460 William Skyby. 

William Skeltbu, Fellow of King's. 

1461 John Bamby. 
William Greybani. 

1462 Thomas Laiigton*, Fellow of Clare; 

and of Pembroke. 
John Gray. 

1463 John I.yndosey. 
William Rucshawe. 

1464 John Breton, Fellow of Pembroke. 
Giles Dent 

1465 William Wych, Fellow of King's. 
William Laugton, Fellowof Pembroke. 

1466 William Langton, Fellowof Pembroke. 
Christopher Loftliouse, Fellow of Clare. 

1467 John Day. Fellow of King's. 
William Wood. 

1468 Thomas Wright, Fellow of Pembroke. 
Thomas I.axton. 

1469 Thomas Cosyn*, Fellow of Corpus. 
.\mbrose Repvngton. . 

1470 Thomas Taylard. 

Thom:is Maudeslev, Fellow of Queens'. 

1471 John Wells, Fellow .>f King's. 
Edmuud Hanson. 

1472 John -•Vrgeutine*', Fellow of King's. 
John Ottley?. 

1473 Ralph Songer*, Fellow of (iueens'. 
Richard Cokerliam*, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1474 John Trotter^, Queens'. 
Richard Smyth ">. 

1475 Thomas Bowd. 
.John Ratford. 

1476 Richard Frere. 

RolMjrt Wodroffe, Fellow of King's. 

1477 Thomjis Swayn. 
Gerard Boreil. 

1478 WilliamStokdall.Fellow of Peterhouse. 
John Leycrofte, Fellow of King's. 



BLKCTKD 

1479 Robert Welby. 
Robert Cutler. 

1480 William Thomson^, Fellowof .Michael- 

house. 
Roger Bowre, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1481 Philip Morgan n. Fellow of King's. 
Thomas Hole, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1482 John Gree, Fellow of Queens'. 
Hamund Grave. 

1483 John Smyth. 

Robert Hacumblen (or Hacomblen) ''■-, 
Fellow of King's. 

1484 John Butler, Fellow of Queens'. 
( William Gedge. 

J Gilbert Urmeston, Fellow of Pem- 
( broke. 

1485 William Fitzjohn, Fellow of Queens'. 
Henry Babington, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1486 Thomas Water. 

William Byrley, Fellow of King's. 

1487 Richard Wall. 
John Basset. 

1488 Thomas Metcalf. 

Roger Labron (L«y bourne) i''. Fellow 
of Pembroke. • 

1489 Walter Redman, Fellow of St Cath- 

arine's. 
Edmund Daw. 

1490 Richard Burton". 
John Wolf. 

1491 John Siding '5, Fellow of God's House. 
John Wall. 

1492 John Lownd, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
Richard Hoodlestou (Huddlestone). 

1493 Richard Brampton, Fellow of Pem- 

broke, 
.lolin Robvnson. 

1494 John Fycher ( Fisher) >«, Michael- 

house. 
Thomas Cooke. 

1495 James Denton '7, Fellow of Kmg's. 
Thomas Goguey. 

1496 Williair Miluef, Fellowof Pembroke. 
William Tavtt. 

1497 Richard Wyatt (or Wyott)i8. 

John Whvte, Fellow of Gonville Hall. 

1498 Richard llutton. Fellow of Queens'. 
Bryan Kyddall. 

1499 William Wylton, Fellow of King's. 
Robert Becanshaw (Birkenshaw)i9| 

Michaclhouse. 

1500 John Siclingso, Fellow of God's 

House. 
Thomas Pateuson, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1501 Richard Balderston^, Fellow of St 

Catharine's. 
Richard Wyatt (or Wyott)**. 



1 Warden of Kinc's Hall, 146S. Dean of Wells. 1472. 2 Town Clerk of the City of London, 1481. 

3 Bishop of Exeter. 1493 : of Bath and Wells, 149S. 

4 Bishop of St Davids, 14S1; of Salisbury, 1485; of Winchester. 1493. President of Queen's College, 
Oxford, 1487—95. Elected .4rchbisliop of Canterbury. l.Wl, but died of the pl.'«ue before confirmation. 

. 5 Master of Corpus, 1487. 6 Provost of King's, 1501. 7 Chaplain of the University, c. 147a 

8 Compilers of a C^taloKiie of the Library. 9 Benefactor of the University. 

10 Master of Miuhaelhouse, 1477. 11 Esquire Bedell, c. 1490. 

12 Provost of KiUKs. 1509. IS Master of Pembroke, 1505. 

14 Archdeacon of Worcester, 1479. 15 Also Fellow of Corpus ; Brst Master of Christ's, 1506. 

16 Master of .Mioh.ielhouse, 1497. Bishop of Rochester, 1501. President of Queens'. 160S. Cardinal, 
1K15. Executed as a traitor, 1533, for refusing to acknowledge the Royal Supremacy. 

17 Dean of Lichfield, 1.K2. 18 Master of Christ's, 1.507. 
19 President of Queens', 1606 : Chaplain to Queen Catherine of Aragon. 

30 See 1491. 21 Master of St Catharine's, 1506. 22 See 1497. 



THE PROCTORS 



37 



BLBLTED 

1802 Thomas Edinian ', Fellow of Corpus. 
John Huchun. 

1503 John Jenyn^, Fellow of Queens'. 
William Woderoffe^, Fellow of Clare. 

1504 Uobert Cutler. 
John Watson*, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1505 William Lambert, Fellow of Pem- 

broke. 
Edmund Page, Fellow of King's. 

1506 Edmund Natures (or Natares)*, 

Fellow of Catharine Hall. 
Thomas Swayn, Fellow of Gonville 
Hall. 

1507 John Philippe', Fellow of Queens'. 
Kichard Pycarde, Fellow of Christ's. 

1508 James Nycolson. 
Miles Becardyck, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1509 William Capon 7, Fellow of Catharine 

Hall. 
William Brygghows. 

1510 John Samson, Fellow of King's. 
John Scott, Fellow of Christ's. 

1511 George Thomson, Fellow of Pem- 

broke. 
Cliristopher Dukket. 

1512 Richard Staynbank, Fellow of Queens'. 
William Chaundcler, Fellow of Clare. 

1513 Roger Colyngwod (or Collingwood), 

Fellow o? Queens'. 
Richard Mastyr', Fellow of King's. 

1514 Richard Norres. 
Thomas Martyne, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1515 .John Cu :t vug, Fellow of Corpus. 
Thomas ftoodryke (or Goodrich)*, 

Fellow of Jesus. 

1516 Roland Bolron, Fellow of Pembroke. 
Reginald Baynbryg (or Bainbrigg)!", 

Fellow of St Catharine's. 

1517 John Copynger, Fellow of Christ's. 
Gilbert Latham, Fellow of St John's. 

1518 John Cokkes, Fellow of King's. 
Roger Ashe, Fellow of St John's. 

111519 William Smyth. Fellow of Clare. 
John Cheswryghtt, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1520 .John Uenne (Denney). 
William Medow, Fellow of Gonville 

Hall. 

1521 Richard Franke, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
John Craftorth i-. Fellow of Queens'. 

I Brother of John Ediniaii, Master of Corpus, 1.515. 
» Master of Clare, 1.506. 
5 Master of Clare, 1514. 

9 Bishop of Ely, 15M. Lord Chancellor of England, 16B2. " 10 Master of St Catharine's', 1629, 

II 1.519--- 20. ' Hoc anno procurator Junior homo statura procerus et vultu decerns intra quindenam a 
tempore suo eleccionis hac vita defunctus est cujus anime proficietur deus ' ^Grace-Book B II, p. 76), Tliis 
year the Junior Proctor was chosen by King's College. 

12 Master of Clare. 1.530. 

13 During his Proctorship he was indicted for homicide *ex pura malieia oppidanorum' (Grace- 
Book B II p. 113), 

14 Provost of Eton, 1536. Bishop of C.irlisle, 1S37. An entry in the Proctor's Book for 1527, 'Magistro 
Aldryg pro tribus literis missis ad donilnum regera, 10«.' {Grace-Book B ii, p. 136) has Iwen regarded as 
evidence of his special skill in composition. '■'> Master of Clare, 1539. 

Ifi Master of St John's, 1.538. Dean of Lincoln, 1544; Bishop of Lincoln, 16.52. 

17 Master of Pembroke, 1.540. Bishop of Rochester, 1547; of London, 1550; burned as a lieretic at Oxfortl 
16 Oct. 1.55S. See also p. 51, note 4. 

18 Master of St John's Hospital, Ely, 1547 ; Master of Christ's, 1,548. 

19 Master of Clare, 1519. 20 Master of Peterhouse, 1544. 21 Dean of Bristol, 1554. 

22 Chaplain of the University, c. 1540 ; Archdeacon of Chichester, 1595. He was a well-known Roman 
Catholic controversialist, 
93 Master of St Catharine's, 1547. Bishop of Worcester, 1568 ; of London, 1570 ; Archbishop of York, 1576. 



BLECTED 

1522 Nicholas Rowley, Queens'. 

George Stawert (Stafford), Fellow ot 
Pembroke. 

1523 Robert Dent, Fellow of Christ's. 
John Brygandenis, Fellow of St 

.John's. 

1524 Robert Aldryge (or Aldrich)", King's. 
Anthony Maxwell, Fellow of Queens'. 

1525 ,l<klmund Stretehay. 
William Bvgge. 

1526 William Duplake, Fellow of Corpus. 
Thomas Harwode, Fellow of Clare. 

1527 Ninian Shafto, Fellow of St John's. 
James Huttun, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1528 Thomas Smyth, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
John Brewer, I"'eHow of St John's. 

1529 Roland Swynbum'*, Fellow of Clare. 
John Blytli, Fellow of King's. 

1530 John Lyndesey. 

Thomas Wvllson, Fellow of Christ's. 

1531 Thomas IJlith, Fellow of Khig-s 

Hall. 
Robert Maisterman, l->llow of St 

1832 William Cake, Fellow of Gonville 
Hall. 
John Tayler (or Taylor)i6, Fellow of 
Queens'. 

1533 Nicholas Ridley 17, Fellow of Pem- 

broke. 
Richard Wilkesi', Fellow of Queens'. 

1534 Henry Malett, Fellow of Michael- 

house. 
John Madew 19, Fellow of St John's. 

1535 Ralph Ayncsworth 20, Fellow of Peter- 

house. 
William Saunders, Fellow of Queens'. 

1536 Henry Jolyffe-'. Clare and Michael- 

house. 
Robert Stokes, Fellow of Queens'. 

1537 Richard Staudish. 

Thomas Cob, Fellow of Corpus. 

1538 Godfrey Gilpin, I'^ellow of Christ's. 
Henry Sanderson, St John's ? 

1539 Oliver Ainsworth, Fellow of .Jesus. 
Albau Langdale2i, Fellow of St John's. 

1540 Thomas Pulley, Fellow of Claie. 
Edmund Humfray. Fellow of Queens'. 

1841 Henry Bissell, Fellow of King's, 

Thomas West. 
1542 Simon Brigges, Fellow of Pembroke. 

lidwiu Sandys**, St John's. 

2 Presidentof Queens', 1519. 

4 Master of Christ's, 1617. 

6 University Scril)e. 

8 Hanged at Tyburn for treason, 21 April 1534. 



38 



THE PROCTORS 



SLBCTED ! 

1543 Henry Cumberforth, Fellow of St 

John's. 

William Wacklvn. i 

1644 John Rayner, St Clement's Hostel. I 

Gregory Barker, Fellow of Christ's. ! 

1545 Edmund Cosvni, Fellow of King's i 

Hall. ' ; 

Simou Bagott, Gonville Hall. | 

1646 William Barker, Fellow of Gonville 

Hall. 
Andrew Perne-, Fellow of Queens'. 

1647 Thomas Buruian, Fellow of King's. 
Christopher Karlvll, Fellnw of Clare. 

1648 Edmund (iremUll (Grindal)», Fellow 

of Pembroke. 
Edward (ia.squoyne *, Fellow of Jesus. 

1649 George Bullock*, Fellow of St Jolin's. 
Pliilip Baker*, Fellow of King's. 

1650 Andrew Pearson, Fellow of Corpus. 
John Ebden, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1551 Halpli Standysshe, Fellow of Trinity. 

William C«nve7, St John's. 
1652 Eflward Hawford", Fellow of Clirist's. 
Thomas Yale, P'ellow of Queens' (de- 
clined office). 
Nicholas Robinson', Fellow of 
Queens'. 
1553 Thomas Gardiner, Fellow of King's. 
Henry Barley [Berkeley], [Fellow of 
Trinity]. 
1664 Tliomas" Bayly 10, Fellow of Oare. 

Gregory Gartli, Fellow of Pembroke. 
1666 George Boyes. 

John Gwyn, Fellow of St John's. 
1656 Nicholas Robinson', Fellow of 
Queens'. 
Hugh Glyn, Fellow of St Catharine's. 
"1557 William Golding, Fellow of Trinity 
Hall. 
William Dave'i', Fellow of King's. 

1558 Richard Smith, Fellow of Trinity. 
John Bell is. Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1559 Bartholomew DtKlington i*. Fellow of 
■ St .John's. 
George Fuller, Fellow of Clirist's. 

1660 Anthony Girlington, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 
John Cowell, Fellow of Clare. 



ELECTED 

1561 William Masters, Fellow of King's. 
George Blithe, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1662 Andrew Oxenbridge, Fellow of Trinity. 
John Igulden, Fellow of Queens*. 

1663 Richard Curteysi*, Fellow of St John's. 
Henry Worleye, Fellow of .Jesus. 

1664 Thomas Byngeis, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

Jlartholomew Clarke, Fellow of King's. 
i"1566 Tliomas Byngei% Fellow of Peter- 
house. 
Thomas Preston i*. Fellow of King's. 

1566 Nicholas Sheppard", Fellow of 
Trinity. 

Edward Deryng, Fellow of Christ's. 

1567 Cliristopher Lynlaye, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

John Dawbney, Fellow of .St .John's. 

1568 John Welles, Fellow of King's. > 
William Lewin^, Fellow of Christ's. ) 
I-Vlmund Rockrey, Fellow of Queens'. 

1669 Thomas .\ldryche2i. Fellow of Trinity. 
Reuben Sherwood, Fellow i>f King's. 

1670 William Bvngham, Fellow of Trinity. 
Hugh Byll'et*!, Fellow of Jesus. 

1571 John Becon (or Beacon), Fellow of St 
John's. 

Arthur Purefye^s, Christ's. 

1572 Walter Alen, Fellow of Clirist's. 
John Tracye, Fellow of Caius. 

1573 Richard Bridgewater, Fellow of King's. 
Lancelot Browne**, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1574 .John Craj^e, Fellow of Queens'. 
Luke Gilpin, Fellow of Trinity. 

1676 Thomas llandall, Fellow of St John's. 
David Yale, Fellow of Queens'. 

1576 Arthur Purefye, Fellow of Peterhouse^ 
Thomas Patti'nson, Fellow of Christ's. 

1577 Osmond Lakes, Fellow of King's. 
Nicholas Steer, Clare. 

1578 William I'arrand, Fellow of Trinity. 
Richard Willowbye, Fellow of Corpus. 

1579 William Lakyn, Fellow of St John's. 
John Bra<llev25, Peterhouse. 

1680 Thomas Nevile (or Nevell)2«, Fellow 
of Pembroke. 

John Duporfi^^ Fellow of Jesus. 
1581 John Jegon28, Fellow of Queens'. 

Robert Liless, Fellow of King's. 

I Muter of St Catharine's, 1.5M. 2 Master of Peterhouse. 1.554. Dean of Ely, 1557. 

3 Master of Pembroke, 1.^8. Bishop of Loiiiloii. 1556 : Archbishop of Canterbury, 1576. 

4 Master of Jesus, ISfti. 5 Master of St John's. 1554. 
6 Provost of King's, 1.55a 7 Fellow of Christ's, 1552. 

8 Master of Christ's. 1659. 9 Cishop of Bangor, 1566. 10 Master of Clare, 1-5.57. 

II In 1557 a new cycle of Proctors beeins, with the Hostels omitted and Trinity added. - 
12 Provost of Eton, 1.561. Dean of Windsor, 1.57-2 ; Bishop of Winchester, ISM. * 
la Master of Jesus. 157!l. Dean of Ely. ).589. 14 Fellow of Trinity, 1560. 

15 Iiean of Chichester, 1:66 : Bishop of Chichester, 1570. 

16 Master of Clare, 1571. Dean of Arches, 1.596. 

17 The recurrence of nominations by Peterhouse and King's in two successive years appears to he due to 
the fact that in the disturbed first vear of Queen Elizabeth the cycle w.is upset by the failure of the small 
Colleges, Gonville Hall and St Catharine's Hall, to nominate when their turn came. 

18 Master of Trinity Hall, 15*4. 

19 Vice-MasterofTrinity, 15»>4: Master of St John's, 1569. 

aO Judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1S76. He was nominated by Trinity Hall to succeed 
John Welles, resigned tOrace-Book ^, p. 230). 
21 Master of Corpus. 1.569. 22 Bishop of Bangor, 1588 ; of Chester 1.5M. 

23 Afterwards Fellow of Peterho»ise Isee 1-576'. 

24 Physician to Queen Elizabeth and James I. 

25 It was the turn of Magdalene to nominate— its only turn in 44 vears. 

'JS Master of Magdalene, 1582 ; Master of Triuity, 1393. Dean of Peterborough, 1590 ; of Caiiterbur;, 
1S97. 
27 Master of Jesus. 1.590. One of the translators of the Bible. 
. 2S Master of Corpus, 1.590. Dean of Norwich, 1601 ; Bishop of Norwich, 160S- 



THE PROCTORS 



30 



ELKCTBD 

1582 Anthony Winjtfield (or Wyngefylld) l, 

Fellow of Trinity. 
Leonard Chambers, Fellow of Trinity. ) 
Gabriel Harvev % Fellow of Trinity [ 

Hall. ■ ) 

1583 Henry Hickman, Fellow of St John's 
Henry Hawkyns, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1581 William Hawes, Clare. 

Thomas Braddocke, Fellow of Clirist's. 
1686 Hophonius Smitli, Fellow of Corpus. 

.Joim (Lowell s. Fellow of King's. 

1586 Anthony Wiugtield (or .Wyngefylld)', 

Fellow of Trinity. 
Henry Farre, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1587 John Palmer*, Fellow of St John's. 
John Smyth, Fellow of Jesus. 

1588 Robert Cansfyld, Fellow of St Catha- 

rine's. 
Miles Sandes, Fellow of Queens'. 

1589 Henry Mowtlow, Fellow of King's. 
Richard Betts, Fellow of Peterliouse. 

1590 John Sledd, Fellow of Trinity. 
Cuthbert Baynbridge, Fellow of 

Christ's. 

1591 Gisbriglit Jacob, Fellow of Clare. 
Otwell Hill, Fellow of St John's. 

1592 Thomas Grymstone, Fellow of Caius. 
Samuel Hiirsnett*, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1593 Henry Mowtlow, Fellow of King's. 
Thomas .JegonS, Queens'. ! 

1594 Gregory Mylner, Fellow of Trinity. I 
George Meriton', Fellow of Queens'. , 

1695 Lionel Duckett, Fellow of Jesus. \ 

Thomas Cooke, Fellow of St John's. I 

1596 Ezechiel Hilliard, Fellow of Peter- ' 

house. 1 

William Bolton s, Fellow of Christ's. I 

1597 William Moone, Fellow of St Catha- \ 

rine's. . i 

Richard Sutton, Fellow of King's. ' 

1598 Nathaniel Cole, Fellow of Trinity. 
William Riche, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1599 John Boys, Fellow of Clare. 1 
Italph Woodcocke, Fellow of St 

John's. 



ELECTED 

1600 John Go3tlyn9, Fellow of Caius. ' ■ 
George Mountaine (or Montaigne) i". 

Fellow of Queens'. 

1601 Robert Nauntonil, Fellow of Trinity 

Hall. 
Thomas Morrisson, Fellow of King's. 

1602 Richard Trymme, Fellow of Peter- 

house. 
John F"urtho, Fellow of Trinity. 

1603 Nathaniel Wyborne, Fellow of 

St John's. 
Edward Harwell, Fellow of Christ's. 

1604 Nathaniel Gilford, Fellow of Pem- 

broke. 
Edward -Manestie, Clare. 

1605 Miles Raven, Fellow of King's. 
Edward Gente, Fellow of Corpus. 

16C6 William Barton, Fellow of Trinity. 
Simon Tindall, Fellow of Queens'. 

1607 George Dering, Fellow of .Jesus. 
Thomas Cecill, Fellow of St John's. 

1608 Richard Bridges, Fellaw of St Catha- 

rine's. 
Anthony Disborow, Fellow of Caius. 

1609 Abraham Biddell, Fellow of King's. 
Leonard Mawe''^, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1610 John Aunger, Fellow of Trinity. 
William Addison, Fellow of Christ's. 

1611 Thomas Muriellj Fellow of Pembroke. 
John Williams !•*, Fellow of St John's. 

1612 Richard Tomson (or Thomson)",) 

Fellow of Clare. y 

Henry Birde, Fellow of Trinity Hall.' 
Stephen Haggett, Fellow of Queens'. 

1613 Arthur Johnson, Fellow of King's. 
Richard Anguish, Fellow of Corpus. 

16U Thomas Kitchin, Fellow of Trinity. 
John Dodd (or l)od)i5, Fellow of 
Jesus. 

1615 Andrew Perne, Fellow of Peter- 

house. 
Thomas Smyth, Fellow of St John's. 

1616 John Brown, F'ellow of Caius. 
(ieorge Ramsey, Fellow of Christ's. 

1617 .John Smithson, Fellow of King's. 
Alexander Rea<l, Fellow of Pembroke. 



I Reader in Greek to Queen Elizabeth. 

•2 A friend of Spenser's, wlio introduces him into the Shepheard's Calender ,ts Hobljinol. 

3 Master of Trinity Hall, 1583. See p. ai. note ». 

4 Master of Mi^;dalene. 15S)5. Desiii of Peterborough, 1597. 

5 Master of I'enibroke, l(i05. Bisliop of Chichester, 1W9 ; of Norwich, 1619 ; Archbishop of York, 
1629. 

6 Brother of Jolni JeKon, the then Master of Cor|>us, whose turn it was to nominate. He afterwards 
became a Fellow of Corpus and succeeiled as Master in IBOS. 

7 Dean of PeterborouKh, ltil2; of York, 1617. 

8 An account of an altercation between Mr Bolton and tlie Mayor is given in Cooper, A iinnls. ii. 576. 

9 Master of Caius, 1619. 

10 Dean of Westminster, 1610 ; Bishop of Lincoln, 1617 ; of London, 1621 ; of Durham, 1627 ; Archbishop 
of York, 1628. He is said to liave obtained tlie Archbisliopric of York, by saying to the King, when lie was 
discussing the vacant see in Ids presence : ' Hadst thou faitli as a grain of mustard seed, thou wouldst 
say unto thi/s mountain be removed into fknt see.' 

II Knighted, 1614. Master of Requests, 1616 ; Secretory of Stote, 1618. Author of Fragnwnta Kegalia. 

12 Master of Peterhouse, 1617 : ot Trinity, Iffli. Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1623. 

13 Dean of Salisbury, 1619 -, of Westminster, 1620. Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1621. Bishop of Lincoln, 
1621 ; ArchbisUop of Vork, 1641. He gave a large benefaction to St John's College for building the present 
Library. 

14 Probably the biblical scholar known as ' Dutch Thomson ' from his having been born In Holland. He 
was one of the translators of the Bible, and 'a most admirable philologer. He died in January, 1613; 
this would account for tlie vacancy in the office of Proctor, tilled, :is was customarv, on the nomination of 
Trinity Hall. , 

16 M.A. 1606; possibly a son of the well-known Puritan divine, John Dod, M.A. 1.579, also a Fellow of 
Jesus, the reputed author of the famous 'Sermon on Malt.' It has been suggested that the Proctor of 16i4 
was Dod himself. 



40 



THE PROCTORS 



SLBCTED 

1618 Henry Goche, Fellow of Trinity. 
Thomas Horsenmu, Fellow of. St Catlia- 

rine's. 

1619 William Roberta i. Fellow of (Queens'. 
ll(jbert Mason 2, Fellow of St John's. 

1620 Gabriel Moore, Fellow of Christ's. 
Philip Powlett, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1621 Thomas Scampe, Fellow of King's. 1 
Thomas Parkynson, Fellow of Qare.i 
Cliarles Mordant, Fellow of Trinity 

Hall. 

1622 Thomas Adams, Fellow of Trinity. 
Nathaniel Flicke, Fellow of Corpus. 

1623 John Smith [Magdalene 3?]. 
Amyas Kidding, Fellow of St John's. 

1624 William JloswelM, Fellow of Jesus. 
Thomas Bolde, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1625 John .Vorton, Fellow of King's. 
John Ward, Queens' *. 

1626 Samuel Higson, Fellow of Trinity. 
Thomas Wake, Fellow of Caius. 

1627 Thomas Love, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
Edward Lloyd, Fellow of St John's. 

1628 Richard Love^ Fellow of Qare. 
Michael Honiwood ', Fellow of Christ's. 

1629 Thomas Goad, Fellow of King's. 
William Roberts, Fellow of Corpus. 
Robert? KingS [Fellow of J Trinity 

:Hall?i. 

1630 Peter Ashton, Fellow of Trinity. 
Roger Hechstetler (or He.xeter), 

Fellow of Pembroke. 

1631 Thomas? Turwhyte [St Catharine's »?]. 
Lionel Gatford'O, Fellow of Jesus. 

1632 John Lothian, Fellow of St Catharine's. 
Daniel Chandler, Fellow of Queens'. 



BLKCTBD 

1633 Henry Molle, Fellow of King's. 
Luke Skippou, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1634 John Allsopp, Fellow of Christ's. 

Sir Francis Kinaston, Fellow of 
Trinity ". 

1635 Barnabas Oleyia, Fellow of Clare. 
John Willington, Fellow of St John's. 

1636 Samuel Balcanqual, Fellow of Pem- 

broke. 
Joseph Loveland, Fellow of Caius. 

1637 George Goad", Fellow of King's. 
John Tindall, Fellow of Corpus. 

1638 Herbert Thorudike (or Thorndicke) »♦, 

Fellow of Trinity. 
Richard Bryan, Fellow of Queens'. 

1639 Henry Hutton, Fellow of Jesus. 
John Grenehalgh, Fellow of St John's. 

1640 John Francius's, Fellow of Peter- 

lio^se. 
Christopher Shute, Fellow of Christ's. 

1641 Nicholas Hol>art, Fellow of King's. 
Samuel Lynford, Fellow of St Catli- 

arine's. 

1642 John Roades, Fellow of Trinity. 
John Foley, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1643 James Jackson, Fellow of Clare. 
.John Jude, Fellow of St John's. \ 
Thomas Crouch '«, Fellow of King's, f 

1644 Robert Sheringhami^, Fellow of 

Caius. 
Samuel Sillesby, Fellow of Queens'. 

1645 Cliarles Eden, Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
John Sloper, Fellow of King's. 

1646 John Harrison, Fellow of Trinity. 
Cliarles Hotham'*, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 



1 BUhop of Bangor. IBST. 

2 Secretar)- to the Duke of Buckingham. He left his Iibrar>- to St Jolin's College. 

3 Another 4i years had elapsed (see p. 'AS, note 2.1' and it is again the turn of Magdalene to nominate, but no 
John .Smith of Magdalene is to be found in the Graduati. so presumably the College once more had to go 
outside. 4 Probably Sir William Boswell, the diplomatist, but this identitication is doubtful. 

5 Possibly John Ward, Fellow of Emmanuel, nominated by Queens'. 

6 Master of Corpus, 16:12. Dean of Ely, J660. 

7 D^an of Lincoln, 16(10, who in that c:ipacity repaired the dam.-)ge done to the Cathedral and its 
precincts during the Interregnum, giving liberal a4istance from his own purse ; he also built at his own cost 
the Catbe<lral Library from designs by Sir Cliristopher Wren, and presented to the Chapter his collection 
of books. Pepys describes him as 'a simple priest, though a good well-meaning man, yet a dean, and a 
man in great esteem.' He was a grandson of Mrs Mar>' Honywood, who is famous for having had 
U4 grandchildren. 

8 Possibly the Robert Kynge who was elected Master of Trinity Hall in Ift*."). It is not certain which 
Proctor he succeede<i. 

9 Possibly Thomas Turwhitt, M.A. 1625. Fellow of St John's, tiominated by St Catliarine's. 

10 'Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War Gatford retired to Cambridge in order to write a [mniphlet 
setting forth the doctrine of the Church in regard to the oLedienci due to kings. On the night of 26 Jan. 
1612—3. Cromwell seized bis manuscript, then in the press at Cambridge, arrested Gatford in his bed 
at Jesus College, and sent l>oth author and copy to London. On ."W Jan. the Commons onlered him to 
be imprisoned in Ely House. . .'. He died of the plague in 166-5 while acting a.« a ournte at Great Yarmouth. 

11 Poet and scholar. Hefoundedin KSBan academy oflearningcalledthe'Musaeum Minervae.'forwhich 
he obtjiined a license under the Great Seal, a grant of arms, and a common seal. Only the nobility and 
gentry were to be admitted to the Academy, the object of which was "to give language and instruction, 
with other ornaments of travel unto our gentlemen . . . before their undertaking long journeys into foreign 
parts.' 

12 The first steps for the rebuilding of Clare were taken under Oley's direction in 1638, and the structure 
was much in<lebted, we are told, to his * benefaction, zeal, and inspections.' Extensive iMirchases of bricks 
are recorded in the College hooks as having been made by him, and Fuller called him its ' Master of the 
F.tbric' He edited George Herbert. 

IS Brother of Thomas Goad {see 1829). 

14 Tutor, and afterwards .Senior Bursar, of Trinity and deputy Public Orator. In 16tt he would have been 
elected M.ister of Sidney if Cromwell had not caused one of his supporters to be arrested and conveyed 
away, thereby securing the election of Richard Minshull. 

15 Ph.D. 1628, incorporated from Frankfort. 16 Appointed on the death of Jude. 

17 Soon after his election as Proctor he was ejected from bis Fellowship at Caius for royalism, and took 
refiige eventually in Holland, where he taught Hebrew and Arabic in Rotterdam and elsewhere. He was 
esteemetl 'a most excellent linguist, as also admirably well versed in the original antiquities of the English 
nation.' He was restored to his Fellowship in 1660 and the rest of his life was spent in Cambridge. 

18 It is recorded that "among other of his singularities he m.ide the sophisters say their positions without 
book.' In his younger days he studied astrology, and afterwards chemistry, being described as ' a searcher 
Into the secrets of nature. 



THE PROCTORS 



41 



SLECTKD 

1647 William Moor, Fellow of Clirist's. 
Zachary Cawdryi, Fellow of StJolin's.] 
William Croydon, Fellow of Trinity. ) 

1648 Thomas Peele, Fellow of Clare. 
John Goodday, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1649 Thomas Croucli, Fellow of King's, i 
Tobias Wickam^, Fellow of Trinity} 

Hall. ^ I 

Samuel Gardner, Fellow of Corpus. 
*1650 .John Welles, Fellow of Queens'. 
William Croydon, Fellow of Trinity. 

1651 Samuel Heron (orHieron), Fellowj 

of St John's. > ? 

John Clark, Fellow of Trinity Hall.l 
Thomas Woodcock, Fellow of Jesus. 

1652 Gilbert Clarke, Fellow of Sidney. 
John Gibbon, Fellow of Knnnanuel. 

1653 William Bagge, Fellow of Caius. 
Daniel Mills, Fellow of St Catha- 
rine's. 

1654 William Fayerbrother, Fellow of 

King's. 
Charles MiUlmay, Fellow of Peter- 
house. 

1655 William Disney, Fellow of Trinity. 
William Outram (or Owtram)*, Fellow 

of Christ's. 

1656 Henry Panian, Fellow of St John's. 
Abraham Clifford, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1657 .James Speering, Fellow of Queens'. 
Joseph Miles, Fellow of Clare. 

1658 Joseph Hill*, Fellow of Magdalene. 
John Luke, l'"ellow of Sidney. 

1659 Oliver Doyley, Fellow of King's. 
.John Gardiner, Fellow of Corpus. 

1660 William l^innett, Fellow of Trinity. 
John Sliearman(or Sherman)'', Fellow 

of .Jesus. 

1661 David Morton, Fellow of St John's, 
liobert Tyringham, l-'ellow of Peter- 
house. 

1662 Edward Gelsthorpe, Fellow of Caius. 
ltol)ert Pepper, 1- ellow of Ciirist's. 

"16()3 William Quarles, I-'ellow of Pem- 
broke. 
Andrew Spenser, I'^ellow of King's. 
16()4 John Slader, Fellowof St Catharine's. 
Kenjaniin Pulley n, I-'ellow of Trinity. 
1665 Thomas Jackson, Fellow of Em- 
manuel. 
Matthew Bonner, Fellow of Magda- 
lene. 



BLKCTlil) 

1666 Joseph Kelsey, Fellow of Queens'. 
Henry Morland, Fellow of St John's. 

1667 Thomas Bumets, Fellow of Christ's. 
Miles Barne, Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1668 John Smith, Fellow of King's. 
Samuel Blyth, Fellow of Clare. 

1669 Charles Wright, Fellow of Trinity. 
Samuel Beck, Corpus. 

1670 Gabriel Quadring^, Fellow of Magda- 

lene. 
William Birbeck, Fellow of St John's. 

1671 William Cooke, Fellow of Jesus. 
Nathaniel Coga (or Cogha)i'J, I''ellow of 

Pembroke. 

1672 Matthew Smallwood,Fellowof Queens'. 
Jlenjamin Johnson, Fellow of Sidney. 

1673 I'>.ekiel I'^oxcroft, Fellow of King's. 
Henry Lee, l''ellow of I5mmanuel. , 

1674 William Corker (or Corcor), Fellow 

of Trinity. 
Peter Parliam, Fellow of Caius. 

1675 Henry Holder, I'^ellow of Peterhouse. 
Italpli Sanderson, Fellow of St John's. 

1676 Natlianiel Vincent, Fellow of Clare. 
Charles Smithson, Fellow of Christ's. ■ 

1677 Samuel Thomas, Fellow of King's. 
Thomas Whincop, Fellow of Corpus. 

1678 Thomas Bambridge (or Bainbrigge) i'. 

Fellow of Trinity. 
Drue Cressener 12, Fellow of Pembroke . 

1679 John Lord, Fellow of Jesus. 
'J'homas Verdon, Fellow of St John's. 

1680 John Maulyverer, Fellow of Magda- 

lene. 
Obadiali Collinson, Fellow of Queens'. 

1681 John Pern, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
Charles Smith (or Suiythe), I-'ellow of 

St Catharine's. 
Sanmel Bowles !•', Fellow of Trinity 
Hall. 

1682 Thomas Home, Fellow of King's. 
.Joseph Craven •♦, Fellow of Sidney. 

1683 John Ekins, Fellow of Trinity. 
William Needham, Fellow of Em- 
manuel. 

1684 Thomas Fainnedow, Fellow of 

Christ's. 
John Naylor, Fellow of St John's. 

1685 .James Hollis, Fellow of Clare. 
Thomas Browne is, Fellow of Pem- 
broke. 

1686 Henry .Jenkes, Fellow of Caius. 
Clement Scott, Fellow of Corpus. 



1 Author of a remarkable pamphlet, entitled 'A Discourse of Patronage.' Cawdry's only other publica- 
tion is a sermon preached at the funeral of Lord Delamere, in which he speaks of his rising in 1()59 as 
^iviuK 'the first warm and inviteoratine sprine-beam to the frost-nipt loyalty of the nation.' He was 
deprived of his office of Proctor for 'aiding and assisting to the kinx in tlie unnatural war against tlie 
Parliament by contribution of monies' (Cooper, AnniU, iii, 418). 

2 Dean of York. ]fi77. He was appointed Proctor on the death of Crouch. 
:t A new cycle of Proctors now includes Emmanuel and Sidney. 

4 Archdeacon of Leicester, l(i69. and Rector of St Marsaret's, Westminster, IWO. He was an excellent 
pre.iclier, and was reputed to have ' extraoniinary skill in rabbinical learning.' ♦ 

5 Tutor of Magdalene ; but as he declined to conform in Itifia, the autliorities ' cut his name out of their 
books in kindness to him' to save him from formal ejection. He was a lexicographer and book-collector. 

6 Archdeacon of Salisbury. 1(570. His HisforUi Colfegii Jesu Canfnbrigiae gives an account of the 
nunnery of St Khadegund, and the earlier history of the College to the mastership of Edmund Boldero, 
1663—79. 

7 A new cycle of Proctors. 8 Master of the Cliarterbouse, 168.5. 
9 Master of Magdalene, 1690. 10 Master of Pemljroke, 1677. 

11 Vice-Master of Trinity. He was buried in the College Chapel, where tliere is a monument to his 
memory. 

12 A writer on the Apocalypse. 13 It is uncertain which Proctor he succeeded. 
14 Master of Sidney, ITii. 13 Master of Pembroke, 16*4. 



42 



THE PROCTORS 



ELECTED 

1«)87 Caesar Crowch, Fellow of King's. 
John ^yotton, Fellow of Queens'. 

1688 Henry Lane, Fellow of Trinity. 
James Crompton, Fellow of Jesus. 

1689 Kichard ("ooke, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
(Jeoffrey ISliaw, Fellow of iSt John's. 

1690 Jonathan Chadwicke, Fellowof Magda- 

lene. 
Thomas Waterhouse, Fellow of 
Christ's. 

1691 William Curwen, Fellow of King's. 
Sanmel Lea, Fellow of iSt Catharine's. 

1692 George Modd, Fellow of Trinity. 
Mark Anthony, Fellow of Pembroke. 

1693 Samuel Hurton, Fellow of ."^idney. 
John Peareth, Fellow of St John's. 

^ From 1670 until 1910 it is almost invariably the case that the 
Proctors are Fellows of Colleges; from the beginning of the 
18th century onwards they are therefore no longer individually 
so described . 



ELECTED 

1694 Robert Heme, Fellow of Clare. 
John Sidey, Fellow of Kmmanuel. 

1695 Jolm Lightwine, Fellow ot Caius. 
(;hri8topher Goodfellow, Fellow of 

Queens'. 

1696 William Tindale, Fellow of Trinity 

Hall. 
Henry Bowles, Fellow of King's. 

1697 Patrick Cocke, Fellow of Trinity. 
Edward Oliver, Fellow of Corpus. 

1698 Ralph Witty, Fellow of Peterhouse. 
Francis Robins, Fellow of St John's. 

1699 Francis Draper, Fellow of Pembroke. 
Simon Every, Fellow of Christ's. 



ELECTED 

1700 John Millington, Ma^alene. 
Samuel Noyes, King's. 

1701 John Cooper, Trinity. 
Samuel Awberv, Jesus. 

1702 Edward Clarke", Clare. 
John Eoulkes, St John's. 

1703 John Frankland i, Sidney. 
Poley Clopton, Queens'. 

1704 Nicholas Parham, Caius. 
Daniel Newcome, Emmanuel. 

1705 Richard Stephens, King's. 
Richard Clotterbooke, St Catharine's. 

1706 William Drury, Trinity. 
William Fownes, Peterhouse. 

1707 William Withers, Christ's. 
Peter Chester, St John's. 

1708 Reginald Hawkins, Pembroke. 
Robert Dannve, Corpus. 

1709 Ricliard Laugliton*, Clare. 
John Davies^, Queens'. 

1710 John Turner, King's. | 
Francis Dickins, Trinity Hall. J 
John ('ampion, Magdalene. 

1711 John Kagnall, Jesus. 
Thomas Blomer, Trinity. 

1712 John liavnes, Peterhouse. 
TiKimas Keilde, St John's. 

1713 John Boldero, (lirist's. 
William Webber, Sidney. 

1714 Sanmel Pycroft, Caius. 
Robert Alfounder, Emmanuel. 

1715 William Donne, King's. 
Christopher Selby, Pembroke. 

1716 Thomas Crosse*, St Catharine's. 
John Williams, Trinity. 

1 Master of Sidney. 1728. 

2 Acquired a Kreat reputation as Tutor of Clare. He also <nstinKUishe<l liimself as a supporter of the 
Newtonian philosophy, and when it became his duty as Proctor to appoint a Mo<ierator, he appointed 
himself. At that time, acconfing to Wliewell, he had already issue<l a mper of questions on the Newtonian 
tlieory with ttie design of suKKestinK tlieses for disputation in the schools. As Proctor he made great 
efforts to restore the discipline of the University, at that time xreatly relaxed. His speecli as Senior 
Proctor in the Bachelors' Schools is lunong the Cambridge University MSS. 00. vi., 113 (3). 

3 President of Uueens', 1717. 4 M.ister of St Cath.jrine's, 1719. 

5 Master of Christ's, ITO. 6 Master of Caius, 1754. KntKhted, 17S4. See p. 26, note 5. 

7 Tutor of Clare, and author of the 'Greenian' philosophy. 'In his will he., directed tliat his bo<iy 
should l>e dissected and the skeleton himg up in the lilirary of King's College ; monuments to his memory 
were to be placed In the Chapels of Clare and King's Colleges, in St Mary's Church, and at Tamworth.'and 
Clare ' was to publish his posthumous works, and on condition of observing this and his other directions was 
to receive his estate, failing which it wiis to go to St John's, Trinity, and Jesus Colleges, and on refusal 
of each to Sidney Sussex. None of his wishes were complied with. ..' 

8 Master of St Catharine's, 1736. 



ELECTED 

1717 Rowland Simpson, St John's. 
John Warde, Queens'. 

1718 William Towers*, (Christ's. 
Christopher Wardell, Peterhouse. 

1719 Tholnas Dillingham, Clare. 
John Havley, King's. 

1720 John Barnwell, Trinity. 
John Micklebourgh, Corpus. 

1721 Theodore Waterland, Magdalene. 
Henry Foche, St John's. 

1722 Tlioinas Ashbumer, Pembroke. 
John Lucas, Jesus. 

1723 George Frohock, Queens'. 
Thomas Harrison, Sidney. 

1724 John Burford, King's. 
William Whitehead, Emmanuel. 

1725 John Paris, Trinity. 
.James ISurrough '>, Caius. 

1726 George Birkett, Peterhouse. 
Robert Leeke, St John's. 

1727 Robert (ireene', Clare. 
Thomas Sitwell, Christ's. 

1728 Berkeley Seymour, King's. 
William Lowe, Corpus. 

1729 James JeiTery, Pembroke. 
Richard Cuthbert, Trinity. 

1730 Lees Ward, Jesus. 
Miles Archer, St John's. 

1731 Robert Foulkes, Magdalene. 
Walter Post, Queens'. 

1732 I'Vlward Hubbard % St Catharine's. 
James Betts, Peterhouse. 

1733 Jolyi Evans, King's. 
Francis Sawyer Parris, Sidney. 



THE PROCTORS 



43 



ELECTED 

1734 Tlioinas Gr<ivcr, Trinity. 
Joliii Wilkinson, Emmanuel, 

1735 William Trant, C;iirist's. 
Cliappell Fowler, St .Jolm's. 

1736 Leonard Addison, Pembroke. 
John Ferrar, Clare. 

1737 (<anmel Stedman, C«ius. 
Stephen Bolton, Corpus. 

1738 Robert Parr, King's. 
Henry Hand, Queens'. 

1739 John Bradshaw, Jesus. 
Nathaniel Heyrick, Trinity. 

1740 Mark Ogle, Peterhouse. 
Thomas Robinson, St John's. 

1741 William Beaty, Magdalene. 
George Henry Rooke', Christ's. 

1742 Jolin Smith, Kind's. 
Christopher Wilson*, St Catha- 
rine's. . 

1743 John Allen, Trinity. 
F'rancis Burton, Pembroke. 

1744 Wynn liatemaii, St John's. 
Barnard Garnet, Sidney, 

1745 Peter Stephen (ioddard, Clare. 
William Affleck, Emmanuel, 

1746 John Dawney, Caius, 
John Bringhurst, Queens'. 

1747 Thomas Soiithemwood, King's. 
William Ridlingtoii, Trinity Hall. 

1748 Richard Bentley, Trinity. 
William Gordon, Corpus. 

1749 Bernard Swallow, Peterhouse. 
Calvert Teimant, St .John's. 

1750 James Brown 3, Pembroke. 
Jonathan Wit^tey, Christ's. 

1751 E<lward Betliam*, King's. 
Philip Rennet, Magdalene. 

1762 Richard Oakeley, .Jesus. 
Moore Meredith 5, Trinity. 

1753 John Courtail, Clare. 
Thoma^i Twells, St Jolm's. 

1754 William Boawre, Queens'. 
.Jolm Lawson*, Sidney. 

1755 John Smiths, Caius. 
.John fiordon, Emmanuel. 

1756 Thomas Carter, King's. 
.Joseph Thorjie, St Catharine's. 

1757 Stephen Whisson, Trinity. 
Michael Smith, Peterhouse. 

1758 John Willey, Christ's. 
Thomas Metcalfe, St John's. 

1769 Samuel May, Pembroke. 
William Colman^, Corpus. 

1760 Jolm Bigg, tlare. . 
Henry Newcome, Queens'. 

1761 William Barford', King's. 
I^aurence J>liot, Magdalene. 



[ ELECTED 

I 1762 Benjamin Richardson, Jesus. 

Samuel Peck w, Trinity. 
I 1763 Daniel Longmire'i, Peterhouse. 

Ralph Forster, St .John's. 
1764 Thomas Murliall, Christ's. 

Thomas Martyn'2, Sidney. 
I 1765 Joshua White, Caius. 

Richard Farmer '3, Emmanuel. 

1766 Henry Talbot, King's. 

I J^ancelot Bell, Pembroke. 

1767 William Dalton, St Catharine's, 
I<xiward Howkins, Trinity. 

1768 }{obeft Barker, (Queens'. 
WilHam Fairclough, St John's. 

1769 .Joshua Wigley, Christ's. 
William Oldham, Peterhouse. 

1770 Benjamin Wright, dare. 
Elias Thackeray, King's. 

1771 Thomas Spencer, Trinity. 
.James Nasniith, (Virpus. 

1772 Willicim Purkis, Magdalene. 
Thomas Ferris, St Jolm's. 

1773 John Wilgress, Pembroke. 
William Dealtary, Jesus. 

1774 Thomas Preston, Queens'. 
Cliristopher Hunter, Sidney. 

' 1775 William Bennet", limmanuel. 

Pell .\kehurst. King's. 
! 1776 John Smith, Caius. 
! Henry Therond, Trinity. 

1 1777 Andrew Pemberton, Peterhouse. 
I Harry (Jrove, St John's. 

1778 Adam Wall**, Christ's. 

Mark Antony Steplienson, Clare. 

1779 Francis Barnes^'', King's. 
! JCflward Walsby, Corpus. 
1 1780 John Wilson, Trinity. 

William Wyatt, Pembroke.* 

1781 Robert Fiske, St John's. 
Fkiward Robert Raynes, .Jesus. 

1782 Samuel Hey, Magdalene. 
I Is,aac Milneri', Queens'. 

1783 .Joshua Waterliouse, St Catharine's. 
Thomas Veasey, Peterhouse. 

1784 William Johnson, King's. 
.John Heslop, Sidney. 

1785 William Hodson, Trinity.i 
William I^'illbridge Arnold, ICm- 

manuel. 
i 1786 Thomas Parkinson", Oirist's. 
j William Wade, St John's. 

I 1787 Henry Cooper, Pembroke. 
Robert Myddelton, Clare. 
i 1788 Sanmel Jleeve'9, Caius. 
i Philip l)i>uglas20, Corpus. 

j 1789 John Maule, King's. 
I Francis Knipe, Queens'. 



1 Master of Christ's, ITi'i. 2 Bishop of Bristol, 1785. 3 Master of Pembroke, 1770. 

4 Bursiir of Kind's. Hegave 200W. for the better iiminteiiance of the Botanical Ganlen. 

5 See Gunning, il. 110. S Tutor of Sidney, and a mathematician of some note. 
7 Master of Caius, 17fi4. 8 Master of Corpus, 1778. 

9 Tutor of King's. See also p. 49. 10 See Gunning, ii. 114. 

11 Nominated Master of Peterliouse by the Bishop of Elj', 1787, but the appointment was not sustained. 

12 See p. 90, note 6. 13 Tutor of Emmanuel, 1760 ; Master, 1775. 

14 Proljably William Bennet, Tutor of Emmanuel ; Bishop of Cork and Ross. 1790 ; Bishop of Cloyne, 
1794, He was of some reputation as a preacher and antiquarian, and his ' probity and amiability were 
the subject of frequent praise.' He compiled a register of Ennnanuel College. 

15 Compiler of Wall's Ceretnotiies, afterwards re^edited by Gunning. 

16 Master of Peterhouse, 1788. See p. 84 and Gunning, i, 117. 

17 President of Queens', 1788. See p. 8:i, note 6 and p. 94, note 1. 

18 Tutor of Christ's, 1777—91. Archdeacon of Huntingdon, 1794 ; of Leicester, 1812. 

19 Hanged himself in a lumber room at Oiius on July 1 ; the body was not di.scovered until Nov. 9. This 
is the origin of a well-known story about the Library. See also Gunning, Heminiscences, i. 161. 

20 Tutor of Corpus, 1787 ; Master, 1795. See also p. .55, note 14. 



44 



THE PROCTORS 



BLBCTBD 

1790 Thomas Gilbank, Trinity. 
John Plampin, Jesus. 

1791 William C'lerke, Peterhnuse. 
James WootU, St John's. 

1792 William Parish^, Ma^aleue. 
Georjte Hunter, Christ's. 

1793 Joshua Wood, St Catharine's. 
Thomas Key, King's. 

1794 Francis Teuuaut, Pembroke. 
Thomas Cautley, Trinity. 

1795 Edmund Uutram, St Jolm's. 
Bewick Bridge', Peterhouse. 

1796 Walter Whiter*, Clare. . 
Samuel Blackall, Emmanuel. 

1797 Martin .Joseph Naylor, Queens'. 
John Drew Borton, f'aius. 

1798 Jolin Henry Michell, King's. 
Jolui Vickers, Trinity Hall. 

1799 Harry Porter, Trinity. 
James Currey, Corpus. 

1800 Bewick Bridge », Peterhouse. 
Robert Jones, St John's. 

1801 John Hopkins, Christ's. 
Benjamin Parke, Pembroke. 

1802 (10 Oct) Thomas Sumpter, Kin.^^'s. 

„ John Warter, Magdalene. I 
(16 Not.) John Walker, Trinity)- 



Hall 

1803 Jolin Henry RenoUard, Trinity. 
Thoinas Castley, Jesus. 

1804 Henry Wastell, Clare. 
Charles Rushworth, St .John's. 

1805 George Barnes, Queens'. 
Samuel Chilcott ', Sidney. 

1806 William Gimingliam, Caius. 
John Ciilbert, Emmanuel. 

1807 William Hunt, King's. 
Harr^ Pearce, St Catharine's. 

1808 George .\dam Browne, Trinity. 
George D'Oyly, Corpus. 

1809 John Maul, Christ's. 
Ralph TathamO, St John's. 

1810 Isaac Asplaud, Pembroke. 
Joseph Gibson Whaley, Peterhouse, 

1811 William Mandell, Queens'. 
Thomas Kaye Bonney, Clare. 



BLBCTBD 

1812 Thomas Hart, Kin-'s. 

Benjamin Thomas Halcott Cole, 
Alagdalene. 

1813 Daniel Cresswell 7, Trinity. 
George Palmer, .Jesus. 

1814 Cliarles Blick, St John's. 
Joseph Shaw, Christ's. 

1815 Joseph Shaw, Christ's. 
Robert .Jefferson, Sidney. 

1816 William Okes, Caius. 
William French*, Pembroke. 

1817 I5dward Rent Payne, King's. 
Thomas Smart Hughes*, Emmanuel. 

1818 Harry Pearce, King's. 
James Cummingio, Trinity. 

1819 William Tatham, St John's. 
Joseph Jee, Queens'. 

1820 John Croft, Christ's. 
Alldersey Dieken, Peterhouse. 

1821 Samuel Berney Vince, King's. 
Francis William I^odington, Clare. 1 
James Collett Ebden, Trinity Hall.) 

1822 George Macfarian, Trinity. 
Littleton Charles Powys, Corpus. 

1823 Richard Crawley, Magdalene. 
Thomas Watson h, St John's. 

1824 Thomas Dickes, .Jesus. 
Henry Tasker, Pembroke. 

1825 Nicholas John Temple, Sidney. 
Henrv Venn 12, Queens'. 

1826 John"Tomkyus, King's. 
Stephen Pope, Emmanuel. 

1827 Adam Sedgwick", Trinity. 
Thomas Smith TurnbuU, Caius. 

1828 Alexander Malcolm Wale, St John's. 
Henrv Melvilin, Peterhouse. 

151829 (22 Apr.) Henry Kirbv, Clare. 

„ Joseph Power!*", Trinity Hall. 
(10 Oct.) Henry Kirby, Oare. 

„ Eilward .John Ash, Clirist's. 

1830 James liernard Bernard i^, King's. 
Copinger Henrv Gooch, Corpus. 

1831 Thomas Mu^rave", Trinity, 
tliarles Currie, Pembroke. " 

1832 George Skinner, Jesus. 
Henry Howarth, St John's. 



1 Muster of St John's, 181.5. Dean of Ely, 1820. 

2 See p. 86, note 4. 

3 Professor of Mathematics in tlie East India Company's College at Haile)bur>'. 

4 Acquireii a OHisitlerable reputition as a philologist. He published one part of an etymoloKical dictionary 
with a preface in which lie enlarged on the value of the }dpsy language. This led to his acquaintance 
with George Borrow, wlio introduced him into Ltvenffroas understanding some twenty languages. Pofson 
was one of his intimate friends. 

5 See Gunning, Jl-rminiscence4, ii. 215—18. , 

6 Master of St John's. 1839. 

7 The author of several mathematical works, chiefly geometrical. 

8 Tutor of Pembroke. Appointed Master of Jesus, 1820, by Dr Sparke. Bishop of Ely. when only 
31 years of age. ' His matliem.ttical attainments were of the highest order, and to classical scholarship he 
added a considerable acquaintance with oriental language^.' 

9 First Fellow of St John's: then Tutor of Trinity Hall; afterwards Dean of Emmanuel. One of the 
first Examiners for the new Classical Tripos of 1821. 

10 See p. 86, note 6. 

11 Professor of Medicine at King's College. London, 1838—40 : President of the College of Physicians, 
1882—7; Physician in Ordinary to Queen Victoria. IgTOi Created a biUtmet, 1886. His Lectura on the 
PrincijiUt atid Practice of Phytic, 1813. was for thirty years the chief English text-book of medicine. 

12 Son of John Venn, Rector of Clapbanij one of the founders of the Church Missionary Society in 
1797. Acted !»s Honorary Secretary of the Society for thirty-two years, 1811—73. 

13 See p. 91. note 5. 

14 Tutor of Peterhouse. Principal of the East India College at HaileybiU7, 181.V-57. Canon of St Paul's, 
1856. He was or.e of the most popular preachers in London. 

15 Owing to continued di^urbances among the undergraduates, the Proctors elected in 1828 resigned in 
April \S1S, and a fresh election took place. An account of the episode is given by Gunning ^Kemi- 
nvtceiice*, ii. ;167). 

16 See p. 55. note 7. 17 Formerly Camplin. 

18 Bishop of Hereford, 1837 ; Archbishop of York. 1817. See also p. 89, note 11. 



THE PROCTORS 



45 



ELBCTBD 

1833 John Lodge, Magdalene. 
John Graham, Queens'. 

1834 William Potter, Peterliouse. 
Henry Philpott', St Catharine's. 

1835 George Frederick Nicholas, King's. 
James William Lucas Heavlside, 

Sidney. 

1836 Francis Martin, Trinitv. 
George Robert Tuck, i<:mmanuel. 

1837 Etlward Baines, Christ's. 

^ John Harrison Evans, St John's. 

1838 James Uurdakin, CHare. 
Henry Arlett, Pembroke. 

1839 John James Smith, Caius. 
Eflwin Steventon, Corpus. 

1840 Charles Henry Maturm, Khig's. 
•James Edward Dalton, Queens'. 

1841 Thomas Gaskin, Jesus. 

William Hepworth Thompson 2, 
Trinitv. 

1842 Henry Wilkinson Cookson^, Peter- 

house. 
John Henry Hewlett, St John's. 

1843 James Hildyard*, Christ's. 
Stephen Glas Fawcett, Magdalene. 

1844 Joseph Thackeray, King's. 

Charles Wycliffe Goodwin^, St Cath- 

1845 Jolm'Miils, Pembroke. 

William Gilson Humphry", Trinity. 

1846 Edward Hrumell, St .John's. 
William Towler Kingsley, Sidney. 

1847 William Percival Haily, Clare. 
Henry Griffin Williams, Emmanuel. 

1848 William Haugliton Stokes, Caius. 
William Henry I-Mwards, Queens'. 

1849 .John Clement Middleton, King's. 
William Marsh, Trinity Hall. 

1850 Arthur Thacker, Trinity. 
John Fenwick', Corpus. 

1851 William Niud, Peterliouse. 
.John Couch Adams*, St John's. 

1852 Josepli Cnark, Christ's. 
Richard Ferguson, Pembroke. 

1853 Edward Reed Theed, King's. 
Mynors Bright'-', Magdalene. 

1854 Joseph I-Mleston, Trinity. 
Charles Style Drake, Jesus. 



ELECTED 

1855 Arthur Wolfe, Qare. 
John Spicer Wood, St John's. 

1856 Richard Watson, Queens'. 
(11 June 1857) Henry Latham 

Trinity Hall. 
.John Frederic Hardy, Sidney. 

1857 Alfred George Day, Caius. 
Alfred Jiall Chalker, Emmanuel. 

1858 Andrew Long, King's. 

Charles Kirkby Robinson", St Cath- 
arine's. 
1869 Thomas Samuel Woollaston, Peter- 
house. 
ICdward Meredith Cope'^, Trinity. 

1860 Basil Williams, St John's. 
Thomas Brocklebank, King's. 

1861 William Emery '*, Corpus. 
John Hays, Christ's. 

1862 John Power'*, Pembroke. 
Edward .Josselyn Beck, Clare. 

1863 Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro'*, 

Trinity. 
Samuel Jackson, Magdalene. 

1864 Stephen Parkinson '", St .John's. 
Arthur Westmorland, Jesus. 

1865 William Magan Campion'", Queens'. 
I'rank I^aurence Hopkins, Trinity 

Hall. 

1866 David J^ong, Caius. 
.James Mowat, Sidney 

1867 William Henry Whitting, King's. 
Thomas Hewitt, Emmanuel. 

1868 James Porter"*, Peterhouse. 
Ralph lienjaniin Somerset, Trinity. 

1869 Peter Hamnett Mason, St John's. 
George l-'orrest Browne", St Catha- 
rine's. 

1870 .Joseph Wolstenholme, Clirist's. 
James Porter'*, I^eterliouse. 

1871 Edward Henry Perowne^o, Corpus. 
Francis .Joseph Bi-aithwaite, Clare. 

1872 Henry Martyn Taylor, Trinity. 
George Pirie, Queens'. 

1873 Frederick Charles Wace, St John's. 
Francis Pattrick, Magdalene. 

1874 Frederick Whitting, King's. 
Eklnnind Henry Morgan, .Jesus. 



1 Master of St Catharine's, 1*45. Bishop of Worcester, 1860. 

2 Master of Trinity, 1866. See p. 79, note 7. 

3 Master of Peterhouse. 1847. 

4 He had been educated at Shrewsbury under Dr Samuel Butler, and hi April, 1829, had been the 
leading character in a rebellion known as the ' Beef Row.' As Tutor of Christ's he greatly improved the 
system of ColIej?e tuition, and conducted a crusade against private coaching. 

5 Elder brother of Harvey Goodwin, Bishop of Carlisle. He acquired a consideralile reputation as an 
Egyptologist. 

6 Elder brother of Sir George Humphry, Profes.sor Qf Surgery, 1883. He was one of the revisers of 
the New Testament. 

7 Fined 20«. and costs for a certain arrest, which was treated as an assault by the Borough Justices. 

8 See p. 9-i. note 4. 

9 Tutor of Magdalene. He renleciiiliered Pepys's Diary, and his edition, printed between 187-5 and 1879, 
corrected numerous errors in the earlier version and restored many passages hitherto suppressed. 

10 Master of Trinity Hall. 188a 

11 Masterof St Catharine's, 1861. 

12-One of the distinguished classical scholars educated at Shrewsbury. In 1867 he was a candidate for 
the Professorship of Greek. 

i:i Dean of Corpus. 18.53— .5; Bursjir, mW-fiO ; Tutor, 1&W-6.5. Archdeacon of Ely, 1R64. SecreUry of 
the Church Congress, 1889— 1907. It was at a meeting in liis College rooms on 2 May 1859, that ' a volun- 
teer corps for the University, town, and county of Cambridge ' was set on foot. 

14 Master of Pembroke, 1870. .1.5 See p. 102, note 1. 

16 Tutor of St .Tohn's, 18(>4— 82. 17 President of Queens', 1892. 

18 Master of Peterhouse, 1S76. 19 Bishop Suffragan of Stepney, 1895 ; Bishop of Bristol, 1897. 

20 Master of Corpus, 1879. 



46 



THE PRO-PROCTORS 



XLSCTBD 

1875 John Frederic Hardy, Sidney. 
Ernest Stewart Roberts i, Caius. 

1876 James Porter^, Peterliouse. 
Arthur Thomas Chapman, Knimanuel. 

1877 Geonte Forrest Browne*, St Catha- 

rine's. 
Alfred Edward Humphreys, Trinity. 

1878 James William Cartmell, Christ's. 
William Francis Smith, St John's. 

1879 George ForresJ Browne', St Catha- 

rine's. 
John Peter Taylor, Oare. 

1880 Edmund Henry Morgan, Jesus. 
Ernest Temperley, Queens'. 

1881 Oscar Browning, King's. 
Alexander Francis Kirkpatrick*, 

Trinity. 

1882 Alfred Freer Torry, St John's. 
Edward Anthony Beck*, Trinity 

Hall. 

1883 Frederick Gunton, Magdalene. 
John Charles Saunders, Downing. 

1884 Ernest Stewart Roberts', Caius. 
James Douglas Hamilton Dickson, 

Peterliouse. 

1885 Ernest John Heriz .Smith, Pembroke. 
Arthur Orav', Jesus. 

1886 James William Cartmell, Christ's. 
Richard Tetley Glazebrook, Trinity. 

1887 Francis Henry Neville, Sidney. 
Rol>ert Forsyth Scott", St John's. 

1888 fieorge Walter Prothero, King's. 
William Napier .Shaw, Emmanuel. 

1889 Walter Thomas Southward, St Cath- 

arine's. 
Henry William Fulford, Clare. 

1890 Joseph Henry Gray, Queens'. 
Reguiald St .John Parry, Trinity. 

1891 Annesley William Streane, Corpus. 
Alfred Caldecott, St John's. 

1892 Frederic WallisS, Caius. 

Thomas Alfred Walker, Peterliouse. 



BLKCTBD 

1893 Arthur George Peskett, Magdalene. 
John Macalister Dodds, Peterhouse. 

1894 Ernest AVilliam Hobson, Christ's. 
Frederick John Foakes - Jackson, 

1895 Robert Alfred Herman, Trinity. 
Edmund Gill Swain, King's. 

1896 George Wilfrid Blenkin*, Trinity. 
Henry Theodore Edward Barlow, St 

John's. 

1897 Henry William Fulford, Clare. 
James Beunet Peace, Emmanuel. 

1898 Joseph Henry Gray, Queens'. 
Walter Thomas Southward, St Cath- 
arine's. 

1899 George Buclian Shirres, Trinity Hall. 
William Warwick Buckland '", Caius. 

1900 Arnold Joseph Wallis, Corpus. 
Robert Alfred Herman, Trinity. 

1901 Thomas Alfred Walker, Peterhouse. 
Henrv Frederick Baker i', .st .John's. 

1902 Ernest William Holison'^, Christ's. 
Henry Gordon Coml)er, Pembroke. 

1903 Arthur George Peskett, Magdalene. 
William John Corbett, King's. 

1904 Wynfrid Laurence Henry Duckworth, 

.Jesus. 
Walter Morlev Fletcher, Trinity. 

1905 Percy Cory Gaul, Trinity Hall. 
Gtxifrey Harold .\lfred Wilson, Clare. 

1906 George Arthur Weekes, Sidney. 
Andrew Munro, Queens'. 

1907 John Stanley Gardiner'*, Caius. 
Campbell West-Watsou'*, Emmanuel. 

1908 James Henry Widdicombe, Downing. 
Frederick Margetson Rushmore, St 

Catharine's. 

1909 Frederick John Foakes- Jackson, 

.Jesus. 
John Cuthbert I^wson, Pembroke. 

1910 Hugh Eraser Stewart, St John's. 
Joseph Barcroft, King's. 



A Deputy for each Proctor is appointed annually by Grace 
of the Senate. 



PRO-PROCTORS 

The office of Pro-Proctor was instituted by Grace of the 
Senate, April 29, 1818. This was due to 'the great increase of 
the students, and the necessity of their lodging in the tbwn^^.' 
The two Pro-Proctors are nominated by the Colleges according 
to the cycle of Proctors (each College nominating a Pro-Proctor 
the year before it nominates a Proctor) for the approbation of 
the Senate; and the election, which is by Grace, takes place at 
the last Congregation in May. The stipend at present (1915) 
attached to each office is £120. 

I Master of Caius, ISttl •> Master of Peterhuuse, 1376. 

3 Bishop bufTragan of Stepnev, 1895 ; Bishop of Bristol, 1887. 

4 Master of Selwyn, 189S ; Dean of El)', LlOti. 5 Master of Trinity Hiill, 19tt2. 
6 Master of Jesus, 1912. 7 Master of .St John's, 1908. 

8 Bishop orvtellinxtuii. N.Z., 1895—1911 ; Archdeacon of Wilts. 1911. 

9 Dean of St .\lbans, 1914. 10 R«tiiis Professor of aril Law. 1914. 

II Lowndean Professor of .Astronomy. 1914. 12 SaUleiriaii Professor of Mathematics. 1910. 

13 Professor of Zoolo^ and Comp.initive .\natoniy, 1909. 

14 Bishop of Barrow-in-Fumess, 1909. 15 Gunning, /tftninittences, ii. 316. 



THE PUBLIC ORATOR 47 



ADDITIONAL PRO-PROCTORS 

By Grace of the Senate, June 6, 1878, two Additional Pro- 
Proctors, who shall be Masters of Arts or of Law of not less than 
three years' standing, are to be appointed by Grace of the Senate 
in October in each year, on the nomination of the Vice-Chancellor 
and Proctors, to hold office till the appointment of their suc- 
cessors. The stipend at present (1915) attached to each office is 
£120. 



PUBLIC ORATOR 

The office of Public Orator was founded in 1522^, and Richard 
Croke, instructor in Greek to King Henry VIII, and Reader in 
Greek at the University, who had studied under Grocyn at 
Oxford, was appointed for life, with the provision that future 
appointments should be for seven years only. The Orator was to 
have precedence of all other Masters of Arts, and, as a mark of 
honour, to walk in processions and sit in public acts separate from 
the rest ; but the stipend attached to this dignified office was only 
forty shillings a year^. The appointment is now for life. 

The functions of the Orator are now determined by Statute A, 
c. V. §2: 

It shall be the duty of the Orator to write letters in the name of the 
University whenever the Chancellor or the Council of the Senate think 
fit, the letters to be submitted to the Senate for approval by Grace. 
When the Chancellor or the Council of the Senate thmk fit the Orator 
shall carry to eminent persons the letters addressed to them after these 
have been duly approved and sealed. He shall whenever the Chancellor 
or the Council of the Senate think fit welcome persons of eminence 
visiting the University. He shall also present to the Chancellor and 
University persons on whom Degrees or titles of Degrees are conferred 
honoris eausd. 

On a vacancy in the office the Council of the Senate nominate 
two persons ; and on the following day one of them is elected by 
the members of the Senate. The election must be made within 
fourteen days (exclusive of any vacation) from the vacancy being 
known. The stipend of the office is at present (1915) £150 a 
year, residence being required within five miles of Great St 
Mary's Church. 

The Latin letters written on behalf of the University by the 
Public Orators, beginning with Richard Croke and ending in 
1867 with W. G. Clark, are transcribed in three volumes, entitled 
Epistolae Academicae, now preserved at the Registry. Sir 

1 As early as 1483 — 1 Caiua Auberiiiiia, an Italian, was cin,)loyed to write letters for tl\e University, and 
he m.iy be regarded as a predecessor of tlie Public Orator In some of his functions. Thus, the Pxoctors' 
accounts for tliat'year contain an entry, 'Item. Caio Auberinoprocomposicionequatuorlitterarumquatuor 
episcopis vj« viijd ' {&race-Oook A, p. 18.5). Elsewhere he is called a poet {lb. p. 202). 

2 The stipend of the Public Orator was increased in l.W, and,aKain in 1614. by assigning to him certain fees. 



4S 



THE PUBLIC ORATOR 



Richard Jebb's letters also are preserved among the Grace-papers, 
but they have not been transcribed. Sir John Sandys's Orationes 
et Epislolae, 1876-1909, were published in 1910. 

ELECTED 

11622 Uicliard Croke, M.A. Fellow of St .John's c. 16232. Greek Lecturer at 
Louvain, Cologne, and Leipzig, 1515-17, and at Cambridge, 1618. 

1628 George Uav, .M.A., Fellow of .St .John's. Master of St John's, 1537. Provost 
of King's, 1538 3. Bishop of Chichester, 1543. 

1537 .John Redman (or Hedraayn)*, D.D., Fellow of St John's. Lady Margaret's 
Professor of Divinity," 1638 and 1549. Archdeacon of Stafford, 1540 ; of 
Taunton, 1547. Master of King's Hall, 1542. First Master of Trinity, 
154«). 

1638 [.Sir] Thonias .Smith', .M.A., Fellow of Queens'. LL.I). 1542. Regius Pro- 
fessor of Civil Law, 1642. Provost of Eton, 1547. Dean of Carlisle, 1547. 
Knighte<l, 1548. King's Secretary, 1548 ; Queen's .Secretary, 1672. 
Aniba8sa<lor to France, 1562. 

1642 [Sir] John Cheke^, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Regius Professor of Greek, 
1540. Provost of King's, 1548. Knighte<l, 1551. King's Secretary, 1663.. 

1646 Roger Ascham', M.A., F"ellow of St .John's. 

1564 Thomas Gartliner^, M.A., Fellow of Kuig's. 
1557 John Stokes, .M..*., F"ellow of King's. 

1669 George Ackworth^, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. LL.D. 1561. 

1560 Anthony Girlingtonio, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1561 Andrew Oxenbridge, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1663 William Masters", M.A., Fellow of King's." 

1565 Thomas Uyngei'-', M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. LL.D. 1570. Master of Clare 

Hall, 1571. Regius Professor of Civil l.aw, 1674. Dean of .\rches, 1595. 

1670 William l^ewin (or Lewen)'*, M.A., F'ellow of Christ's. LL.D. 1576. Master 

in Chancery, 1693. 

1671 .John Jlecon (or Beacon), Fellow of St .John's. LL.D. 1576. 

1 In previous issues of the Unieersity Calendar the list of Public Orators has been he.'uied by the iianie 
of ■ Desiderius Erasmus, D.D., Queens' ' : but the office was not instituted until after he had left En^slaud 
and settled at Basle. Tliere seems, however, to be no doubt that he liad discharged some of tlie duties 
which afterwards devolved upon the Orator. See also CommUtdoi.en' Docutnents, i. 431 — 1 

2 Richard Croke lutd l)een educated at Eton, and in 1.^06 hiul been .-ulndtted a Scholar of King's : but he 
appeal's to have interesteii inniself in the af^irs of the CoUef;e of liis ailoption. Early in 15'29, when the 
Senate decreed an annu.il service to coninieniorate Bishop Fisher's l)enefactions to the University i\nd to 
St John's, Croke protested tliat Fisher ouKlit not to be lionoured as founder of St John's, as that title 
l^longed only to the i.a<iy Margaret. For this Tlionias baiter, the historian of the ColleKe, denounces 
tiim as *an ambitious, envious, and discontented wretch.' in 1^'il lie became Canon and Sul^eaii 
of Cardinal's College, afterwards Christ Church, but failed to obtain the office of Dean, when it fell 
vacant in tlie following year, notwHthstanding the fjict that be was able to assure Thomas Cromwell that 
he Itad preacheii sixty sermons in tinrty-seven different places in favour of the King's supremacy. 

% George Day is supposed to liave Ijeen originally a Sclioliu- of Corpus. He was a)jpointe>l Provost of 
King's by the authority of ttie King, although he had never lieen a Fellow of the Society. A£ Bishop of 
Cliichester he was allowetl to hold the Provostship in comniendani with tlie Bishopric. In the reign of 
Mary he was esteemed "tlie floridest preacher' that was to be found among the prelates of the Old Learn- 
ing. Thomas Baker, comjmring him with his predecessor in the office of Orator, says tliat he was 'a much 
greater man. .thougii the other made the louder noise' (p. 113». 

4 Redman was ' profoundly learned in the Creek and Latin huigu-iges. and greatly encoiii'aged the study 
of exact classical literature' at Cambridge (Cooper, .4 fAen. Cantabr,,i. 107). He wits one of the compilers 
of the Liturgy. 

5 He took a leading part in reforming the pronunciation of Greek. His important work on tlie Tudor 
constitution, l>e /iepubfici A/i'gtoruiHy wjis first published in 1.583, six years after his death. 

6 He resigned the office of Public Orator on being appointed Tutor to Prince Edward. Cheke 
was one of the most learned men of the age, and at St John's he is said to have 'Laid the very founda- 
tions of learning.' He taught publicly the new pronunciation of Greek, althougli the success of his 
efforts were hindered for a time by a decree issued by Stephen Gardiner as Chancellor continuing the old 
pronunciation. Those who refus«i to obey it were, if regents, to be expelled from the Senate : if scholars, 
to lose their scholarships ; if ' the younger sort,' to be chastised. He is said to have been the last ' Master 
of the Glomery ' (see p. Mi). 

7 Tutor to the Princess Eltzalieth, and author of Toxophilut and The Scholeiruitter. As Public Orator 
he conducted a voluminous correspondence, and was noted for the beauty of his haiidwriting. .\s Latin 
Secretary to Queen Mary, he wrote 47 letters for her in three days to persons of exalted rank, ' of whom 
cardinals were the lowest.' 

8 Tutor to Sir Francis Walsitigham. 

9 ' Though a man of coiisiilerable talent, he was idle, a<ldict«d to drinking, and otlierwise of dissolute 
habits. On this account he lost all his preferments in England, but on 18 March, 1576 — 7, was constituted 
master of the faculties and judge of the Prerogative Court in Ireland* t/)..V.£.). 

10 He did penance, l.'i Feb. 15,t6— 7, for eating flesh in Lent (Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigientet, 1. 212). 

11 A speech which he ma<le before Queen Elizabeth in ldG4 is said to have ' pleased her M.'vjesty 
exceedingly.' 

12 In 15^, when Queen Elizatieth visited Cambridge, Byng made a Latin oration in her presence on the 
excellence of monarchical government ; it is printed in Nichols's Progreitet, iii. 63. Before bis appoint- 
ment as Orator he had served as deputy to his predecefsor. 

13 * Some, if not all, of the letters written in the name of the University during the sliort period he held 
the office of Public Orator, were by his substitute, John Becon* {D.N.B,), 



THE PUBLIC ORATOR 49 

1573 Riehard Uridgewater, M.A., Fellow of King's. LL.D. 1579. 

1680 Antliony Wingfield (or WyngefylUl)!, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1589 Henry Mowtlow^, LL.D.?, Fellow of King's. M.P. for the University, 1604. 
1594 [Sir] Kobert Nauuton^, M. A., Fellow of Trinity and afterwards of Trinity Hall. 

Knightea, 1615. Master of Requests, 1616. Secretary of State, 1618. 

M.P. for the University, 1621. 
1611 [Sir] Francis Nethersole^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Knighted, 1619. 
1619 fJeorge Herbert', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1627 Robert Creighton (or Critone), M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Regius Professor of 

Greek, 1625. Archdeacon of Stow, 1641. Ueau of Wells. Bishop of 

Bath and Wells, 1670. 
1639 Henry Moiled, M.A., Fellow of King's. Ejected, 1650. 
1650 Ralpli Widdrington", M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Regius Professor of Greek, 

1654. D.l). 1660. Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1673. 
1673 Henry PamanT, M.I)., Fellow of St John's. LL.D. 1684. 

1681 John Billers*, B.D., Fellow of St John's. 
1689 Henry Felton9, LL.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1696 William Ayloffe, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. LL.D. 1705. 

1727 Edmund Castle'", M.A., Fellow of Corpus. B.D. 1728. Master of Corpus, 

1744. Dean of Hereford, 1748. 
1730 Philip Williams, B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1730. 
1741 James Tunstall 11, B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1744. 
1746 Philip Yonge, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1750. Master of Jesus. 1752. 

Bishop of Bristol, 1758 ; of Norwich, 1761. 
1752 John Skynner, M.A., Fellow of St John's. B.D. 1756. 
1762 William Barfordi^, M.A., Fellow of King's. D.D. 1771. 
1768 Richard Bcadon's, M.A., Fellow of St Jolm's. D.D. 1780. Master of Jesus, 

1781. Bisliop of Gloucester, 1789; of Bath and Wells, 180.'. 
1778 WilliamPearceH,B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.l). 1787. Masterof Jesus, 1789. 
1788 William Lort MansePS, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1798. Master of 

Trinity, 179S. Bishop of Bristol, 1808. 
1798 EtlmundOutram, M. A., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1806. Archdeacon of Derby. 
1809 Ralph Tatliam,M. A. .Fellow of St John's. D.D.1839. MasterofSt J<ihn's, 1839. 
1836 (4 Feb.) Christopher Wordsworth "i, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1839. 

Bishop of Lincoln, 1868. 
(27 Apr.) Thomas Crick, B.D., Fellow of St John's. 
1848 William Henry Bafeson, B.D., Fellow of St Jolni's. D.D. 1857. Master of 

St John's, 1857. 

1 Nephew of tlie famous ' Bess of Hanlwick,' Countess of .Shrewsbury. Reader in Greek to Queen 
Elizabeth. In March 1.589 he Wiis KrauteU leave of absence by the University to go abroad in the Queen's 
service, on condition tliat he supplied a deputy, but he resigned otRce on 25 Sept. 1689. 

2 Several of Mowtlow's letters are in tlie Orator's book, and are renwirkable for the ease and elegance ot 
their style. 

3 See p. 39, note 11. Naunton travelled niucli abroad during his tenure of the office, and did not 
return to Cambridge to take up his duties until 1600. 

4 On the occasion of tlie visit of James I to the University in 1^4, accompanied by his son, Netliersole 
gave gi'eat offence by addressing theyoung Prince in liis oration of welcome as * Jacobule ' and ' Jacobissime 
Carole.' This led to a parody by Corbet, which began 

' 1 wonder wliat your Gnu^e doth here. 
Who have expectetl been twelve year ; 
And this your son, fair Carolus, 
That is so Jacobissimus.' 

5 On applying for the office of Public Orator in succession to Nethersole, George Herbert spoke of 
it as ' the finest place in the University.' He easily adopted the style of the professional courtier, and 
flattered both James I and Buckingham with a view to preferment. It was not until 1625 that he began 
to consider whether to pursue 'the painted pleasures of a court life, or betake biniself to a study of 
divinity,' and this question was soon after resolved by his association with Nicholas Ferrar and the com- 
munity at Little Gidding. Two of Herbert's Orations and a few of his Letters, including his Letter to his 
successor Creighton, are printed in Grosart's edition of his works (1874), iii. 379—477. 

6 ^ected for not sub.5cribing to the Engagement by the Committee for the Reformation of the Uni- 
versity, who appointed Ralph Widdrington in his place. This choice was largely due to the influence of 
^'romwell. In 16fi0 Widdrington eiitertainefl Samuel Pepys ' very courteously on his visit to Cambridge. 

7 Eight fOf Pamaii's letters as Pul>lic Orator were printed under tlie title ' Literae Academiae Cantabrigi- 
eiisis ab Henrico Panian cum esset orator publicus scriptae.' 

8 When Charles II visited Cambridge in September, 1681, Billers made a Latin speech before the King 
in Regent Walk. In 1716 he was ejected from his Fellowship as a non-juror. 

9 Formerly a member of St John s. 

10 Headmaster of St Paul's School, 1744. 

11 "Tutor and Senior Dean of St John's. He was famous 'as a pupil-monger,' both for his classical 
knowledge and for the kindness of his manners. As Public Orator he was largely an absentee, in conse- 
quence of his appointment in 1743 to be domestic cliaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his 
resignation in 1746 was probably due to the rejection of a grace continuing his leave of absence. 

12 Tutor of King's. 13 Tutor of St Johns. 

14 See p. 27, note 3. 16 See Gunning, i. 55, 194, 317 ; il 101. 

16 Youngest son of Christopher Wordsworth, Master of Trinity 1820. At Winchester he was both a 
scholar and an athlete, and was known as ' the Great Christopher ' ; and at Cambridge his list ot College 
and University honours and prizes was almost unique. He was Headmaster of Harrow from 1836 to 1844. 

H. B. 4 



50 THE REGISTRARY 

BLBCTED 

1857 William George Clark i, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1869 [SirJ Richard Claverhouse Jebb^, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Litt.D. 1885. Regius 

Professor of Greek, 1889. M.F. for the University, 1891. Knighted, 1900. 

O.M. 1905. 
1876 fSir] John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Litt.D. 1886. Knighted, 

1911. 

REGISTRARY 

The office of Registrary was established by Grace in 1506. In 
1624 John Taber, who was then holding it, complained in a 
petition to the King that 'the profits of his place' were 'very 
small ' while the duties had increased. The petition was referred 
to the Vice-Chancellor and Heads, who took occasion to make 
regulations with regard to the subscriptions to the Liturgy and 
Articles required of persons admitted to degrees. By these the 
register' of the University was required to 'provide and safely 
keep the book of subscriptions fairly bound and clasped or tyed 
up ' ; to check the lists of candidates for degrees ; and to super- 
intend the orderly admission of those desiring to subscribe, so as 
to avoid the 'great disorder at the times of subscription by. . . 
unruly crouding and striving. . .whereby the register attending 
that service hath been discouraged and wronged by some unruly 
persons'. ' In consideration of 'his daily attendance and labour 
in that service,' the Registrary was authorised to charge the 
subscribers a fee of sixpence each. Another increase of fees took 
place in 1646*, and in the next year the duties of the Registrary 
were further defined by Grace^. 

There has been a great increase in the variety and complexity 
in the duties of the office, but the historical character of it has 
been on the whole retained. The principal statutory duty of the 
Registrary is 'to keep an accurate record of the proceedings of 
the University, to place in the Registry in due order of arrange- 
ment all letters, writings, and documents defivered to him by the 
Chancellor, to construct indexes of reference whereby easy access 
may be had by the Chancellor and all concerned in the business 
of the University to the knowledge of past transactions.' For 
this purpose he is required to attend 'all Congregations of the 
Senate, the courts of the Chancellor, the audits of University 
accounts, matriculations, and all pubUc proceedings .of the 
Chancellor or of the University,' and to 'preserve carefully all 
writings and documents delivered to him,' not allowing them 'to 
be taken away or be copied without leave of the Chancellor.' 
Thus the Registrary is also Keeper of the Archives, a duty which 
at Oxford is discharged by a separate officer. Among the other 

Tutor aiui afterwards Vice-Master of Trinity. Edited (witli W. Aldis Wright) the 'Cambridge 
Shaltespeare.' The Ciarlc Lectureifhip in English Literature was founded after his death from property 
left by him to Trinity CoUefte. 

2 See Life mid Lettert (1907) by Lady .Tebb. Tlie S|)eeclies delivered liy liini on June 16. 1874, were pub- 
lished by the Chancellor's request in tlie l/nioeriit// Reporter for June 23. and were also privately printed. 

3 Cooper. Annali, iii. 163. 4 ih. p. 402. .'J ib p. 407. 



THE REGISTRAR Y 51 

duties now assigned to the Registrary by Ordinance he is required 
to receive the names and fees of all candidates for degrees, to 
ascertain that they are duly qualified, and to keep a book in 
which they subscribe their names ; to inform Examiners of their 
duties ; to edit the official pubhcations of the University ; and to 
act as Secretary to the Council of the Senate if requested by the 
Council to do so. He also accompanies addresses to the Crown, 
and has certain important duties in connexion with the Court of 
Discipline. He is required to reside within two miles and a half 
of Great St Mary's Church, and may not at any time be absent 
from the University for more than seven days in succession with- 
out appointing a Deputy approved by the Chancellor. 

The mode of election of the Registrary is the same as that of 
the Public Orator. The stipend of the office is at present (1915) 
£700 a year. 

1506 Robert Hobbs (or IIobys)i, M.A., Fellow of King's. Esquire Bedell, c. 1505. 

1543 .Joliii Mere (or Meeres)^, M.A., Fellow of King's. Esquire Bertell, 1.530. 

1558 .Matthew Stokes (Stokys)3, M.A., Fellow of King's. Fiquire Bedell, 1557. 

1591 Thomas Smith, M.A., Fellow of St .John's. Esquire Bedell, 1585. 

1600 James Taber, M.A., Corpus. 

1645 Matthew Wliiun, M.A., St John's. University Printer, 1669. 

1683 .James Halman, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Master of Caius, 1700. 

1701 Robert Grove, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

1726 Lancelot Newton, M.A., Fellow of St Jolm's. LL.U. 1728. 

1734 Jolm Taylor*, M. A., Fellow of St John's. Librarian, 1732. LL.D. 1741. 

1751 Lynford Caryl, U.D., Fellow of Jesus. Master of Jesus, 1758. 

1758 Henry Hubbard, B.U., Fellow of Emmanuel. 

1778 George BorlaseS, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. B.D. 1780. Kuightbrldge 

Professor of Moral Philosophy, 1788. 
1809 William Augustus Pemberton, B.U., Fellow of Emmanuel. 
1816 William Hustler^, M.A., Fellow of Jesus. 
1832 .Joseph Romilly^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1862 Henry Richards Luard^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.I). 1878. 
1891 John Willis Clark^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Superintendent of tlie Museum 

of Zoology, 1866—92. 
1910 John Neville Keynes, Sc.D., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1 * Item conceditur maffistro Hobbys ut possit coopertus incedere etiani in congregacionibiis et omnibus 
actis scholasticis propter exritudinem qiiam habet in capite ' (Grace of 1507—8, Grace-Book Y, p. 63). 
•I The founder of Mere's Conmiemoration (sec p. 179 below). 

3 ' A Register he was indeed both by his place and painful performance therein : for he (aa the Poets 
fain of Jaims with two faces) saw two worlds, that before and after the Keformation. In such junctures of 
time, so great the confusion and embezzUns of records, that had not Master Stokes been the more careful 
I beUeve that though Cambridge would not be so oblivious as Messala Corvinus who forgot his own name, 
yet would she have forgotten the names of all her ancient officers. To secure whose succession to posterity, 
Mr Stokes with great industry and fidelity collected a Catalogue of the Chancellors, Vice-Cliancellors, and 
Proctors' (Fuller, Worthiet, Nuttall's edn, i. 205). This book, known as 'Stokys's Book,' is still in the 
Registry. See also p. 60, note 9. 

4 Tutor of St John's. Archdeacon of Buckingham, 1753. "The excellence of T.iylor's editions of the 
Greek orators is now generally acknowledged, and they ran k witli the best productions of Knglish scholars ' 
iD..V.B.t. 

5 Edited Oraduati, 1660—1787 (published 1787) and 1660—1800 (published 1800). 

6 Edited Oraduati, 1760—1823 (published 1823). 

7 HisgreatworkasRegistraryw.HS the proper cataloguing and arrangement of, all the University |>aper3. 
He eilite<l the Oraduati, 1760—18)6 (published 1S46), and 1760—1856 (pubhshed 18.)6), He was an intimate 
friend of Adam Sedgwick, who wrote of him ' He is the oldest friend I have in Cambridge, and the kindest 
He has a great deal of Frencli blood in his veins, which makes him a merry, genial man ; and to such gift# 
he lias addetl a vast store of literature.' Romilly's Diary has t)een l.ireely used by the authors of Sedgwick's 
'Life.' as it contains nearly as much ab»ut Sedgwick as about himself (/J..V.jS.). 

8 Vicar of Great St Marys, 1860—87, in which capacity he induced the Senate to authorise the remov.al in 1863 
of the eastern gallerj-, nicknamed ' Golgotha,' which w.as occupied by the Vice-Chancel lor and the Heads of 
Houses. As Registrary he rearranged the documents under his care, binding each group in a volume with 
a separate index of his own making. These indexes were afterwards unite<l so as to give a complete clue 
to the whole body of records. One of these indexes was published in 1870 under the title : ' A chronological 
List of the (traces. Documents, and other papers in the University Kegistr)- which concern the University 
Library.' He also eilited the Oraduati, 1800-1872 (publishe<l in 18731, and 1800—1884 (published in 1884). 

9 An account of the work of the Ute J. W. Clark as Registrary will be found in a memoir by Dr A. E. 
.Shipley, Master of Christ's, published In 1913. 

4—2 



52 THE LIBRARIAN 



ASSISTANT REGISTRARY 

The oflfice of Assistant Registrary was established by Grace, 
June 11, 1885. The holder, who must be a member of the Senate, 
is appointed on each occasion for a term of three years by the 
Registrary with the consent of the Vice-Chancellor, and is 
removable by him with the like consent. The Assistant 
Registrary is under the general direction of the Registrary, and 
assists him in carrying out the duties of the office ; he discharges 
the duties of Registrary during a vacancy in that office. Present 
stipend (1915) £200. 

1885 Charles Eustace Grant, M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1893 Stanley Mordaunt Leathes, M.A., Fellow ofTrinity. 
1897 James Frederick Edmund ('auing, M.A., King's. 
1903 Edmund Gill Swain, M.A., King's. 
1905 Benjamin Benham, M.A., King's. 



LIBRARIAN 

The care of the Library was originally entrusted to the 
University Chaplain^, who was also the Cross-Keeper of the 
University, the Keeper of the Chapel and of the Schools, and 
the Executor of various University trusts. Among the holders 
of the office were Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Heath, his suc- 
cessor both in the Chaplaincy (1529) and in the Bishopric of 
Worcester (1543); while Heath was succeeded (1531-2) by 
Nicholas Ridley, afterwards Bishop of London. The primary 
duty of the Chaplain was to keep the obit of Nigel de Thornton, 
but he had charge of other exequies ordered to be observed in 
the New Chapel in the Divinity Schools of which he was custodian. 
Thus it was not unnatural that in 1570 the office should have 
been abolished 'ut Papistica.' 'It being an office and institution 
purely Popish,' says Dr Ashton, "tis no wonder it sunk at the 
beginning of Queen EUzabeth.' 

Although the office of Custos Bibhothecae was only a sub- 
sidiary part of the Chaplain's functions, the distinguished men 
who were charged with it gave much attention to the Library, and 
to one of them, Thomas Stoyle, the University is partly indebted 
for the gifts of Archbishop Rotheram, his life-long friend, while 
.Stoyle himself was one of the earhest donors of printed books. 
He died June 3, 1487, and his virtues are commemorated on a 
tablet in St Edward's Church. 

The last Chaplain, John Stokes of Queens', died in 1568, a few 
years after the abohtion of the ecclesiastical functions of the 

1 A fullaccountof this office will be found in a paper by D.-Stokeson The ChafUiim and the Chapel of 
the Univertlly of Catnbridge, l',i56— 1568 (Cambndue Aiitiquaiian Society, Octavo Publications, No. Xli 

19J6). 



THE LIBRARIAN 53 

office, and in 1577 a separate office of Librarian was created, 
a salary of £10 being assigned to it. 

Four years after the appointment of the first Librarian a Grace 
was passed in 1581 requiring Bachelors of Arts to pay 4d., Masters 
of Arts or Bachelors of Law 8d., Bachelors in Divinity I2d., and 
Doctors in all faculties 16d. to the Keeper of the Public Library 
on admission to their degrees^. In the following year regulations 
for the Library were drawn up requiring the Librarian's attend- 
ance 'the whole yeare throughowte in terme tyme, except all 
Sondayes and holydayes ; that is to say, from eight of the clocke 
untill tenne in the f orenoone, and from one till three in the af ter- 
noone: so that all Masters of Arte, Batchelours of Lawe or 
Phisicke, or any other of the Universitie above that degree, maye 
have free accesse to the books in the sayd Librarie. ' ^ He was 
also made responsible for one of the three copies of the catalogue ; 
for the key of one of the two locks of the ' convenient place within 
the Librarie' where 'all written books and all other books of 
Imagerie with colours, all Globes, Astrolobes, and all other 
instruments mathematical!' with any 'bookes Mathematical! or 
Historicair of special value were to be 'saifeUe locked up' ; and he 
was ' bound by obligation under Sureties in two hundreth pounds ' 
to keep all other books safely and to restore within three months 
any missing books and fresh copies of books 'defayced or cutt.' 
His remuneration was five marks a year ' of Lawf uU money of 
England, to be payde unto hym quarterlie by even portions, by the 
hands of Mr Vice Chancellor for the tyme beinge. ' ' In 1669 the 
stipend was fixed at £35, ' besides the usual fees from the Com- 
mencers,' but out of this allowance he was to provide 'one that 
he will trust under him.' He was also to have £10 'extraor- 
dinarily ' for ' the pains which he hath taken in setting the books 
in order. ' * 

The office of Librarian was continued on its original footing 
from 1577 to 1721, but in the latter year the University created 
by Grace a new office of ' Protobibliothecarius, ' and to this a 
stipend of £50 a year was assigned^. This was expressly in 
order to do honour to the first holder, Conyers Middleton, 
partly as a recognition of his learning, but also as a mark of 
sympathy with him in his controversy with Bentley^. The 
King's recent donation of Bishop Moore's library furnished a 
pretext, and in 1723 Middleton published a plan for the arrange- 
ment of the books, but during a great part of 1724 and 1725 he 
was living in Rome. After his death in 1750 a successor was 
appointed, and the offices of 'Protobibliothecarius' and 'Bibho- 
thecarius' continued to exist side by side for a hundred years, 

1 Cooper, Annals, ii. 387. 

2 Registry MS 31, 1, 9: cf. Baker MS, x\i, 120 j also printed from Cole in Cooiwr, Annals, it 389. 
:i /67 4 Baiter MS, xlii. fi2. 

.5 Cooper, Annals, Iv. lOT. H Gunning, Reminiscences, ii. 77. 



54 THE LIBRARIAN 

until in 1828 they were vested in the same person, with a stipend 
of £210, 'being the amount of the two salaries formerly paid.'* 
In 1845 the offices were finally consoUdated by Grace ^. 

The statutory duty of the Librarian is to ' have the custody of 
■the books of the University' and to 'arrange them in order in 
classes,' placing them 'on their proper shelves at stated times, 
and entering 'in the catalogues from time to time all newly 
acquired books.' 

The nomination and election of the Librarian was, until 1909, 
in the manner prescribed for the Public Orator and the Registrary ; 
but in that year a new Statute was obtained from the King in 
Council vesting the appointment in a Board of Electors consisting 
of the Vice-Chancellor and ten persons elected by the Senate, 
five of them being nominated by the Council and five by the 
Library Syndicate, one elector of each nomination being neither 
resident in the University nor speciaUy connected with it. The 
Librarian is required to reside within two miles and a half of 
Great St Mary's Church, and may not at any time be absent 
from the University for more than seven days in succession 
without appointing a Deputy approved by the Chancellor. The 
stipend at present (1915) attached to the office is £500 a year. 

CapellanP 

1278 Roger de Thornton. Died, 1298 ?. 
1298 Adam de Flixton. 

13— Tliurstan de Huningharo. Bedell, e. 1315. 
1347 William de Alderford. 
c. 1450 Thomas Stoyle, Fellow of Peterhouse. D.D. 1457. Master of Clare, 1466. 
c. 1470 John Ottley. 
c. 148- William Thomson, B.D., Fellow of Michaelhouse. D.D. ? Dean of the 

CoUe^te Church of Auckland, 1498. 
c. 149- Robert Chapell, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. D.D. 1507. 
C. 1610 John Ostaby, Fellow of Pembroke. 
1522 Hugh I-atimer, M.A., Fellow of Clare. Bishop of Worcester, 1535. 
1529 Nicholas Heath, M.A., Fellow of Oare. Fellow of Clirist's, 1521. Arch- 
deacon of Stafford, 1534. D.D. 1535. Bishop of Rochesten, 1540; of 
Worcester, 1543 ; Archbisliop of York, 1555 ; Lord Chancellor, 1556. 
1532 Nicholas Ridley*. M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. D.D. 1540. Master of 

Pembroke, 1540. Bishop of Rochester, 1547 ; of London, 1550. 
n540 Alban Langdale, M.A., Fdlow of St John's. D.D. 1554. Archdeacon of 
Chichester, 1555. 
1564 John Dale, M.A., PVllow of Queens'. 

1556 John Stokes, M.A., Fellow of Queens'. President of (Queens', 1660. Arch- 
deacon of York, 1660. D.D. 1664. 

Bibliothecarii 

1577 William James, M..\., Fellow of Peterhouse. 
1581 Richard Moody*. 
• 1583 Henry Frogg, Trinity. 

1 Cooper. Annalt, iv. 5SB. 2 lb. iv. 676 n. 

3 This list does not include Bishop Kilkenny's Chaplain-students (12S6) or Boger de Heydon's Chaplains 
(12761, but bettins with the Srst of N i^el de Thornton's Foundation. 

4 C/. Ridley's dyini; messaKe to the University: 'Farewel therefore Cambridge, my loving mother and 
tender Nurse, ttiou didst bestow on me all thy scnool detn^es, the common offices, the Chaplainship of th« 
University, the office of the Proctorship and of a common Reader ; and of thy private commodities and 
emoluments in Colledges wliat was it thou madest me not partner of ? ' (quoted by Dr Stokes from the 
Works of Ridley. Parker Society, p. 406) 

5 Richard Moody was the School-keeper : he was now made Keeper of the Library at a salary of five 
marks a year (Bradshaw, follectfd Paiiert. p. 191). His succe.sors, Frogit and Matthews, were appointed 
before graduation, so the office mu«t at this time have appeared of little academic importance. 



THE LIBRARIAN 55 

?1687 John Matthew (or Matthews), M.A., Trinity, 159a 

159-1 Gregory Ducket, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. U.U. 1613. 

162.3 Thomas Brookei, M.A., Clare. Esquire Bedell, 1591. University Printer, 
c. 1(508. 

1629 Abraham Wheelock^, B.D., Fellow of Clare. Sir Thomas Adams's Pro- 
fessor of Arabic, 1632. 

1653 William Moore (or More)^, M.A., Fellow of Caius. 

1659 Thomas Smith, B.I)., Christ's. 

1661 Isaac Dobson, B.D., Fellow of Corpus. 

1668 Robert Peachey, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1684 James ManfieUl, M.A., Trinity. 

1686 John Laughton, M.A., Trinity. 

1712 Philip Brooke*, B.D., Fellow of St John's. 

1718 Tliomas Macro, M. A., Fellow of Caius. 1).D. 1722. 

1721 Samuel lladderton, M.A., Fellow of Trinity {BibHothecarius alter). 

1732 John Taylor', M.A., Fellow of St John's. Registrarv, 1734. LL.D. 1741. 

1734 Tliomas Parne, B.I>., Fellow of Trinity. D.O. 1739. ' 

1761 Stephen Whisson, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1761. 

1783 John Davies, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1790. 

1817 Edward Daniel Clarke*, LL.D., Fellow of Jesus. Professor of Mineralogy, 1808. 

1822 John Lodge, M. A., Fellow of Magdalene. Protobibliothecarius, 1828. 

1845 Joseph Power", M.A., Fellow of Clare. Protobibliothecarius, 1845. 

18(i4 John Eyton Bickersteth Mayors, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Professor of 
Latin, 1872. 

1867 Henry BradshawS, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

1886 William Robertson SmithW, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Lord Almoner's 
Reader of Arabic, 1883. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic, 1889. 

1889 Francis John Henry Jenkinson, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Curator in Zoology, 
1878. 

Protohihlioihecarii 

1721 Conyers Middletoni', D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Woodwardiau Professor of 

Geology, 1731. 
1750 Francis Sawyer Parris, D.D., Master of Sidney. 
1760 Ii<lmund Law '2, D.D., Master of Peterhouse. Knightbridge Professor of 

Moral Philosophy, 1764. Bishop of Carlisle, 1768. 
1769 John Barnardiston, D.D., Master of Corpus. 
1778 Richard Farmer i', D.D., Master of Emmanuel. 
1797 Thomas Kerrich'', M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. 
1828 John Lodge, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. BibHothecarius, 1822. 
1845 Joseph Power', M.A., Fellow of Clare. BibHothecarius, 1845. 

1 See p. 222. 

2 See p. 82j note 1. 'There are traces of liis hand,' wrote Bradshaw in 1869, 'almost throughout the 
collection as it existed in his day ; and we certainly know more of the Librarj' and have more materiiUs 
still preserved there for its history from what remains to us of Wheelock's time and that of his immediate 
successor, William Moore, than we hiive of any subsequent period down to the last twenty years '(CoJ?«cfed 
J'apcrs, p. Iit5). His stipend as Public Librarian and amanuensis was £10 a year. 

3 During Moore's Librarianship he received in 16-58 from Sir Samuel Morland, Cromwell's envoy to 
the Duke of Savoy, the rem.irkable collection of Walden.tian manuscripts now in the Library. Some of 
these were long supnoseil to liave mysteriously disappeared from the Library, and it was generally 
believed that they had been removed by the Puritans ; but they were all discovered by Bradshaw in 1862, in 
their proper places, where they had probably remained undisturbed for more than a century (Bradshaw, 
Collected I'apen, pp. 1— ;f). Moore continued the ' Annales CoUegii' begun by Dr John Caius, .and be- 
queathed to his College the whole of his own library. 

4 In 1718 'proceedings were taken in the Vice-Chancellor's Court agiffnst Philip Brooke, B.D., Fellow of 
St John's College ami Librarian of the University, for disaifection to the Kinst. Pending the prosecution 
he resigned his office of Librarian, whereupon all further proceedings against him were stayed. 'The 
friends of the Government charged Dr Gooch the 'Vice-Chancellor withdisloyalty on account of his forbear- 
ance and lenity to the accused ' (Cooper, Annabi, iv. 160). 

6 See p 51, note 4. 6 See p. 96, note 1. 

7 Dean of Clare ; Tutor of Trinity HaU. 8 See p. 102, note 2. 

9 An account of this distinguished scholar's Librarianship will be found in A Memoir of Henry 
Bradihaw, by Dr G. W. Prothero, 1888. 

10 See D.tf.B. liii, 160. 11 See D.N.B. xxxvii, 31'!. 

13 See p. 84, note 3. 13 See p. 26, note 8 and Gunning, i. 54, 174—87. 

14 'In 1797 the office was again vacant by the death of the Master of Emmanuel.. .The Heads nominated 
Philip Douglas, D.D., Master of Bene't and Thomas Kerrich, B.D., President of Magilalene College. Doctor 
Doughis was a decided invalid, and confined himself very much within the precincts of his Lodge, and 
dared not for any consideration jiass three hours in the Public Library, which at that time there were no 
m»ans of warming, and it was so extremely damp tliat few persons could pass any length of time in it with 
impunity. He had besides lost one eye, and suffered so much from inflammation in the other that he 
was frequently confined for days together to his bed. Mr Kerrich never courted popularity. I have heard 
him, after his appointment, repeatetlly declare that he always considered himself one of the most un- 
popular men in the University. Having detailed the circumstances preceding and accompanying this 
election, 1 feel it quite' unnecessary to make any comments on the result' (Gunning, ii, 78J. 'To great anti- 
qiiarian and architectural knowledge Kerrich united the most accurate skill as a painter and draughtsman. 
He was also a miniature-painter and a practised etcher ' (/>.^V.B.). 



.56 



UNIVERSITY COUNSEL 



UNIVERSITY COUNSEL 



For many years it was usual to have two CJounsel retained to 
advise the University in matters of law, but of late there has been 
only one. [In 1915 two were again appointed.] 



1509 GeorBC Nichols. 
1561 [Sir] Gilbert Gerard i. d. 1593. 
1578 Thomas Andrews^. LL.B. d. 1585. 
1581 [Sirj John Brograve", St John's, d. 

1613. 
1581 [SirJ Cliristopher Yelverton*. d. 

1612. 
1586 Edward Ellis. 



1631 William Nov (or Nove)". d. 1634. 

1634 Sir John Bankes". "rf. 1644. 

1685 [Sir] Richard Lane»s, Trinity, d. 1650. 

1635 [.Sir] Geoffrey PalmerW, M.A., 

Christ's, d. 1670. 
1638 John Knightbridge. 
1641 Sir Edward Herbert i?. d. 1657. 
1641 John Fountaineis, M. A.,Trinitv Hall. 



1586 [Sir] Edward Coke*, Trinity. M.A. I rf. 1671. 

1597. High Steward, 1614.' d. 1634. | 1642 Sir Orlando Bridgeman'SM.A., Fellow 
1586 [Sir] Thomas Egerton». d.1617. of Magdalene, rf. 1674. 

1697 William Ellis. 1 1645 [Sir] Matthew Hale^. d. 1676. 



?1600 [Sir] Thomas Hesketh?. 
1604 Henry BingeS. 

1613 Sir Francis Bacon^, M.A., Trinity. 

M.P. for the Uniyersitv, 1614. d. 
1626. 

1614 [Sir] Henry YehertonW, ttA., Peter- 

house, rf. 1629. 
1617 Sir Thomas Ooyentry ". d. 1640. 
1625 Sir Richard Shelton (Sheldon or 

Shilton)!^. d. 1647. 



1645 John Reading. 

1646 Robert Barnard. 

1647 [Sir] John GlynneSi. rf. 1666. 
1660 John .Mien. 

1663 William Thursby. 

1666 Francis Bramston*!, M.A., Fellow of 

Queens', d. 1683. 
1666 Sir John Coell «. 
1671 Samuel Muck, M.A., Trinity Hall, vice 

John Fountaine. 



1 Attorney-General, 1559 ; kniKbted, 1579 : Master of the Rolls, 1581. On the occasion of this last appoint- 
ment he received a letter of confaatuhition from the University. 

2 He studied the civil law for three years at Oxford and for four at Cambridf^. ' Haviux rendered 
essential service to the University in its litigious concerns, the Senate, .constituted him solicitor to that 
body with the fee of 40s. per annum' (t'ooijer, Athen. Cant'tbr, i. 5l0). 

3 Attorney for the Dudiy of Lancaster, i.i8i) ; knighted, 160c$. 

4 Recortler of Northampton ; Speaker of the House of Commons, 1-597 : Justice of the Queen's Bench, 
1602: knighted, 1803. 

5 kecorder of Coventn . 1585 : of Norwich, 1.588 ; of London, V»l. Solicitor-General, 1-592 : Speaker, 1593 ; 
Attorney-General. 1594 : Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, l(i06 ; of the King's Bench, llilS. His Reportt 
and Jnstitutei .justify Fullt;r's quaint eulogy that 'bis learned and laborious works will be admired by 
judicious posterity while Fame has a trumpet left her, and any breath to blow therein.* 

6 Solicitor-General, 1.561 : Attorney-General, 1»2: knighted, 1593; Master of the RoUs, 1591— I6U3: Lord 
Keeper. 199t> and \9J3. Baron Ellesmere and Lord Chancellor, ItiOS. Chancellor of Oxford, 1610—17. 
Viscount Brackley. 1816. 

7 Att*iniey for tlie t'ourt of Wards and IJveries ; Recorder of Preston, 1.597 ; knighted, IGO:?. 

8 M..\. 161*4, ' on account of former gnttuitous service.' 

9 Knighted. Via. Solicitor-General, l»ir ; Attorney-General, 1613 ; Lord Keeper, 1617 ; Lord Chancellor 
and Baron Venilani, 161.^ : Viscount St Albans, 1621. 

10 Attorney -General. 1617 ; knighted, 1618 : Justice of the Common Pleas, 11525. 

11 Balliol College, (hcfonl. Recorder of London, 1616 : Solicitor-General and knighted, 1617 : Attorney- 
General. 1621 ; Lonl Keeper, 1625. Baron Coventry of Aylesborough, 1623. Clarendon says of him Uiat *ne 
understood not only the whole science and mystery of the law. .iHit had a clear conception of the whole 
policy of the goverimient both of Church and State... He knew the temper, disposition, and genius of the 
kingdom most exactly.. .He had, in the plain way of speaking and delivery, without much orn:unent of 
elocution, a strange power of making himself believeil." 

12 Solicitor-General and kniglited^625. According to Clarendon he was ' an old, illiterate, useless person." 

13 Exeter College, Oxford. Attorney-General. 1631. Tlie originator of the shii>-inoney writs. 

14 Queen's College, Oxfonl. Attorney -General to the infant Prince Cliarles. then Duke of Cornwall, 1631. 
Knighted, 1631. Attorney-General, ISM. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1641. Represented the 
Crown against John Hanip4len in the shi}>-nioiiey case. 

15 Succeeded Bankes as 'attorney to the Prince,' 1634. Knighted, 1644. Lord Cliief Baron of the 
Exchequer, 1644 ; Lord Keeper. 1645. Conducted the defence of Straffonl with great ability. 

16 Attorney-General and knighted, IHliO : baronet, 1980. He was one of the man.tgers of .StrafTord's im- 
peachment, hut afterwanls joine*! the King's fxirty. 

17 .Attorney-General to the Queen, 1636 ; Solicitor-General, 1640 ; Attorney-General and knighted, 1611 ; 
Lord Keeper, 165.3. 

18 ProbAbly the John Foiuitaine who was Serjeant-at-law, 16SS, and Commissioner of the Great Senl, 

19 Solicitor-General to the Prince of Wales, 1640 ; knighted, 1640 : Cliief Baron of the Exchequer. ItWO ; 
btironet, 16K0 ; Loni Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1H60— 8 : Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1667—72. 

20 Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Justice of the Common Plea.*, 16.54: Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 1660; 
knighted, 166i>; Loni Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 1671. Ba.xter describes him as 'the pillar of 
justice, the refuge of the subject who feared oppression, and one of the greatest honours of bis Majesty's 
goveniment.' 

21 Hart Hall (since merged in New College*, Oxford. Recorder of London, IMSL One of the managers 
of Strafford's impeachment. Justice of A-'size, c. 1654: Chief Justice of the Upper Bench, 1655—9 ; knighted. 
1680 

22 Serjeant-at-law, 1689; Baron of the Exchequer, 1671 
•23 Master in Chancery ; knighted, IHtB. 



UNIVERSITY COUNSEL 



57 



1678 [Sir] Robert Wright i, Caius ? d. 1689. 
1684 Hon. Oliver Mountagu 2 M. A.,Trinity. 
1698 [Sir] James Montagu a, Trinity, d. 

1723. 
1718 Sir Robert Raymond*. Christ's, d. 

1733. 

1718 James Reynolds*, Queens', d. 1739. 

1719 Samuel Mede. 

1724 Sir Philip Yorke*. High Steward, 

1749. LL.1). 175a 
1733 [Sirj John Willes?. d. 1761. 
1733 John Noel, Khig's. 
1738 Nicholas FazakerleyS. d. 1767. 
1757 Hon. Charles Yorke^, M.A., Corpus. 

M.P. for the University, 1768. d. 

1770. 
1767 Edmund Hoskins. 
1770 William defirey 10, Trinity Hall. M.A. 

1770. M.P. for the University, 1770. 

(I. 1781. 

1770 Francis Cust. 

1771 Richard .Jackson 11. (M787. 

1787 [Sir] Robert (irahamia, M.A., Fellow 
of Trinity. LL.D. 1835. d. 1836. 

1791 [Sir Simon Le Blanc i^ I.L.B., Fellow 
of Trinity Hall. </. 1816. 

1799 Hugh Leycester, M.A., Fellow of 
King's. I.L.D. 1782. 



1800 Hon. Spencer Perceval i*, M.A., 

Trinity. 
180T JohnLensis, M.A.,St John's. Fellow 

of Downing, 1800. d. 1825. 
1811 [Sir] yenry Dampierie, M. A., Fellow 

of King's, d. 1816. 
1813 [Sir] Joseph Littledale", M.A., 

Fellow of St John's. (/. 1842. 
1825 Thomas Starkie", M.A., St John's. 

Fellow of St Catharine's. Ilowning 

Professor of the Laws of England, 

1823. 
1825 [Sir] Nicholas Conyngham Tindaiw, 

M.A., Fellow of Trinity. LL.U. 

1835. 
1825 [Sir] F^ward Hall Aldersou^o, M.A., 

Fellow of Caius. d. 1857. 
1830 Henry UickerstethSi, M.A., Fellow ot 

Caius. d. 1851. 
1836 [Sir] William Webb Follett22, M.A., 

Trinity, d. 1845. 
1841 John Cowling, M.A., Fellow of St 

John's. 
1857 Hon. George Dennian'^, M.A., Fellow 

of Trinity, d. 1896. 
1857 John Baily, M.A., Fellow of St 

John's. 



I King's Serjeant, 1«80 : knighted, 1680 ; Baron of tlie Exchequer, 1684 ; Recorder of Cambridge, leSH ; 
Justice of tlie King's liench, 168,? ; Chief .lustice of the Common Pleas, 1687 ; Chief Justice of the King's 
Bencti, 1687. Took part as an Ecclesiastical Commissioner in tlie expulsion of the Fellows of Magdalen, 
Oxford, and presidea at the trial of tiie Seven Bishops. 

•2 Son of the Earl of Sandwicli. 

3 Probably Sir James Montagu, grandson of the tirst Et-xrl of Manchester. Knighted. 1705; Solicitor- 
General, 1707 ; Attorney-General, 1708—10 ; First B.'iron of tlie Exchequer, 17'J2. 

4 Solicitor-General, 1710—14; kiiiuhted, 1710: Attorney-Gener,iI, 1720—4; Judge of the King's Bench, 
1724; Lord Chief Justice of the Kinii's Bench. Baron Raymond of Abtxit's Langley, 17,'!1. 'Raymond was 
a man of ^reat learning, and, although he does not rank with the most illustrious of the sages of the law, 
left an enviable reputation for strict, impartial, and painstaking ailministration of justice.' 

•5 Recorder of Bury St Edmunds, 1712; Judge of the King's Bench, 17*25; Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, 1730. 

6 .See p. 29. ' It is hardly too much to say that in the co.urse of somewhat less than twenty years 
he transformed equity from a chaos of preceflents into a scientific system,' 

7 Trinity College, Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls. Attorney-General, 1734; knighted, 1734; Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, 1737. 

8 Recorder of Preston, 1742-67. 9 See p. 31, note 7. 

10 See p. 31. He was an accomplished lawyer, "and possessed a wonderfully retentive memory. 
Lord Eldoii declared that he would come into court with both hands crippled by gout, try a cause which 
lasted nine or ten hours, and then correctly sum up all the evidence without the aid of a single note' 
iD./f.B.). 

II A Lord of the Treasury. 1782 — 3. 'From his extraordinary stores of knowledge he was known as 
"Omniscient Jackson," but Johnson in speaking of him altered tlie .'uljective to "all-knowing" on tiie 
ground that the former word was "appropriated to the Supreme Being" (O. A'. B.). 

12 Attorney-General to the Prince of Wales, 17i)3 ; Baron of the Exchequer, 171.9 ; knighted, 180O. ' He 
was an urbane but inefficient judge ' in.y.H,). 

13 Serjeantat-law, 1787; Judge of the King's Bench, 1799: knighted, 1799. Lord Campbell describes his 
appearance as * prim and precise,' but expresses a high opinion of his ability. 

14 Second son of Sir John Perceval, second Earl of Egmont. Solicitor-General. ISOl ; Attorney-General, 
1802 ; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1807 ; Prime Minister, 1809. A3S,-»ssinated, 1812, by John Bellingham in 
the lobby of the House of Commons. 

15 King's Serjeant, 1806. He was named a lay Fellow of Downing in the original charter of the College. 
He refused various honours, including the Solicitor-Generalship, 1813, although it was pressed upon him by 
the Prime Minister at the request of the Prince Regent. His independence was proverbial, and the to;ist 
' Sei^eant Lens and the independence of the Bar' was given at public dinners. 

16 Judge of the King's Bench, 1813. Knighted, 1813. ' Few have left a name so universally respecteil.' 

17 Juilge of the King's Bench, 1814 — 41; knighted, 1824. According to Lord Canipl^ll, Littledale was 
' one of the most acute, learned, and simple-minded of men,' but a lawyer and little more. At the time 
when he was a speci<il pleader, before being cilled to the bar, on being asked what his politics were, he 
gave the famous reply : ' My politics are the politics of a special pleader. ' 

18 Originally at St John's. 

19 Solicitor-General and knighted, 1826 ; Chief Jastice of the Common Pleas, 18'29. See also p. 32. 
He was very le.arnetl in legal antiquities, and is famous for having successfully claimed for his client 
in the CJise of Ashford v. Thornton tlie right of wager of battle. 

20 Judge of the Common Pleas, 1830: knighted, 183'J; Baron of the Exchequer, 1834. 

21 Studied medicine in London and Edinburgh. Miister of the Rolls, 1836. Baron Langdale. 1836. 
Temporarily Speaker of the Houseof Lonis, 185J. As Keeper of the Rolls he was ' the father of record reform. ' 

22 Solicitor-General, 1834—5 and 1841 ; knighted, 18:i4 ; Attorney-General, 1844. He had the reputation 
of being the greatest advocate of the nineteenth century. 

23 Son of the first Lord Denman, Lord Chief Justice. 1832—50. Judge of Common Pleas, 1872 ; of Queen's 
Bench Division of the High Court, 1881—92. Rowed seven ag.aiiist Oxford, 1841 and 184'2, and won the 
Colquhoun Sculls, 184'2. 



58 THE ESQUIRE BEDELLS 



1867 George Druce, M.A., Fellow of Peter- 

liouse, vice liaily. 
1869 Sir Richard Baggallayi, M.A., Fellow 

of Caius, vice Druce. </. 1888. 
1872 [Sir] James Fitzjames .Stephen', 

M.A., Trinity, vice Uenman. d. 1894. 



1875 George "Wirgman HemniingS, M.A., 
Fellow of St John's, vice Baggallay. 
Ilcsigued, 1887 ; d. 19C5. 

1879[-1914] Artluir Cohen, M.A., Magda- 
lene, vice Stephen. 



ESQUIRE BEDELLS* 

The Bedells were not originally members of the University, 
but 'privileged persons,' claiming, in virtue of their oflBce, 
exemption from the town jurisdiction. Thus they are not at 
first described as Esquire BedeUs. The first known use of the 
term Armiger Bedellus is in 1473, in reference to John Canterbury, 
the first member of the University to hold the ofiice* except 
Robert Woodlark, afterwards Provost of King's. 

An early reference to this office occurs in the Ordinance of 
1276 embodying the decisions of Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of 
Ely, on certain questions in dispute between the University and 
the Archdeacon of Ely which had been referred to him. From 
this it appears that two Bedells of the University were required 
to be present 'bearing their staves, at all vespers, inceptions, 
congregations, exequies of the dead, and at all other assemblies, 
no one else being allowed to bear a staff to their prejudice'®. 
One of these was described in the old Statute as Bedell in Theology 
and Canon La;W, and the other Bedell in Arts ; but when the study 
of Canon Law was abolished the Senior became simply the Bedell 
in Divinity. But there is also a reference to a third Bedell, the 
'Bedell of Glomery,' who was prohibited from bearing a mace 
before the Chancellor and Masters 'in the aforesaid assembhes 
and places' — presumably because, like the 'Master of Glomery,' 
who presided over the 'Glomerels' or students in grammar, he 
owed obedience to the Archdeacon of Ely rather than to the 
University^. He, however, disappears after 1276 and is not 
referred to again. More than a century later a reference again 
occurs to three Bedells, for in 1386 Pope Urban VI granted that 
'John Wesenham, William Wykmore, and WiUiam Fysshewyke, 
married men, and bedels of the University, should have as full 
power of granting plenary indulgence of sins at the point of death 
as the best clerks'^. The third Bedell was sometimes called 
Bedellus Subsidiarius, or simply 'the other Bydill.' In later 
times the three officers came to be known as the Senior, the 

1 Solicitor.General, 18B8 and 1874; knighted, 1868; AttornejMSeneral, 18?4; Justice (afterwards Lord 
Justice) of Appeal, 1875—85. 

2 Legal member of Council in India. 1869—72. Professor of Common Law at the Inns of Court, 1875. 
K.C.S.I. 1877. Judae of the High Court, 1879-91. Baronet, 1891. 

3 He resinned oflice in 18'^. when he Wiis appointed a Referee of the Supreme (iiurt, and no successor 
to him was appointed fintil 1915. HeniminK wrote several mathematical works, including Billiardt 
m'tthematicaltff Irpafed, 1809. 

4 The history of this office has been exhaustively treated by Dr Stokes in The Etquire Bedelti of the 
VnirerMii of C imbridge (Cambridge Antiquarian S<x;iety, Octavo Publications, No. XLV., 1911). 

5 John Canterbury was a Fellow of King's and married the Provost's sister. 

6 Cooper, Anntil*, i. 56. 

7 Mullinger, i. 236 «., also 140. 340 : and A. F. Leach, The School/ of Medieval England (1915), pp. l.~, 171. 

8 Baker MS. xliL 180, quoted In Cooper, AnnaU, i. 131 



THE ESQUIRE BEDELLS 59 

Middle, and the Junior Bedells. By the Statutes of 1858 the 
number of Esquire Bedells was reduced to two, and on the death 
of George Leapingwell in 1863 his place was not filled. The office 
of Yeoman BedelP also came to an end in 1858. 

The present Statutes provide for two Esquire Bedells only, 
equal in rank, who shall attend the Chancellor on all public 
occasions, and perform such duties as may be defined from time 
to time by Grace. They are to be nominated and elected in 
the same manner as the Vice-ChanceUor. A stipend of £100 
a year is attached to each office. 

The University possesses four silver-gilt maces, three for 
Esquire Bedells, presented by George Vilhers, Duke of Bucking- 
ham 2, Chancellor in 1626, and one for a Yeoman Bedell, presented 
by Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, who succeeded the Duke of 
Buckingham as Chancellor in 1628. The Esquires' maces are 
engraved with the Royal arms, the University arms, and the 
arms, crest, and badge of the donor, and each has three mottoes 
taken from one of the Latin editions of the Bible. The Yeoman 
Bedell's mace is like the others, except that the staff is of 
mahogany with the central part encircled by two silver rings 
engraved with a motto. The arms are those of the University 
and of the Earl of Holland. At the instaUatien of Lord Rayleigh 
as Chancellor in 1908 the mace of the Yeoman Bedell was borne 
by the University Marshal, who has also carried it in academical 
processions since that date. 

The Royal arms on the top of the maces were cut out during 
the Commonwealth, but they were replaced in 1663, as appears 
from the bUl preserved at the Registry. 

3[1250J Ralph Piroun. Benefactor. 
Robert Gosnel. Benefactor. 
3 [1260] Walter de Wells. Benefactor. 
c. 1270 Thomas le Be<lel. 
c. 1270 Thomas de Tuddenham. Benefactor. 
c. 1270 Walter de Oxford. Benefactor. 
c. 1279 Walter le Bedel. 
10U7 (William Russell, 
c. l^»( (TRobert the BedelH.l 
c. 1290 Thomas de Watlington. Benefactor, 
c. 1290 Robert Carless. Benefactor. 
c. 1300 [Reginald the Bedell 5.] 
c. l.SOO Christopher the Bedell. 
c. 1300 Robert the Bedell. 

c. 1315 Thurstan de Huningham. University Cliaplain. Benefactor. 
c. 1324 Stephen de Eye. Benefactor. 
c. 1350 Henry the Bedell. 
c. 1360 Adam de la More. Benefactor. 

1 The duties of this functionary were sometimes unpleasant. In 1581 John Stanilish was called upon to 
arrest a ' berewani' and nearly fell into the clutches of the bear (Cooper, Annalt, ii. 383) ; and in 158-3, in 
trying to pull down the sixn of an unlicensed vintner, he was resisted ' with skaldinge water mynj^led with 
lyme and aishes, and witii stones and brickbattes' ilb. p. 406). 

2 Accordin!! to Fuller, he 'gave the bedells their old silver staves, and bestowed bett«r and bigger on the 
University, with the King's and his own .irms insculpfed thereon.' A more detailed description of the 
maces win be found in an article by A. P. Humphry, M. A., Esquire Bedell, in the Cambridge Antiqtuirian 
Society Communicationn, iv. 207. * 

,S Where dates are placed in square brackets tliey are only approximate. 

4 Pos.sibIy identical with Robert Carless (c. 1280) or Robert the Bedel) (c. 1300). • 

5 This may be the Oxford Bedell of that name. 



60 THE ESQUIRE BEDELLS 

BLECTED 

c. 1350 nichard de Betelle. Benefactor, 
c. 1355 John de Arundel. 

SJolin de Wesenliani. 
William Wigmorei. 
William Physwick. 
c. 1408 Richard Bristow. 
c. 1418 John Phvswick. 

c. 1440 Robert vVotKllark. Provost of King's, 1452. 
c. 1450 William Bedell. 
c. 1455? Christopher the Bedell. 

( Alan Semper. Died 1488. 
c. 1460 J William Dalton. 

(Thomas Bury, 
c. 1470 John Canterbury, Fellow of King's. 
c. 1485 Laurence Bretlierton. 

c. 1485 John Carsev, Corpus, Bedell of Divinitv. Benefactor. 
c. 1490 Philip Morgan-!, M.A., Fellow of Kin/s, Bedell of Arts. M.D. 1507. 
c. 1495 John Bedford, Third Bedell. Benefactor. 
c. 1500 [William Pickerell, M.A., Fellow of Jesus.]* 
c. 1505 Robert Hobhs (or Hobys)S M.A., Fellow of King's, Bedell of Arts. 

Registrary, 1506. Resigned, c. 1529. Died, 1543? Benefactor. 
C-. 1509 PeterChekeS, Be«lell of DiWnity. Die(L 15.%. Benefactor, 
c. 1510 JohnClark'',I,L.B.?,Fellowof King's, ThirdBedell, Died,1521. Benefactor. 
c. 1521 Thomas Adams, Third Bedell. Died, 1555. Benefactor. 
c. 1529 William Sherwood, M.A., Fellow of St John's, Bedell of Arts. Resigned, 1549. 
[1530] James I'rniston, M.A., Bedell of Divinity. 
1530 Jolin Mere (or Meeres)', M.A., Fellow of King's, Bedell of Divinity. 

Registrary, 1543. Died, 1558. Benefactor. 
1549 William Flued, B.C.L.?, Bedell of Arts. 
c. 1550 William Bronsted, M.A., Peterhouse, Bedell of Arts. Died, 1563. 

1555 William Muryell, Third Bedell. Dismissed s, 1556. 

1556 John Baxter, B. A., Fellow of St Catharine's, Third Bedell. Died, 1596. 

1557 Matthew Stokes (or Stokys)», M.A., Fellow of King's, Bedell of Divinity. 

Registrary, 1558. Resigned, 1585 ; died, 1691. 
1663 John Redman, Peterhouse, Bedell of Arts. 
c. 1579 Philip Stringer*", M.A., Fellow of St John's (vice Redman, resigned). 
1585 Thomas Smith'!, M.A., Fellow of St John's {vice Stokes, resigned\ Regis- 
trary, 1591. 
1591 Thomas Brooke, M.A., Clare (vice Stringer, resigned). University Printer, 
c. 1608. Librarian, 1623. 
c. 1592 William In^fram, M.A., Magdalene {vice Smith, resigned). LL.D. 1604. 

1596 Richard Ridding '2, M.A., St .John's (iK'ce Baxter, deceased), 
tf. 1605 .John Wiseman, M.A., Jesus (yiVc Initram, resigned). 
1^1624 Thomas Buck, M.A., Fellow of St Catharine's (vice Wiseman, resigned). 

I'niversity Printer, 1625. 
131626 John Buck, M.A., St Catharine's (originally Magdalene) (vice Ridding, 

deceased). University Printer, 1625. 
131629 Francis Huglies, M.A., Trinity (vice Brooke, deceased). 

1669 John Peck, M.A., Fellow of St John's {vice Hughes, deceased). University 

Printer, 1680. 

1670 William Worts**, M.A., Fellow of Caius(fiVe Thomas Buck, deceased). 

1 He appears to liave been an unpopular person, and in the riot of the Town against the University in 
1381 the mob went to his house anti Mestroy d and burnt the same, conveying away his Goods. They also 
proclaim'd. That the first that could light on the said William, should kill him' (Parker, nittory, vii— x, 
quoted by Dr Stokes). 

2 Physician to the Lady .Manuaret. See also p. SB. 

3 K IS possible that William Pickerell was only a Deputy Beilell for Mornan. 4 See p. 81. 

5 Sir John Cheke's father. During his tenure of the office of Re<leU of Divinity, he was indicted ' for 
using of unlawful games and other misorders,' but this may have been only an episode in the standing 
qu.trrel between the University and the Town. 

6 * Item conceditur magistro Gierke 1)edello vt possit incedere capite cooperto tcmporibus hiemalibus et 
aliis teniporibus frigidis ac etijim temporibus quibus euni egrotari cuntingit propter diuersa incomoda et 
egritudines que proveniunt sibi et frigidltate accepta in capite' (Grace of 1517—18, Orace-Book p, p. 1581. 

7 See p. 51, note Z 

8 Muryell was not properly elected, but was appointed by the Chancellor on his own authority. An 
account of his dismissal is given in Mere's Third Dinry (Uimb's Docmnrnti, p. 184 etc., quoted by I)r 
Stokes). 

9 Matthew Stokes established during his lifetime almshouses for six poor widows in Wall's Lane, now 
King Street. These he devised to the University, vesting the appointment of the inmates in the Vice- 
Chancellor for the time being (Cooper, Athen. Cantabr. ii. 1091. See also p. 51, note 3. 

10 Steward of St John's. 11 See p. 51. 

12 Milton, who was in residence as an undergraduate at Christ's when Ridding died, commemorated him 
in a Latin elegy ( Ktegiarum Liber ii). " ^ 

.13 By a Grace of Dec 5, 1664, the three Esquire Bedells, ' being all old and infirm,' were allowed a deputy 

14 Father of the Benefactor (p. 188, note 2). 



THE ESQUIRE BEDELLS 61 

BLECTED 

1680 Hugh Martin, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke {vice John Buck, deceased). 
University Printer, 1682. 

1682 Purbeck Richardson •, M.A., Fellow ofTrinity {vice Jolin Peck, deceased). 

1683 John Pern, M.A., Fellow of Peterliouse {vice Richardson, deceased). 
1704 Edward Clarke^, M.A., Fellow of dare (vice William Worts, deceased). 

1715 Richard Attwood^, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke (vice Pern, deceased). 

1716 Itobert Simpson, M.A., Fellow of Caius {vice Martin, deceased). 

1727 (13 Jan.) Thomas Iluntman, M.A., Fellow of Trinity {vice Clarke, deceased). 
(14 Dec.) [Sir] James Rurrough*, M.A., Fellow of Caius (vice Huntman, 

deceased). Master of Caius, 1754. Knighted, 1754. 
1734 Thomas Hurrowes, M.A., Fellow of Trinity (vice Attwood, deceased). 
1749 Thomas Rennett, LL.B., Queens' (vice Simpson, deceased). 
1754 Reilby Porteus*, B.A., Fellow of Clirist's {vice Burrough). M.A. 1755; D.l). 

1767. Bishop of Chester, 1776 ; of London, 1787. 
1765 Francis Dawes", B.A., Fellow of I'eterhouse {vice Porteus, resignetl). M.A. 

1757. 
1767 AV'illiamCliafy, B.A., St John's (viCfBun'owes, deceased). M.A. 1769. After- 

wartls Fellow of Sidney. 
1770 John Beverley ^ R.A., Christ's (y/cc Bennett, deceased). M.A. 1770. 
1772 Richard Hey*, M.A., Magdalene {vice Chafy, resigned). Afterwards Fellow 

of Sidney and tlien of Magdalene. LL.D. 1779. 
1775 William Matliew", LL.B., Fellow of Jesus {vice Hey, resigned). 
1789 Henry Gunning 'o, B.A., Christ's (vice Dawes, deceased). M.A. 1791. 
1797 Charles Isola", B.A., Emmanuel {vice Mathew, deceased). M.A. 1799. 
1814 George Ware, M.A., St John's {vice Isola, deceased). 

1826 George LeapiugwelP^^ M.A., Corpus {vice Ware, decease<l). LL.D. 1851. 

1827 William Hopkinsi^, B.A., Peterhouse {vice Beverley, deceased). M.A. 1830. 

1 'Oil the 28th of March [1683J Purbeck Hichardson, one of the Esquire Bedels, in a fit of insanity, 
destroyed himself witli a musket ni his chamber in Trinitj" College ' (Cooper, A iinals, ii. ; S9S). 

2 The most remarkable event in liis official career was hisattempt to arrest Dr Bentley. Master of Trinity. 

3 After his election the successful pjindidate reconis in his diary, *I invited the whole University next 
day to a Klass of wine at tlie Mitre, except tlie Heads.' He also treated the whole College. 

4 See p. 20, note 5. He wa« one of the tliree corpulent Bedells referred to in the line 

'Pinguia terjfeminoruni alxlomina Bedellorum.' 

5 His extravagant eulogy of George 11 in his Seatonian Prize Poem on * Death' in 1759 caused him to be 
gibbeted by Thjickeray in The Four Oeovjes. But he was a most energetic ami generous bisliop, and one 
of his sermons on the instruction of youtli led John Norris to found the Norrisian Professorship of Divinity. 

6 He was Senior Bursar of Peterhouse. fiuiining gives an account of his suicide iltenunisamcKs, i. VJS). 

7 Beverley seems to liave ohtJiined liis office through the influence of Lord S<indwich, at that time First 
Lord of tlie Adminilty, with wliom lie was a great favourite. In his Re-miniscenccs Gunning, wiio had no 
great resiject for him, ^ives many illustrations of the careless way in which he performed his duty. After 
the death of Matliew ni 1797 he api>ears, as Senior Be<lell, to have had things very much his own way, as 
■ the few Heads who had usually been considered the expounders of o.ur statutes, and who. whenever a 
difficulty arose, were a])plied to for a solution, were either dead or too infirm to attend Congregations, .and 
it not unfreqnently happened, at the close of a Congregation, for Borlase (the Registrary) to renLark to me, 
" I presume you are aware everything that has been done this morniniris unstatutable." To this remark 
it was impossible not to assent' {Heviinhcences, i. 14!*— 50). Beverley was, however, a musician and a 
collector, and he published in 17dS a book on Senate House Ceremonies. When he had completed his 
fiftieth year of onice, the Senate provided a Deputy for him, and John Smith, B.A., of St John's, the 
decipherer of Pepys's Diary, was appointed in ISiil. Gunning gives an account of him in his ICeminU- 
cencen (ii. 3:51 — H). 

8 Tutor of Mai^dalene, 1782 — 96. His chief work was a Dissertation on the Pei^iicioug £;^erts of GaTning, 
bv which he gained a prize of fifty guineas ofl'ered by an anonymous donor through the University. He 
also gained another prize, offered by the same donor, for his DistertatUm on Duelling, and a third prize 
with his Dissertation on Suicide, See Gunning. Itcjniniscenees, i. 252, and p. 313 below. 

9 See Gunning's aupi-eciation of him {/teminiscences, ii. 74). 

10 The author of the lleminis)ences (1780—1830), published posthumously in 1851, the year of his death. 
"Though he did not begin these entertaining sketches until he was more than eighty years old, they betray 
few marks of senility. The anecdotes of his contemporaries are highly amusing, and his facts are usually 
accurate ' (/>..V.S.). He also publisheii in 1828 a new edition of Adimi Wall's Ceremonies observed in the 
.Semite Housfofthe Universtty of Cambridge. As Senior Bedell he received the customary gold chain 
from three Chancellors at their installations. 

11 Charles Isola was the son of Agostino Isola, a teacher of Itali.in in Cambridge, who had numbered 
among his pupils Wordsworth and other distinguished men. Charles Isola's daughter, Emma, was 
adopted by Charles Lamb after her father's deatn. Gunning describes Charles Isola as 'a nuin of in- 
offensive manners' but of great shyness and reserve. *We held office together for sixteen years in the 
most perfect harmony. I found him kind and accommodating, and ready to undertake all the duties that 
did not include the necessity of dining in a large i>arty. to which he had an insui)erable objection' 
{Reminiscences, ii. 7.5 — 6). See also 'The Isola Papers' published in the Cambridoe Review, 1915. 

12 * Having most acutely felt the degradation of being obliged to associate with men whom 1 blush to 
recollect as my colleagues, I have a proud satisfaction in being able to record the entire restoration of the 
respectability of the office of Esquire Bedell by the appointment, .of George Leapingwell, M.A., of Corpus 
(the son of my old College friend, with whom in my undergraduateshiy I had passed so many merry hours) 
and of William Hopkins of Peterhouse, who was elected the following year' (Gunning, Reminiscences, 
ii. :t58). See also p. .59 supra. 

13 William Hopkins, mathematician and geologist, was remarkably successful as a private tutor. He 
had among his pupils nearly 200 wranglers, of whom 17 were senior and 44 in one of the fii-st three 

6 laces. They included Stokes, Kelvin. Tait, Fawcett, Clerk Maxwell, and Todhunter, and it was 
[opkins's admirable letter to Fawcett after his accident that first rousetl him to his resolute acceptance of 
his blindness (see Leslie Stephen's Life of Fawcett). After his death the Hopkins Prize (see p. 341) was 
founded in his memory by the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 



62 ADDRESSES TO THE CROWN 

BLECTKD 

1854 Hugh Godfray, B.A., St John's {vice Gunning, deceased). M.A. 1855. 

1866 William Henry Besant, M.A., Fellow of St John's (vice Hopkins, deceased). 

ScD. 1883. 
1870 Robert Kalley Miller, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse {vice Besant, resigned). 
1873 Edward John Gross, M.A., Fellow of Caius {vice Miller, resigned). 
18"7[-1913] Alfred Paget Humphry, M.A., LL.M., Trinity {vice Gross, resigned). 
1877 Frederick Charles Wacei, M.A., Fellow of St John's {vice Godfray, 

deceased). 
1893 Wilfred Austin Gill, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene {vice Wacc, deceased). 
1900 Arthur Humble Kvans, M.A., Clare (vice Gill, deceased). 

*;,,* Lists of the holders of University offices since 1910 will 
be found in the current issue of the University Calendar. 



ADDRESSES TO THE CROWN 

The following Regulations, adopted by Grace of March 4, 1858, 
govern the action of University officers on the occasions when 
addresses to the Crown are presented on behalf of the University. 
These are for the most part based upon earUer custom. 

The Council recommend that upon every occasion the deputation to 
be appointed to accompany the Chancellor in the presentation of the 
address should consist of the Vice-Chancellor, the Public Orator, the 
Proctors, and the Eegistrary, together with six other Members of the 
Senate, to be nominated by the Vice-Chancellor. 

The Coimcil recommend, further, that, as it has been allowed on late 
occasions, the Registrary should attend the Chancellor to the foot of 
the Throne and hold the address while the Chancellor reads it ; and that 
he should afterwards call over the names of the deputation in the order 
of seniority. 

The Council recorfimend also that, in conformity likewise with recent 
custom, the Esquire Bedells should precede the Chancellor with their 
maces, and in approaching the royal presence should fall aside at such 
point of time as will conveniently admit of the deputation passing by 
and advancing to the Throne ; and that on the return of the Chancellor 
to the door of the presence-chamber they should conduct him back in 
the same order in which they went. 

And, lastly,, the Council recommend that the expenses of the Vice- 
Chancellor, the Public Orator, the Proctors, the Registrary, and the 
Esqviire Bedells only should be paid out of the Common Chest. 

1 Mr Wace was Mayor of Cambridge for the year 1890—1, and discharged Ids academie duties by 
deputy. 



University Courts 



The jurisdiction now possessed by the Court of the Chancellor 
Masters and Scholars of the University of Cambridge — often 
called "the Chancellor's Court," and still more frequently "the 
Vice-Chancellor's Court" — appears to have originated in a 
charter of Edward I. The University having petitioned Parlia- 
ment for the grant of a forensic jurisdiction, and having been 
answered that it should receive the same powers that Oxford 
enjoyed, the King in 1305 gave to the "scholars" of the Uni- 
versity power to summon the burgesses and other laymen of the 
town before the Chancellor, in all litigation that did not concern 
landed property. Edward II in 1317 confirmed this power by 
a grant that "all causes of clerks arising out of. . .contracts 
concerning moveables in Cambridge" should be decided by the 
Chancellor. Edward III, in his 17th year, made a similar 
confirmation; and added a provision that the Chancellor "shall 
not be in any wise molested in the King's Court in consequence 
of any imprisonment or punishment which he may have imposed." 
Ten years later^ he bade the Justices of the Peace for the County 
of Cambridge abstain from trying any indictments brought 
before them in cases to which any scholars of the University 
were parties; "the cognisance of such cases being a privilege of 
the Chancellor of the University." Richard II in 1383 specially 
confirmed by charter, in definite detail, the Chancellor's right to 
exercise jurisdiction over "all manner of personal pleas, whether 
of debts accounts and any other contracts and wrongs, or of 
breaches of the peace and misprisions whatsoever, committed 
within the town of Cambridge and its suburbs (felony and mayhem 
alone excepted) in which a master or scholar or a scholar's servant 
or a common officer of the University is one of the parties ; . . . 
and to do execution thereon according to their laws and customs " ; 
and to imprison convicted offenders in Cambridge Castle or any 
other gaol of the town. The award of 1502 made between the 
University and Town, at the instance of the Lady Margaret, 
accordingly arranged that the Town gaoler should keep in secure 
places such persons as should be committed by the Chancellor; 
and from privileged persons should take no fee, and from all other 
persons so committed only the fees therein specified. 



64 UNIVERSITY COURTS 

Henry IV, in his second year, gave a charter which purported 
to empower the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge to exercise 
their forensic jurisdiction according to the course of the Civil 
Law, instead of the doctrines and procedure of the Enghsh 
Common Law. But only six years later, when the Chancellor of 
Oxford had accordingly tried an action of debt by the methods 
of Civil Law, this power was pronounced by the whole of the 
King's judges^ to be invahd ; because, though the King could 
create new Courts, he could not by his grant alter the law of the 
land, for neither the Pope nor any other person could change 
the Common Law without a parliament. Yet the Civil Law 
procediu'e continued in use at both Oxford and Cambridge; 
probably as deriving its authority not from royal charter but 
from a higher source — that of immemorial custom. 

By letters patent of April 26, 1561, Elizabeth declared the 
University coiurt to be a court of record ; and confirmed Richard's 
grant to it of jurisdiction over civil proceedings (however great 
the amount in dispute) in which title to land was not concerned, 
and over criminal proceedings for all offences below the grade of 
felonies and mayhems, whenever one of the parties to the pro- 
ceeding enjoyed the privilege of the University. At the same 
time she provided a higher criminal jurisdiction, by granting 
that whenever any person enjoying the privilege of the University 
should be accused by a "layman," at the assizes or quarter- 
sessions, of having committed treason or felony or mayhem in 
the town or county of Cambridge, the University might claim 
the prisoner. He would then be tried by its High Steward 
{Senescallus Cancellarii) ; but in the Common Law manner, and 
accordingly with a jury — half of them being members of the 
University and half not. For each case, however, a special 
commission must be obtained from the Lord Chancellor of the 
realm, to authorise the High Steward to try the offender. 

The jurisdiction of the Chancellor's Court Elizabeth directed 
him to exercise according to the University's "laws and customs 
in use aforetime"; and she confirmed to the University all the 
privileges granted by her predecessors. But, as invalidity was 
suspected in some of these dispositions, the sanction of Parha- 
ment to them was obtained a few years later. In 1571 by 
13 EUz. c. 29, her letters patent of 1561, and all other letters patent 
granted by any of her predecessors to either of the Universities, 
were declared to be of as fuU legal effect "as if the same letters 
patent were recited verbatim in this present Act of Parliament." 
This "blessed act," as Lord Coke gratefully terms it 2, placed 
beyond challenge the authority of the University Court and the 
power of the Chancellor to employ a Civil Law procedure. Thus 
he could sit in private, could interrogate the accused, could refuse 

1 Godbolt 201. 2 4 Inst. 227. 



UNIVERSITY COURTS 65 

him the aid of counsel, and could try him without a jury. Almost 
simultaneously, a room on the east side of the Schools Quadrangle 
was fitted up ^ as a Consistory Court for the Chancellor's use. 

In 1600, as we find from a description of the University sub- 
mitted by the Registrary (Mr Taber) to Sir Robert Cecil on his 
becoming Chancellor the Consistory Court sat weekly in term 
time to administer justice whenever claimed either by or against 
a person enjoying the privilege of the University. Its procedure, 
Uke that of the Ecclesiastical Courts, was by "citation" and 
"Ubel." Indeed the essentially ecclesiastical character of the 
court was shewn by its having power to grant probate of the 
wills of resident members of the University, by its authority to 
punish such persons for incontinency, and by its success in 
"excommunicating divers mayors of the town of Cambridge for 
impugning the known privileges of the University." ^ It could 
suspend from degrees, and could imprison; but, by a University 
statute of 1569, any sentence of imprisonment passed upon a 
Doctor, or a sentence of expulsion passed on anyone, was 
ineffectual unless assented to by a majority of the heads of 
Colleges. From this Court there lay an appeal to the University 
itself, which would be heard by Delegates elected by the Senate 
(as in the well-known case of Mr Frend in 1793). Their decision, 
as Mr Taber noted, would not be open to review by any of the 
ordinary courts of justice, "the Common Law and Civil Law very 
much disagreeing, and therefore the one not fit to correct the 
error of the other." But (according to Blackstone) an appeal 
would lie to the King in Council. In 1771 we find the Chancel- 
lor's Court claiming jurisdiction over a case in which two under- 
graduate fellow-commoners had been indicted at the Cambridge 
Quarter Sessions for having assaulted the University Printer at 
a coffee house in the town^. 

To exercise the Chancellor's authority there was also an 
inferior court, in which his Commissary was the judge. It sat 
both in the University and in Midsummer and Sturbridge 
Fairs. But it could deal with no case in which anyone of so 
high a degree as that of a Master of Arts was concerned. From 
it an appeal lay to the Chancellor's Court; and thence to the 
University's Delegates. 

Probably the maintenance of- these jurisdictions was somewhat 
irksome. At any rate it was found at Oxford, as Dr John WalUs 
writes thence in 1667 to Sir LeoUne Jenkins, that there "the 
Vice-Chancellor's officers cannot arrest a person, or execute a 
writ, but they are presently sued for it in the courts above. 
And, though perhaps it be but a matter of forty shillings, it 

1 Willis and Clark, iii. 22. 

2 The rlKht to excommunicate in temporal causes was surrendered by both Universities in 1533 or ISM 
(Grace-Booh B, ". pp. xiv, 183, and r, P. 171- 

3 Jiex V. Agar and O'Meara, 5 Burrows 2820. 

H. B. 5 



66 UNIVERSITY COURTS 

shall cost the University as many pounds to defend their juris- 
diction; the townspeople always countenancing all vexatious 
actions of this kind, and frequently bearing the charges of them." 

Still greater difficulty impeded the exercise of the High 
Steward's jurisdiction. Blackstone could not find that at Oxford 
any case had been tried under it since the reign of Charles I. 
Sir Leoline Jenkins explains the reason. When active in Oxford 
as Master of Jesus, in 1664, he writes^ that there the University 
had sometimes preferred to abandon its claim to try privileged 
persons, who had committed felony, because of the great cost of 
obtaining the necessary commission for the High Steward and of 
bringing him down to Oxford to sit in judgment. Thus, as he 
tells us, ''one Pidessey, the Proctor's man, killed one Marsh. . .and 
was tried by the City Justice at the Guildhall and was hanged. 
Whereas 'twas thought he had not all the justice he ought to 
have had; and that if he had been tried by the University he 
might have been saved. And, before that, Dr Dun, who was 
then student of Christ Church, killed a boy; and brought 
down a commission and the Sub-Steward, who was then Ser- 
geant Crook; and had his trial by the University; and was 
acquitted. I ever thought it the safest way for a privileged 
person to be tried at home. The manner of Dr Dun's trial was 
this: — the Steward sat in the middle of the bench; the Vice- 
Chancellor on his right hand; and the doctors and masters sat 
round about the bench, in their formahties. The trial was in 
the ordinary form as in other courts." 

At Cambridge the High Steward seems not to have tried any 
case since "many years" before 1798, when Gwilhm edited 
Bacon's Abridgment; though he adds that, as might well be 
in that age of duelUng, "instances have unhappily occm-red in 
which the claim might have been made." Indeed the University 
Commissioners who reported in 1852 found that the High 
Steward's jurisdiction had "become in practice a merely nominal 
power," except in his Court Leet for superintending weights 
and measures. 

In 1828, by the 9 Geo. IV, c. 31, Parliament conferred upon 
Justices of the Peace sitting in petty sessions a summary juris- 
diction over cases of assault ; and the Act contained no reserva- 
tion of the University's hitherto exclusive jurisdiction over cases 
in which its members were concerned. The Chancellor's Court 
seems accordingly to have found its business greatly diminished ; 
as undergraduates guilty of assault were henceforward more 
commonly tried by the Justices than by the Vice- Chancellor 
or Commissary. The Commissioners in 1852 reported that 
the Chancellor's Court was already obsolete except in cases of 
discommuning or of a Universityman's breach of discipline. 



UNIVERSITY COURTS 67 

For the assertion of the Chancellor's privilege was, they found, 
"attended with considerable difficulty; in consequence of the 
formalities required for establishing the claim of cognisance 
when the complaining party has appealed to the municipal 
magistrates or to the Superior Courts of Law." Accordingly 
the way was easy for the Cambridge Award Act, 1856, to provide 
(s. 18) that "the right of the University, or any officer thereof 
to claim conusance of any action or criminal proceeding, wherein 
any person who is not a member of the University shall be a 
party, shall cease and determine." (At the same time, s. 15, the 
University's powers in the market and fairs of the borough were 
aboUshed.) 

Hence the Chancellor, and similarly the High Steward, is now 
only competent to deal with cases in which both the defendant 
and also the plaintiff or prosecutor enjoy the privileges of the 
University. At Oxford the Chancellor's civil jurisdiction retains 
its original wide range; and, probably on that account, his 
Court retains some measure of activity. When, in 1865, it 
successfully claimed cognizance of an action^ which a wine- 
merchant had commenced in the Queen's Bench against an 
undergraduate resident in Oxford, Lord Chief-Justice Cockbiu-n 
remarked "It is- in general, better that cases should be tried in 
the superior courts . . . yet such a local court as this may be 
extremely useful in deciding questions . . . which may depend 
much on the custom of the place and the rules of the University." 

A little later the statutes jnade for the University in 1858 
recognized (c. 5, s. 1) the Chancellor's power to hear and determine 
all controversies of all scholars and their servants summarily, 
and without anj' legal formaUty beyond what these statutes 
impose, according to the Civil Law and the privileges and cus- 
toms of the University. As, four years previously, the Oxford 
University Act, of 1854, had provided (s. 45) that "the Court of 
the Vice-Chancellor at Oxford shall in all matters of law be 
governed by the common and statute law of the realm, and not 
by the rules of the civil law," and that its procedure should be 
re-modelled on that of the county courts, Cambridge now remained 
the only home of those civilian doctrines which Blackstone 
called "the King's Academical laws." In matters of civil 
litigation that fell under academical jurisdiction (c. 8) our Chan- 
cellor's powers might be exercised by the Commissary unless a 
Master of Arts or one of higher degree was one of the Utigants; 
but in that case the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor must sit. 
For matters of penal discipline (c. 7, s. 4) persons in statu pupillari 
might be tried by the Chancellor sitting alone ; but any sentence 
so grave as deprivation of degree or expulsion must have the 
consent of a majority of the heads of colleges. After that consent 

1 Partont v. Lard WiUoughby, Vi W. R. 315. 

5—2 



68 UNIVERSITY COURTS 

no appeal would lie. But, in the case of such offenders against 
the statutes and ordinances of the University as had advanced 
beyond the status pupillaris, a new form of the Chancellor's 
tribunal was established; by associating with him sex viri 
biennially elected. He, sitting with at least three of these, was 
empowered to punish by deprivation or suspension of degrees or 
any lighter penalty. But an appeal would lie to Delegates 
appointed by the University. 

By the University's present statutes (Statute A, of 27th 
February, 1882, c. 8) all 'causes and contentions which belong 
to the cognisance of the University' may be submitted to the 
judgment of the Chancellor or the Commissary; unless one of 
the htigants be a person having the degree of Master of Arts or 
some equal or higher degree, in which case the Chancellor only 
will have jurisdiction. From the Commissary an appeal Ues to 
the Chancellor; and from him to Delegates appointed by the 
Senate. These provisions appear to relate to the Chancellor's 
civil jurisdiction, now practically obsolete ^. As regards his penal 
jurisdiction, he is authorized to decline exercising it; he "shall 
decide whether or not any person charged with any offence 
shall be prosecuted in his court" (Stat. A, c. 5). At the same 
time it is expressly recognized (c. 5, s. 1) that for "disobedi- 
ence to the statutes or ordinances of the University" the Chan- 
cellor can at his discretion punish members of the University 
who are in statu pupillari, by suspension of degree or other 
lighter sentence. But for graver offences (c. 7) a fuller court of 
discipline for offenders in statu pupillari is provided ; consisting 
of the Chancellor sitting with six Heads of Colleges periodically 
appointed. By the concurrence of the Chancellor and three of 
these Heads a sentence so grave as actual deprivation of degree 
or rustication or expulsion can be imposed. It was decided by 
the Court of King's Bench in Frend's case (6 T.R. 89) that the 
Heads who similarly sat with the Chancellor under EUzabeth's 
statute were merely his assessors, a check on his severity but not 
parties to his judgment ; but under the statutes of 1882 the six 
Heads are made component members of the court. For senior 
members of the University, no longer in statu pupillari, who 
are charged with offences against the statutes or ordinances of 
the University, the adjudicating court is to consist, as under the 
statutes of 1858, of the Chancellor and the Sex Viri (an appeal, 
as before, lying from them to the University's Delegates). It 
seems somewhat anomalous, though historically intelligible, 
that for the more dignified offenders a less dignified tribimal 
should be provided than for undergraduates. 

1 For a etrikine instance of its exercise in 18CP, see the Life of Itaac Milner. pp. 38S— 392 and 4SZ—tM : 
also 12 East 13. On the University's claim of cognisance, the litigation was removed from the Court of 
King's Bench. The cause of action was the oral statement in the Senate Hou.se. by the defendant, of the 
facts which made it impos»ble for him to vote for the election of the plaintiff as Vice-Chancellor. 



UNIVERSITY COURTS 69 

By a private Act of Parliament passed in 1894 (57 and 58 Vict. 
0. LX. s. 5), as the result of amicable negotiations between the 
Borough Council and the University, the Chancellor's Court 
ceased to possess a jurisdiction, which Queen Elizabeth's before- 
mentioned letters patent of 1561 had confirmed to it, over 
"common women, procuresses, vagabonds and other persons 
suspected of evil coming or resorting to the town and suburbs," 
whom it had been authorized to punish "by imprisonment of 
their bodies, banishment, or otherwise." This jurisdiction had 
been twice tested, and confirmed, in Queen Victoria's reign by 
important litigation; in 1861 in Kemp v. Neville^, and in 1891-2^ 
in Ex parte Hopkins and Hopkins v. Wallis. 

In the seventeenth century the great mathematician Wallis 
insisted, on behalf of Oxford, that unless the chartered jurisdiction 
of the University Courts were maintained "the government of 
the University cannot subsist."^ In the eighteenth century. 
Lord Mansfield pronounced that jurisdiction to be "essential to 
the happiness of the University."* But in the nineteenth. Lord 
Chief -Justice Coleridge recognized that this exclusive jurisdiction 
was appropriate only in "a state of things which has now passed 
away."^ 

C. S. K. 



1 10 C.B. (N.S.) 52!. 2 61 L.J.R., Q.B. 240. 3 l,i/e of Sir Leotine Jenkins, ii, 662. 

4 -2 Douglas at p. SO. 6 L.R., 6 Q.B.D. at p. 771. 



Professorships^ 



The Professorships are not the oldest teaching posts in the 
University. The first of the existing Professorships is the 
Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity, founded in 1502, but 
as early as 1501 Roger Collingwood, M.A., Fellow of Queens', 
the author of Arithmetica Ezperimentalis, began to receive a 
stipend of two marks a year from the University^, and the 
occurrence in the University accounts of the names of a regular 
series of successors in this office indicates the establishment of 
professional salaried teaching in mathematics, as distinguished 
from the ordinary compulsory public lectures of the regent 
masters and doctors. In 1539-40 the name of Roger Ascham 
occurs in the succession, and he receives 'xxvj' viij"*' 'pro lectura 
Mathematica.'^ The payment of fees to Caius Auberinus (see 
p. 47 note 1) for a Terence lecture began stUl earher, his fees 
for Long Vacation lectures being entered under date 1492*, and 
after 1511 the payment of salaries to lecturers becomes an 
important item in the University accounts*. 

The Regius Professorships were not founded until 1540, but 
they were preceded by Sir Robert Rede's foundation in 1524 of 
of three Lectureships or Readerships in Humanity, Logic, and 
Philosophy (see p. 147). It is possible that these Readerships, 
together with the mathematical Lectureship referred to in the 
preceding paragraph, are identical with the Praelectorships in 
Mathematics, Philosophy, Logic, and Rhetoric which are to be 
found in the reign of Elizabeth®. Thus although, as Dean 
Peacock remarks', ' the estabUshment of the Regius Professor- 
ships was preparatory to a most important change in the system 
of academical education, ' it only accelerated a process, aheady 
begun, by which the endowed University teacher displaced the 
amateur. 

In 1590, just fifty years after the foundation of the Regius 
Professorships, Robert Cooke, Clarencieux King of Arms, granted 
to the five Regius Professors by letters patent, ' and their 

1 A fuller account of the foundation of the Profesaordiips will be found in the Endowmentt (ed. J. W. 
Clark, 1904). 

2 Grmt-Book B, I. pp. xviii. 171. 3 lb. B. ir. p. 23& 
4 M. B, I. p. 44 : see also p. xix. 5 lb. B, It. p. xix. 

6 The presumption of identity is based not onW on the corresrondence of the subjects tauitht. but also 
on the fact that the appointments described in the Graces as Praelectorehim are indexed at the Registry 
under ' Barnaby Lecturers,' and a list of Praelectors from 1668 to 1683 is bound into a volume entitled 
' Kede Lecture' Ivol. li'— thus establishing the existence of a definite Registry tradition that the oflBces 
were the same. Materials for a list of the holders of these Praelectorships compiled from ilrare-Book A 
and three lists of the personnel of the University at different dates preserved among the Lansdowne MSS., 
were printed by Profe^or G. C. Moore Smith in the Cambridgt Retietc for February 11, 1914, 

T Quoted in MulUn^r, li. Si n. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 71 

Successors in lyke place and office for euer' the following official 
arms and crests^ : 

1. Regius Professor of Physic. Arms: azure a fess ermine 
and three lozenges gold ; on a chief gules a gold leopard charged on the 
side with the letter M sable. Crest: on a wreath gold and azure a silver 
quinquangle. 

2. Regius Professor of Civit, Law. Arms: purpure a millrind 
cross gold ; on a chief gules a gold leopard charged on the side with the 
letter L sable. Crest : on a wreath purpure and gold a flying bee gold. 

3. Regius Professor of Divinity. Arms : gules on a cross ermine 
between four doves silver a book gules edged and clasped gold and charged 
with the letter O sable. Crest : on a wreath silver and gules a dove flying 
silver with an olive branch in its beak. 

A. Regius Professor of Hebrew. Arms: silver the Hebrew 
letter T\ sable on a chief gules a gold leopard charged on the side with the 
letter H sable. Crest : on a wreath silver and sable a turtle dove azure. 

5. Eegius Professor op Greek. Arms: per chevron silver and 
sable with the letters A and Q in the chief and a grasshopper in the foot 
counter-coloured ; on a chief gules a gold leopard charged on the side with 
the letter G sable. Crest : on a wreath silver and sable an owl silver with 
beak legs and ears of gold. 

Under Statute B. c. xi the University has power to determine 
from time to time by Grace for every Professorship and Readership 
the time during which the Professor or Reader shall be bound to 
reside in the University, care being taken that the Professors 
and Readers shall as a general rule be resident throughout full 
term time, provided that in the cases of the Regius Professor of 
Hebrew and the Ely Professor of Divinity due regard be had to 
their obligations of residence and other duties as Canons of the 
Cathedral Church of Ely. This includes the power in exceptional 
cases to make for particular Professorships a permanent provision 
that the Professor shall not be bound to reside in the University 
throughout full term time. 

The University also has power to determine from time to time 
by Grace what is to be held to constitute residence. The Regula- 
tions at present governing the residence of Professors and 
Readers are given in the current issue of the University Calendar. 

LADY MARGARET'S PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY 

This Professorship was founded in 1502 by the Lady Margaret 
Tudor, mother of Henry VII, the Foundress of Christ's and St 
John's Colleges. The Lady Margaret's stipend of 20 marks per 
annum was augmented by James I in 1605 with the rectorial 
tithes of Terrington, Norfolk (of which a portion is now assigned 
to the endowment of the Norrisian Professorship), and by Mrs 
Alice Davers in 1625 with a small garden in Cambridge. The 
'ancient stipend' of about £10 is still paid by the University. 

1 See Sir W. H. St John Hope's paper On the Arm'irial fjjifigns of the UniversHu and Colleges of 
Cambridge (CanibridKe Antlqimrian Society, Proeeed/ngt and Communications, viii. 107). Tile oruinal 
letters patent are preserved in tlie Registry. Tliey are printed in Endoumentt, p. 33. 



72: PROFESSORSHIPS 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor, together with the 
Doctors and Bachelors in Divinity who are also members of the 
Senate. Candidates are required to be in Holy Orders. If there 
are more than fom* applicants the Vice-ChanceUor, together with 
those members of the Special Board for Divinity who are electors 
and are not themselves applicants, select four of them, and these 
four are required to deliver a prelection before the electors on 
some branch of Theology, not exceeding an hour in length, on 
a day to be fixed by the Vice-ChanceUor. No elector may vote 
who has not heard the prelections of all the candidates. An 
election cannot be made until a candidate has obtained a majority 
of those present and voting, and if after six scrutinies no election 
has been made the appointment for that turn lapses to the 
Chancellor. The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for 
Divinity. 

ELECTED 

1502 Jolin Fisher', D.l)., Master of Micliaelliouse. Cliancellor of the University, 

1504. Bishop of Rochester, 1504. President of Queens', 1505. Cardinal, 15.^5. 
1504 Thomas Cosyn^, D.l)., Master of C'-orpus. Chancellor of the University, 1490. 
1506 William Bufgoine, B.D. Master of Peterhouse, 1518. 
1611 Desiderius Krasmus, D.U., Queens'. 
1515 .John Fawne^, D.U., Fellow of Queens'. 
1521 Thomas Ashley, D.l)., Fellow of King's. 
1532 William Buckmaster*, D.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. 
1538 John Kedman''', D.D., Fellow of St John's. Public Orator, 1537. Archdeacon 

of Stafford, 1540 ; of Taunton, 1547. .Master of King's Hall, 1542. Master 

of Trinity, 1546. 
1^42 William Skete, B.D., King's. D.D. 1544. 
1544 William Glj-n6, D.D., Fellow of Queens'. Fellow of Trinity, 1646. President 

of Queens', 1553. Bishop of Bangor, 1555. 
1549 .John Redman*, D.I)., a second time. 
1554 Thomas Sedgwick (or .Segiswvcke)^, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Regius Professor 

of Divinity, 1567. 
1556 George Bullock 8, B.D., Master of St John's. D.D. 1557. Deprived, 1559. 
1559 Robert Beaumont (or Beamond)*, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. Master of 

Trinitv, 1561. D.D. 1564. 
1561 Matthew Mutton w, .M..\., Fellow of Trinity. Master of Pembroke, 1562. 

Regius Professor of Divinity, 1562. D.D. 1565. Dean of York, 1567. 

Bishop of Durham, 1589. Archbishop of York, 1596. 
1563 John Wliitgift", H.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. D.D. 1567. Regius Professor 

of Divinity, 156T. Master of Pembroke, 1567. Master of Trinity, 1567. 

Dean of Lincoln, 1571. Bishop of Worcester, 1577. Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 1583. 
1567 William Chaderton (or Cliatterton) »2, B.D., Fellow of Christ's. President of 

Queens', 1568. D.D. 1569. Regius Professor of Divinity, 1569. Bishop of 

Chester, 1679; of Lincoln, 1596. 

1 Fisher was appointed first Lady Margaret's Professor or Reader by the Foundress herself in the deed of 
foundation. See also p. 36. 

2 See pp. 18 and 36. 3 See p. 22. 4 See p. 22. 

5 See p. 48. note 4. 

6 See p. 2J. note 3. According to Sir John Wynne he was ' a great achoLir and a great hebrician," 
though Hebrew was ' rare at that time." 

7 See p. 7-5. Described as * learned, liut not very wise." 8 He died at Antwerp, c. 1580. 

9 See p. 23. Baker «Uls him 'a learned, good man. but deeply tinctured." presumably with Romish 
doctrine. In his will, however, he desired to be buried without 'the jangling of bells or other Popish 
ceremonies, ' 

10 See p. 75. ' In 1.5&1 he distinguished himself by his ability in the theological disputations before 
Queen Elizal^eth at Cambridge, and his character was established as one of the ablest scholars and 
preachers in the University ' ( D.S.B.). 

11 Entered first at Queens" : then migrated to Pembroke Hall ; finally elected to a Fellowship at Peter- 
house. Whitgift suggested the revision of the University statutes, earned through in Sept. 1.570, by which 
the election of the V"ice43hancellor and of the Caput was practically left to the Heads. He was himself 
electful Vice-chancellor in Nov. 11570, and used the new powers to deprive Cartwright- See p. 24. 

12 Orlginallv at Pembroke. Sir John Harington describes him as ' a learned and grave doctor, able 
to lay aside his gravity, even in the pulpit ; well beloved by scholars for not affecting any sour or austere 
fashion, either in teaching or governing." See also p. 75. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 73 



ELKCTED 

1669 Thomas Cartwrigliti. B.D., Fellow of Trinity (formerly Fellow of St John's). 

Ejected, 1570. 
1570 John >Still2, B.I>.. Fellow of Christ's. D.D. 1575. Master of St John's, 1574; 

of Trinity, 1577. Archdeacon of Sudbury, 1577 ; Bishop of Bath and Wells, 

1593. 
1573 John llansonie (Hanson), B.D., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1583. 
1674 Peter Baro (or Barrowe)», Trinity. LL.B. (incm-p.) 1576. D.D. 1576. 
1596 Thomas Plavfere (or Plavford)*, D.D., Fellow of tSt John's. 
1609 John Davenants, B.D., Fellow of Queens'. D.D. 1609. President of Queens', 

1614. Bishop of Salisbury, 1621. 
1623 Samuel Wards, D.D., Master of Sidney. Archdeacon of Taunton, 1615. 
1643 Richard Holdsworth', D.D., Master o"f Emmanuel. Archdeacon of Hunting- 
don, 1634. Dean of Worcester, 1647. 
1649 Richard LoveS, D.D., Master of (-'orpus. Dean of Ely, 1660. 
1661 Peter Gunnuig^, D.D., Fellow of Clare. Master of Corpus, 1661 ; of St John's, 

1661. Regius Professor of Divinity, 1661. Bishop of Chichester, 1669 ; of 

Ely, 1675. 
1661 John Pearson 10 D.D., Master of Jesus. Archdeacon of Surrey, 1660. Master 

of Trinity, 1662. F.R.S. 1667. Bishop of Chester, 1673. 
1673 Ralph Widdrington", D.D., Fellow of Clirist's. Public Orator, 1660. Regius 

Professor of Greek, 1654. 
1688 Humphrey (ioweri^, D.D., Master of St John's. Master of Jesus, 1679. 
1711 Robert Jenkinis, D.D., Master of St John's. 

1727 John N'ewcome, D.D., Fellow of St John's. Master of St John's, 1735. 
1765 Zachary Brooke, D.D., Fellow of St John's. 
1788 John Mainwaring, B.D., Fellow of St Jolm's. 
1807 Herbert Marsh", B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1808. Bishop of Llandaff, 

1816 ; of Peterborough, 1819. 
1839 John James Blunt, B.D., Fellow of St John's. 
1855 William Selwyn^ B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1864. 
1876 Joseph Barber i^ightfoot'^, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Hulsean Professor of 

Divinity, 1861. Bishop of Durham, 1879. 



1 OriKinally at St .John's, and formerly Fellow and Junior Dean. In his lectures a.s Lady Margaret's 
Professor on the Acts of the Apostles, he criticized the constitution and hierarchy of the Church, comparing 
them with those of the primitive Christian orKanizations, and thus shifted the ground of controversy 
between .4nglicans and Puritans from the service-book and ceremonies to Church government and 
organization. He may be regarded as the most influential Puritan teacher of his day. 

2 Long reputed on insufficient evidence to be the author of 'Ganmier Gurton's Needle.' Sir John 
Harington wrote of him : * I hold him a rare man for preaching, for arguing, for learning, for ly ving ; I 
could only wish that in all these he would make lesse use of logique and more of rhetoricke.' 

3 Peter Bjiro was a native of France, who by the influence of Lord Biirghley, then Chancellor, was 
admitted to Trinity and incorporated from the University of Rourges. Fuller (p. 289) refers to him as 'a 
great scholar,' for *he who denicth learning in Baro (so witnessed in his works) plainly aflirmeth no 
scholarship in himself." 

4 Linacre Lecturer and Senior Dean at St John's. ' His reputation jis a fluent preacher in Latin was 
high,' but Thomas Baker says of him, ' had his sermons never been printed he had left a greater name 
behind.' 

6 Bishop Hall speaks of the ' great reputation ' which Davenant gained at Cambridge as Divinity Pro- 

6 Originally at Christ's. Fellow of Emmanuel, l.'i9.5— 9 ; of Sidney, 1.599. 

7 Originally at St John's ; Fellow, 1613. Holdsworth w<aa elected Professor when a prisoner in the 
Tower as a Royalist by order of the Parliament, and he never returnetl to Cambridge to take up the duties 
of the office. 

8 Originally at Clare ; Fellow, c. 161.5. Llojd calls him 'a natural wit and orator,' and adSs that when 
Lady Margaret's Professor, he was sure ' to affront any man tliat put up questions against the doctrines or 
discipline of the Church of England in the worst of times.' 

9 'Tutor of Clare. Both Evelyn and Pejiys speak of Gunning very highly, the latter referring over and 
over again to his ' excellent sermons,' and John Barwick, the Dean of St Paul's, calls him ' the l>est friend 
of his soul and by far the most learnefl of theologians.' But he opposed the newly-founded Royal Society, 
fearing that researches into natural science might tend to undermine revealed truth. 

10 Entered at Queens', but mis;rated to King's : Fellow of King's, 16;(4. Probably the ablest English 
scholar and systematic theologian of the 17th century. Bentley calls him 'the most excellent Bishop 
Pearson, the very dust of whose writings is gold.' 

11 See p. 49. 

12 Origin.illy at St John's ; Fellow, 16.59. Appointed Miister of Jesus 11 July, and resigned 3 Dec. 1679, 
having been elected Master of St John's. 

13 Fellow of St John's, 1680. 

14 Second Wrangler and second Smith's Prize. M.irsh by his writings ' introduced into theological study 
at Cambridge a more scientific and liberal form of Biblical criticism ' ( 7). X.B. ) . He delivered his professorial 
lectures in English, and not as hitherto in Latin, and his first course was given in Great St Mary's 
instead of the Divinity Schools, so as to accommodate the crowded audience, which listened to him 'with 
rapture.' In addition to being * the best pamphleteer of the day ' he was a good chess-player. 

1.5 The founder of the Selwyn Divinity School. See p. 2-54. 

16 Tutor of Trinity ; founder of the Lightfoot Scholarships for Ecclesiastical History. For an account of 
the important influence exercised by him on Cambridge thought see the Dictionary of National 
Biography. 



74 PROFESSORSHIPS 

SLBCTBO 

1879 Cliarles Anthony Swainsoni, D.D., Fellow of Christ's. Xorrisian Professor 

of Divinity, 1864. Master of airist's, 1881. 
1887 Fenton John Antiiony Uort*, D.D., Fellow of Emmanuel. Hulsean Professor 

of Divinity, 1878. 
1892 Joseph Rawson Lumby*, D.D., Fellow of St Catharine's. Norrisian Professor 

of Divinity, 1879. 
1895 Arthur James Mason*, D.D., formerly Fellow of Tiinity. Fellow of Jesus, 

1896. Master of I'embroke, 1903. 
1903 Alexander Francis Kirkpatrick', D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Regius Professor 

of Hebrew, 1882. Master of Selwyn, 1898. Dean of lily, 1906. 
1907 [-11] William Ralph Inite*, B.D., formerly Fellow of King's. Fellow of 

Jesus, 1907. D.D. 1910. Dean of St Paul's, 1911. 

REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY 

This Professorship was founded by Hentiy VIII in 1540. The 
original stipend of £40 per annum was augmented by James I 
in 1605 with the Rectory of Somersham, Hunts. The endowment 
was further augmented in 1878 by a bequest of £1000 from 
George Jeremy, M.A., of Lea Coombe House, Axminster. By an 
Act of 1882 the Rectory of Somersham was severed from the 
Professorship, the Professor to receive one-half of the net income 
of the benefice. 

The Regius Professor was required by the Statutes of Elizabeth 
of 1572 to preach a sermon every year on May 8, in commemora- 
tion of King Henry VII, whose Benefaction of 1504 assigned 
£10 a year 'to be employed and disposed for the common wele' 
of the University. 

The electors are the CouncU of the Senate. The candi- 
dates, who must be Bachelors or Doctors of Divinity and Clerks 
in Holy Orders, are required to 'expound openly in the Public 
Schools for the space of one hour a part of Holy Scripture' 
assigned by the electors. No elector is allowed to vote who 
has not attended the expositions of all the candidates. Present 
stipend (1915). about £700 exclusive of any Fellowship. The 
Professor is assigned to the Special Board for Divinity. 

BLBCTKD 

1540 (SuT Wygan, D.D. 

? John Madew, D.D., Fellow of St .John'?. Master of Clare, 1549. 
1550 Martin Buter'. D.D. 1550. 
• 1555 John Young*, D.D., Master of Pembroke. 

1 Originally at Trinity ; Tutor of Christ's, 1817—51. He was the autlior of important works on the Creeds 
and the Greek Liturgies. 

2 Originallv at Trinity. For his remarkable work in association with bis friends Li^htfoot and 
Westcott, see the Life by Artliur Fenton Hort, 1S96. 

3 OriKinally at M.iwialene. Vicar of St Edward's, Cambridge, 1875i For an account of his work, see 
the iHrtionary of Sationat Biography. 

4 See p. 28. ft See p. 77. 

6 Fellow and Tutor of Hertford College. Oxford, 188»-L''(U. 

7 Educated at Heidellierg. Invited to Enahnd by Crantner, wbo bad already .ippointed his former 
colleague. Peter .Martyr, to the Kexius Professorship of Divinity at Oxford. John M:idew at once retire<l 
from the Professorship in his favour, and the stipend was increase<l to £1<)0, 'the ordinar}- salary tripled,' 
says Fuller (p. 2MI, ' as well it might, considering bis worth, being of so much merit : bis nee<l. having wife 
and children : and his condition, coming hither a foreigner, fetched from a far country.' Bucer's views as 
Professor excited much controversy in Cambridge, but when he died, Feb. '2S, l.^J, :iOCtO people attendeil 
his funeral. He was buried in Gretit St Mar>'s Churcli. but during tlie visitation of the University under 
Queen Marv in l.V}7 his body wasexhumed and publicly burned on Market HilL 

8 Formerly Fellow of St John's, and afterwards of rrinitv. As Regius Professor, Young delivered a series 
of lectures entitled ' Enarrationes Joelis Prophetae,' which he dedicated to Ciirdinal Pole : they are now 
among the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library. He had been one of Bucer's principal critics. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 75 

KLKCTED 

1657 Thomas Sedgwick (or Segiswycke) ', U.l)., Fellow of Trinity. I.ady Margaret's 

Professor of Divinity, 16i54. 
1559 James Pilkington, B.D., Master of St John's. Bishop of Durham, 1561. 
1561 Leonard PilkingtonS, B.I)., Master of St John's. D.I). 1664. 
1662 Matthew HuttouS, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, l.Wl. Master of Pembroke, 156-2. D.D. 1665. Dean of York, 

1567. Bishop of Durham, 1589. Archbishop of York, 1596. 
1567 Jolm Whitgift*, D.D., Fellow of Peterliouse. Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, 1563. Master of Pembroke, 1567; of Trinity, 1567. Dean of 

Lincoln, 1571. Bishop of Worcester, 1577. Archbishop of Canterbury, 

1583. 
1669 William OiadertouS (or Chatterton), D.D., President of Queens'. Lady 

Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1667. Bishop of Chester, 1679; of 

Lincoln, 1695. 
1580 William Whitaker«, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. Master of St John's, 1586. 

D.D. 1587. 
1696 John Overall?, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Master of St Catharine's, 1598. 

Dean of St Paul's, 1602. Bishop of Lichfield, 1614 ; of Norwich, 1618. 
1607 John Richardson 8, D.D. , Fellow of Emmanuel. Master of Peterhouae, 1608: 

of Trinity, 1615. 
1617 Samuel Collins^, D.D., Provost of King's. 

1651 Jolm Arrowsmithio, D.D., Master of St John's. Master of Trinity, 1053. 
1656 Anthony Tuckney ", D.D., Master of St John's. Master of Kmmanuel, 1644. 
1661 Peter Gunning i*, D.D., Master of Corpus. Lady Margaret's Professor 

of Divinity, 1661. Master of St John's, 1661. Bishop of Chichester, 

1669; of Ely, 1675. 
1674 Joseph lleaumonti^, D.D., Master of Peterliouse. Master of Jesus, 1662. 
1700 Henry James, D.D., President of Queens'. 
1717 Richard Bentleyi*, D.D., Master of Trinity. 
1742 John Whalley, D.D., Master of Peterhouse. 
1749 John Green «, B.I)., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1749. Master of Corpus, 1760. 

Dean of Lincoln, 1766 ; Bishop of Lincoln, 1761. 
1756 Thomas Rutherfortli, D.D., Fellow of St John's. F.R.S. 1743. Archdeacon 

of Essex, 1752. 
1771 Richard Watson w, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Professor of Clieniistry, 1764. 

F.n.S. 1769. Archdeacon of Ely, 1779-82 ; Bishop of Llandaff, 1782. 
1816 John Kayei', D.D., Master of Christ's. Bishop of Bristol, 1820 ; of Lincoln, 1827. 

F.R.S. 1848. 

1 Seep. 72, note 7. 

2 Baker conjectures, with regard to his early resignation of tlie Professorship, that he was 'either weary 
of the charge or not so equal to the business.' Baker also says of him that he was *a good preacher rather 
than a great divine.' 

3 See p. 72, note 10. 4 See p. 72. note 11. .'S See p. 72, note 12. 

<> In 1.582 he took for his thesis at .1 disputation ' Pontifex Romanus est ille Antichristus, queni futuruui 
Scriptura praedixit,' and his professorial lectures, afterwards i)ublished from shorthand notes taken hy 
John Alienson, a Fellow of St John's, were mainly directed against the arguments of Bellarniine and other 
Roman Catholic divines. 

7 Graduated from St John's ; Junior Dean of Trinity. He told Thomas Fuller, the elder, that having to 
preach before the Queen, ' lie had spoken Latin so long it w.'is troublesome to him to speak English in a 
contuiued oration.' He was one of the revisers of the Old Testament. 

8 An excellent Hebraist, he w;is appointed one of the translatoi*s of the Bible. Some notes of his for 
professorial lectures are preserved in niaimscript in the University Library. He was one of the first of the 
Cambridge divines to revolt against Calvinism, and ' being a corpulent man, he w.as publicly reproached, 
in St Marie's pulpit in his own University, by the name of a Fat-bellied Armini.an.' 

9 * He was reckoned the most fluent Ljttinist of his age, and was remarkable for his admirable wit and 
memory' (D.lf.B.). 

10 Originally at St John's, but afterw.irds Fellow of St Catharine's. Sec also p. •2.'>. 

11 Originally at Emmaiuiel. When Tuckney was Master of St John's, it is said that he was urged to give 
special weight to piety^ in electing to Fellowships, but declinetl, l)eing 'determined to choose none hut 
scholars, adding very wisely, they may deceive me in their godliness, they cannot in their scholarship.' See 
p. 25, note .■). 

12 See p. 73, note 9. 

13 See n.N.B. \y. 61. 14 See ll.X.li. iv. 303. 
1.") See D.X.II. xxiii. 4.5. 

16 Second Wrangler, 17.59. Richard Watson was distinguished as a chemist, and, .as he himself put it, ' knew 
as much of Divinity as could reasonably be expected of a man whose course of studies had been directed to, 
and whose time had been fully occupied in, other pursuits.' But the Regius Professorship had ' long been 
the secret object' of his ambition, and 'by hard travelling,' we are told, and 'some adroitness,' he 
obtained the king's jnandate and w.as created D.D. Just in time for the election. He then devoted himself 
to theological studies, and edited ' A Collection of Theological Tracts.' In 1787. however, under medical 
advice, he appointed .as his deputy Thomas Kipling, of St John's, the editor of the Codex Bezae, and left 
Cambridge. See also p. 86, note 2. 

17 Senior Wrangler and first Chancellor's Med;vlllst, 1801. Tutor of Christ's, 1808—14. As Regius Pro- 
fessor, Kaye revived the iiublic lectures which had been suspeiide<l for more than a century. He was 
the flret to recall theological slSidents to the study of the Fathers, and recent research has not much 
diminishe<l the value of his publi8he<l courses of lectures. 



76 PROFESSORSHIPS 

BLKCTED 

1827 Thomas Turtoni, B.D., Fellow of St Catharine's. Lucasian Professor of 
Mathematics, 1822. D.I). 1828. Dean of Peterborough, 1830; of West- 
minster, 1842. Bishop of Ely, 1846. 

1843 Alfred OUivanta, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Bishop of Llandaff, 1849. 

1850 James Amiraux Jereraie*, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. Christian Advocate, 1833. 
D.D. 1850. Dean of Lincoln, 1864. 

1870 Brooke Foss Westcott^, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Bishop of Durham, 1890. 

1890(-1916] Henry Barclay Swete, D.D., Fellow of Caius. Emeritus Professor of 
Divinity, 1915. 



REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF HEBREW 

This Professorship, founded by Henry VIII in 1540, with a 
stipend of £40 per annum, was further endowed in 1848 with 
a Canonry of Ely Cathedral. 

The electors are the Council of the Senate. The candidates 
are required to 'expound openly in the PubUc Schools for the 
space of one hour a part of... a book written in the Hebrew 
. . . language ' assigned by the electors. No elector is allowed 
to vote who has not attended the expositions of all the can- 
didates. The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for 
Oriental Studies. 

The first Professor was appointed by the Founder's letters 
patent. 

APPOINTED 

1640 Thomas Wakefield*, M.A. Afterwards Trinity. 
6 [1549 Paul Fagius7. Matriculated from Trinity May 20, 1550.] 
*ri5o0 .John Immanuel Tremellius'.] 
8[16ti9 Anthony Rodolph CljevallierS.j 
«[1572 Philip Bigrnon'o.] 

1575 Edward Lively (or Lvvelev)'", M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1605 Robert Spaldihge", B.D., P'ellow of St John's. 

1607 Geoflfrey Kynge, B.D., Fellow of King's. 

1 Entered at Queens' ; Kraduated as Senior Wrannler from St Catharine's, 1805 ; Tutor of St Catharine's. 
He was ' the composer of several excellent pieces of church music' 

2 One of the revisers of the Old Testament. 

3 Founder of the Jeremie Septuaitint Prizes (see p. 330 t>elow). 

4 An account of Westcott's profound influence upon Cambridge thought will be found in the Life by 
his son. Arthur Westcott, 1903. 

5 He was educated at Cambridge but his Coileue is not known, although in virtue of his Professorship he 
became a member of Trinity soon after its foundation (Cooper, Atheii. Cantabr. 1. 337). 

6 WalcefieUl had l>een appointed Professor for life, but as he was an adherent of tiie old religion, he was 
displaced by others during the reign of Edward VI. He resumed his lectwes during Mary's reign, but 
Chevallier was again acting as ' King's Reader in Hebrew ' from 1.^69. This wa^ the earlier designation of 
the Professorship, but during Wakefield's lifetime his successors do not appear to have been fonnally 
admitted into it (Luard, Oraduati, p. (SU). He died In 1S75. 

7 Professor of Hebrew at Strasburg, 1.^14— «, and Heideilierg. 1546— fl. When he was deposed from his 
offices in 1549, he was invited to Engmnd by Cranmer. and appointed to act as Reader in Hebrew, but lie 
died of fever in Cambridge the same year. He had written p^jrtions of a course of lectures on Isaiali. He 
was liuried in St .Michael's Church, Nov. 24, 1549, but in Queen Mary's reign his body was exhumed 
and publicly burned. 

8 A Jew of Ferrara who had Ijeen converted by Cardinal Pole. He wa« Invited to England in 1547 by 
Cranmer and resided at Lambeth Palace until his appointment to succeed Fagius in 15S0. On the accession 
of Mary he took refuge on the Continent, and in 1561 l)ecame Professor of Old Testament studies at 
Heidelberg. His great work was a translation of the Bible from Hebrew and Syriac into Latin. 

9 Born in Normandy. Settled in Cambridge; lodiied with Treniellius and gave free lectures in Hebrew. 
Took refuge abroad at Mary's accession and became Professor of Hebrew at Strasburg; 1-5.59. Returned to 
London, 1-568: but he was in Paris at the time of the massacre of St Bartholomew and his death is 
attributed to the sulTerings he underwent as a fugitive. 

10 Lord Burghley as Chancellor had recommended the election of Philip Bignon, who was a native of 
France, but Edward Lively, who had received instruction in Hebrew from the famous John Drusius, was 
unanimously chosen. He was one of the translators of the Authorised Vetslon. 

11 Hebrew lecturer and Junior I)ean of St John's. He also was one of the tratislators of the Authorised 
Version (Cooper, Athen. Cantahr. 11. 4791. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 77 

ELRCTED 

1608 Andrew Byngi, D.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. Archdeacon of Norwich, 1618. 
c. 1622 Robert Metcalfe^, B.D., Fellow of St John's, and afterwards Fellow and 

Vice- Master of Trinity. 1>.I). 1630. 
1645 Ralph Cudworths, M.A., Master of Clare. 1).D. 1651. Master of Christ's, 

1654. 
1688 Wolfran Stubbe, D.D., Trinity. 
1699 James Talbot, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.I). 1705. 
1705 Henry Silje*, LL.I)., Trinity. 
1712 Philip Bouquetts, D.D., Fe'llow of Trinity. 
1748 Thomas Harrison, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1751. 
1753 Charles Torriauo. M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1757 William Disney, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1789. 
1771 William Colliers, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1789. 
1790 John Porter, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1792. Bishop of Killala, 1795 ; of 

Clogher, 1798. 
1795 Henry Lloyd, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1804. 
1831 Samuel Lee^, B.D., Queens'. D.D. 1833. Sir Tliomas Adams's Professor of 

Arabic, 1819. 
1848 William Hodge Mills, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Cliristian Advocate, 1839. 
1854 Thomas Jarrett^, M.A., Fellow of St Catharine's. Sir Thomas Adams's 

Professor of Arabic, 1831. 
1882 Alexander Francis Kirkpatrickif, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1892. 

Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1903. Master of Selwyn, 1898. 

Dean of Ely, 1906. 
1903 Robert Hatch Kennett, M. A., Fellow of Queens'. D.D. 1911. 



REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF GREEK 

This Professorship was founded by Henry VIII in 1540, with 
a stipend of £40 per annum, and was further endowed in 1848 
with the Canonry of Ely Cathedral now annexed to the Ely 
Professorship of Divinity (see p. 106). 

The electors are the Council of the Senate. The candidates 
are required to 'expound openly in the Public Schools for the 
space of one hour a part of.. a book written in the. .Greek 
language' assigned by the electors. No elector is allowed to 
vote who has not attended the expositions of all the candidates. 

Stipend, £360 from the University and £290 from Trinity 
College. The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for 
Classics. 

1 He also was one of the transUtors of the Authorised Version. 

2 Duport speaks of him as a man of singularly retired habits, leadhif; a solitary life among his books in 
his College chamber. The date of his election to the Professorship is uncertain. 

3 Originally Fellow and Tutor of Emmanuel, Sir William Temple being one of his pupils. Cudworth 
was the leader of the ' Cambridge Platonists.* 

4 A famous Oriental scholar from Bremen. The Professorship actually fell vacant in 17(4, but Sike, 
who was abroad, was not admitted until 17(t5. During this interval the office was temporarily discharge<l 
by Philip Bouquett. Dr Sike hanged himself in his rooms at Trinity, May 20, 1712. 

a Cole describes him as ' born in P'rance, an old, miserly refugee, who died rich in College and left his 
money among the French refugees.' 

6 Tutorof Trinity. Gunning says of him that he was ' an admirable classic, and particularly well versed 
in modern languages (at tliat time a very rare accomplishment in the University).' He also tells a story to 
illustrate the fact that he was 'a notorious gourmand ' (Reminiscences, ii. 119), 

7 See p. 82. Educated at a village school and at the age of twelve apprenticed to a carpenter ; but he 
managed to learn Greek and Hebrew, and before he was twenty-five he had made some progress iu 
Chaldee, Syriac, Sjmiaritan, Persian, and Hindustani. He was brought to Cimbridge under tlie auspices 
of the Church Missionary Society. It was said that he knew eighteen languages. 

8 See p. 98. First Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta, 1820—38. He w,is best known as a Sanskrit 
and Arabic scholar. His lectures as Professor were chiefly on the text of the Psalms. 

9 ' He knew at least twenty languages, and taught Hebrew, Arabic, Sanskrit, Persian, Gothic, and 
indeed almost any language for which he could find a student. He spent much time in the transliteration 
of Oriental languages into the Roman character, according to a system devised by himself: and also in 
promulgating a svstem of printing English with diacritical marks to show the sound of each vowel without 
changing the speUing of the word ' {D.Jf.B.). 

10 See p. 74. 



78 PROFESSORSHIPS 

KIBCTBD 

11640 [Sir] Joliu Clieke^, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Public Orator, 1542. Provost 

of King's, 1548. Kni);lited, 1551. King's Secretary, 1563. 
1547 .Vicholas CarrS, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.l). 1658. 
1649 Francis lOiiciuas^. 

15t)2 Hartholoniew Dodiugton', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1585 Andrew Downes^ B.D., Fellow of St John's. 
1625 Robert C'reigliton (or Critone"), M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Public Orator, 1627. 

Archdeacon of Stow, 1641. Dean of Wells. Bishop of Eath and Wells, 

1670. 
1639 James Duports, B.D., Fellow ot Trinity.' D.D. 1660. Dean of Peterborough, 

1664. Master of Magdalene, 1668. 
1654 Ralph Widdrington', M.A., Fellow of Clirist's. Public Orator, 1660. D.D. 

1660. Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1673. 
1660 Isaac Barrow i", M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, 

1664 D. D. 1666. Master of Trinity, 1672. 
1663 James Valentine, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. 

1666 Robert Creighton (or Critten"), M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.l). 1678. 
1672 (23 Apr.) Thomas Gale (or Gayle)i^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1676. 

F.R.S. 1677. Dean of York, 1697. 
1672 (30 Oct.) Hon. John North 13, M.A., Fellow of Jesus. Master of Trinity, 1677. 
1674 Benjamin PuUeyn, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. 
1686 Michael Payne, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1696 Joshua Jiarnes", B.D., Fellow of Emmanuel. 
1712 Thomas Pilgrim, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1716. 
1726 Walter Taylor, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. B.D. 1736. 
1744 William Fraigneaui', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1760 Thomas Francklinie, M.A., Fellow of Trinity! D.D. 1770. 

1 Erasmus (see p. 48, note 1), Richard Croke (see p. 48, note 2) and Thomas Smith (see p. 48, note 5), were 
Lecturers on Greek at Cambridj^e before the fuuiidatlon of tlie Professorship by Henry VIII— Erasmus 
1510, Croke WIS, and Smith, 15a6. 

2 See p. 48, note ti. 

3 First at Christ's and afterwards at Pembroke, of which he was a Fellow. On the foundation of Trinity 
in IMd lie wns nominated one of the original Fellaws tliere. He practised in Cambridge as a physician 
while still Professor ot Greek. There is a monument to him in St Giles's Church. 

4 Francis Encinas, commoiily l<nuwn by the name of Dryamler, and also as Dti Chene, Van Eyck. and 
Eichman, being translations of the word enciua, an oak, was a native of Burgos in Spain. In 1548 he 
came to England as a refugee, with letters of introduction from Melancthon to King Edward VI and Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, and Cninmer sent him to Cambridge to be Keader in Greek. At the end of l.'MD, how- 
ever, ne went abroad again and does not appear to have returned (Cooper, Athen. Caritabr. i. 292). 

o Originally at St John's ; Fellow, l.TJK. 

6 He revived the study of Greek in St John's, where it l»ad been almost aijandoned. He was Professor 
of Greek fur thirty-nine years, and also gave private lectures at bis house, D'Ewes describes hijn as be 
was in 1(120 : '1 was. during the latter part of my stay at Cambridge, for the most part a diligent frequenter 
of Mr Downes's Greek lectures, he reading upon one of Demosthenes' Greek orations, " De CoronA.".. 
When I came to his tiouse near the Public Schools he sent for me up into a chamber, where I found him 
sitting in a chair, with his legs upon a table thjit stood by bini. He neither stirred liis hat nor body, but 
only took me by the hand, and instantly fell into discourse (after a word or two, of course, passed ijetween 
us) touching nuitters of learning and criticisms. He was of personage big and tall, long-fuced and ruddy- 
coloured, and his eyes very lively, altliough I took him to be at that time at least seventy years old.' 
Downes was one of the translators of Oie Apocrypha for the Authorised Version. He is commemorated by 
a mural tablet in Coton Church. 

7 See p. 49. 

8 See p. 25, Duport continued to lecture during the Civil War. but in 16.M he was ejected from his 
Professorship by tiie Commission for visiting the University and Ralph Widdrinjjton was appointed in his 
place. -At the Restoration, however, he resumed office, althougii he soon resigned in favour of Isaac 
Barrow. He was Tutor of Trinity for thirty years ; among his pupils were Isaac Barrow, John Ray the 
naturalist, and the ill-fated I.ord Russell. He was also Vice-Master from ItiSo until he left Cambridge to 
be Dean of Peterliorough in ]6'>4. Bishop Monk says of him that he was ' the main instrument by which 
literature was upheld in this University during the civil dissensions in the seventeenth century, and though 
seldom named and little known at present, lie enjoyed an almost transcendent reputation for a great 
length of time among his contemporaries, as well as in the generation which immediately succeeded.' 

9 See p. 49, note 6. 

10 First entered at Peterhouse, the College of his uncle, Isaac Barrow, afterwards Bishop of St Asaph, but 
migrated to Trinity iiefore residence. He was not very successful as Professor of Greek and it is as a 
mathematician and theolo/ian that he is most famous. John Locke regarded his sermons as ' masterpieces 
of their kind' and Bishop Warburton ' liked them because they obliged him to think,' while Charles II 
called him ■ an unfair preacher, because he exhausted every topic, and left no room for anything new to be 
said by any one who came after him.' 

11 Son of Robert Creighton, 1625 (above). He is now chiefly remembered as a 'nuisiciaii who wrote 
services and anthems * which, though not verj- powerful nor original, are exceedingly good music' {D.N,B.). 

12 He resigned the Professorsliip after a short tenure to become Hi|?h Master of St Paul's School. 

13 Fifth son of the fourth Baron North. He was only twenty-eight years of age when elected to the 
Professorship, but 'Greek,' s,iys his brother Roger North, 'became almost vernacular to him.' 

14 Bentley describi'S him as 'one of a singular industry and a most diffuse reading.' and he used to pay 
him the doubtful compliment of saying tliat he ' knew as much Greek as a Greek coiibler.' 

1.5 He was of Huguenot extraction, and is descriiied by Cole as 'a little man of great life and vivacity.' 

16 For the controversy between the Regius Professor of Greek and the Senior Proctor in connexion with 

a dinner of old Westminster boys at the Tuns Tavern to commemorate the accession of Queen Elizabeth, 

see Wordsworth, Social Life at the Kv;^tijtii Universities in the Eighteenth Century, pp. 70---B, 

Francklin translated Sophocles and Lucian and wrote much for the press and the stage. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 79 



1759 Michael Lort', M. A., Fellow of Trinity. F.R.S. 1766. D.D. 1780. 

1771 James Lambert^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1780 William Cooke, M.A., Fellow of King's. " 

179a Richard PorsonS, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1808 James Ilenrv Monk'', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1822. Dean of Peter- 
borough" 1822 ; Bishop of Gloucester, 1830. 

1823 Peter Paul Dobree*. M. A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1826 James Scholetield^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1863 William Hepworth Thompson', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Master of Trinity, 
1866. D.D. 1867. 

1867 Benjamin Hall Kennedys, D.D., Fellow of St John's. 

1889 [Sir] Richard Claverliouse Jebb^, Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity. Public Orator, 
1869. M.P. for the University, 1891. Knighted, 1900. O.M. 1905. 

1906 Henry Jackson, Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity. O.M. 1908. 



REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF PHYSIC 

Founded by Henry VIII in 1540, with a stipend of £40 per 
annum. A house and premises were bequeathed to the Univer- 
sity by Mr Crane in 1652 for the use of the Professor, but as 
the site was required for the building of the Senate-House in 
1724, they were exchanged for property in Market Street. 

The stipend is £700 per annum paid by the University (or 
£500 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or a Fellow- 
ship). The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for 
Medicine. 

The Professor is appointed by the King. 

APPOINTED 

1540 John Blyth'", M. A., Fellow of King's. M.D. (by incorporation from Ferrara 
1543. 
I'r. 1554 .Tohn Hatcher'^, M.D., Fellow of St John's. 
c. 1555 Henry Walker^, M.D., Caius. 
1564 Thomas Lorkini*, M.D., Fellow of Peterliouse. 
?1591 William Ward", M.D., Fellow of King's. 

1 In 17ftS he applied for the Professorship of Modern History when the poet Gray was appointed, who 
described him as 'a worthy man,* and added. ' I wish he could have it, or something as good.' Madame 
d'ArbI:iy speaks of his 'good and very original physiognomy.' 

2 Bursar of Trinit., 1789—33. It is stated in the Dictionarti of National Biography that a road 
connecting the Trumpington and Hills Roads is 'still known by the name of the Via Lambertina.' See 
Gunning, jteminiwencfx, ii. 120. 

3 After his election Porson continued to live in London and did not lecture, in this following the 
example of his more recent predecessors; but his grciit services to Greek scholarship are described in the 
Dictionary of National Biographi/, Sir John Sandys's History of Classical St'hol'irship, and elsewhere. 

4 A.S Regius Professor, Monk published several tracts advocating the establishment of a Classical Tripos. 
He was also the author of a Life of Richard Bentley. 

■"S As a classical scholar Dobree has been compared to Porson. w'uom in some ways he closely resembled. 
His health gave way soon after his election to the Professorsiii;), and he only held it for two years. He is 
buried close to Porson in Trinity College Cliapel. 

6 Sclioletield's chief service to classical literature was the collection and publication of the works of his 
predecessor. When in 1849 the stijiend of £40 which he received jis Professor was augmented by a Canonry 
at Ely, he at once abolisheil fees for admission to his professorial lectures. He is conmiemorated by the 
Scholefield Prize (see p. 3261. 

7 Tutor of Trinity. 1844—53. 

8 An account of the famous Headmaster of Shrewsbury will be found in the Dictionary of National 
Bioijraphy. His compositions in Greek and Latin were those of a poet as well as a scholar, and he had a 
profound and minute Knowledge of English History. 

9 See p. 50, note 2. 

10 He travelled abroad and acquired skill in medicine, taking the M.D. degree at Ferrara. He married 
Sir J«hn Cheke's sister (Cooper, Athen. C'anlabr. i. 174). 

11 The exact date of Hatclier's appointment is not known, but his predecessor was confirmed in office 
■by letters patent of May 11, 1654. 

12 V.C. 15:9 : see p. 24. 13 See Cooper, Athen. Cantabr. i. 231. 

14 Originally at Pembroke ; afterwards for a sliort time Fellow of Queens'. In 1.590 he obtained a grant 
of arms for the five Kegius Professors (see p. 71). He bequeathed his books on physic to the University 
Library. 

15 Ward was a translator of medical works. In a letter of dedication he protests against the folly of 
* some curious Christians among us nowadays . . .which most impudently despise all manner of medicines.' 
and defends the ' heavenly science' of plivsic. 



80 



PROFESSORSHIPS 



APPOINTED 

11596 William Burton. M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1623 John Gostlyn^, M.D., Master of Caius. 
1625 John Collins^, .M.D.. Fellow of St John's. 

1635 Ralph VVinterton*, M.l)., Fellow of King's. 

1636 Francis Glisson^ M.U.. Fellow of Caius. 

1677 Robert Brady", .M.D., Master of Caius. .M.P. for the University, 1681. 

1700 Christopher Greene, M.D., Fellow of Caius. 

1741 Russell Plumptre, .M.U., Fellow of Queens'. 

1793 [Sir] Isaac Pennington', M.L)., Fellow of St John's. Professor of Chemistry, 

1773. Kni>,'hted, 1796. 
1817 John Haviland*, M.D., Fellow of St John's. Professor of Anatomy, 1814. 
1851 Henry John Havles Bonds, M.D., Corpus. 

1872 [Sir] George Edward Paget w, M.D., Fellow of Caius. K.C.B. 1885. 
1892 [Sirj Thomas Clifford .\llbutt, .M.D., Fellow of Caius. K.C.B. 1907. 

REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF CIVIL LAW 

Founded by Henry VIII in 1540, with a .stipend of £40 per 
annum. Present stipend (1915) £800 paid by the University (or 
£600 if the Professor holds a Headship or a Fellowship). The 
Professor is assigned to the Special Board for Law. 

The Professor is appointed by the King, to continue in office 
durante bene placito. 

APPOINTED 

1542 [Sir] Thomas Smith ",LL.D., Fellow of Queens'. Public Orator, 1538. Provost 
of Eton, 1547. Dean of Carlisle, 1547. Knighted, 1548. King's Secretary, 
1548: Queen's Secretary, 1572. .^mliassador to France, 1562. 
12[1545] Humphrey Busby, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 

1551 Walter HaddonW, LL.D., King's. Master of Trinity Hall, 1562. President of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1552. 

1559 William Drurv, LL.B., Trinity Hall. LL.D. 1559. Master in Qiancery, 
1585. 

1561 'William Sone (Soone, or Zoone)'*, M..\., Fellow of Gonville Hall. Fellow 
of Trinity Hall, 1561-4. 

1 Bv letters patent dated 8 Xovember l.Wfi. William Ward and William Burton were appointed Jointly 
' Rentiers in Medicine or the Medical Art' witii a stipend of £10, but Ward is referred to as naring already 
held the position alone. .\s Thumas Lorkin died in LWl, Ward's first appointment probably dated from that 
year. He die<i in ltiii9. so presunmblv Burton held office alone from that date. 

2 See Milton's Latin Ode on GostllJi's death in October 162fi (H. J. Todd's edition, iv. «0I. 

3 John Collins bequeathed most of his * phisick books * to St John's, and £1W to buy more. 

•1 The work which obtained him the Re^us Professorship was an edition of tiie Aphorisms of Hippocrates, 
containing Latin and Cireek epigrams in praise of Winterton's work by the Kesius Professors of Ph^'sic at 
Camtaidge and Oxford ; by tlie President and seventeen Fellows of the College of Physicians : by Francis 
Gtisson, his successor in the Chair; by members of every College in Cambridge except one. and of several 
Colleges in Oxford ; and concluding with twenty etiignuiis by members of King's. Laudatory opinions in 

grose by the Masters of Peterhouse, Christ's, and Trinitv. the President of Queens*, and two Professors of 
livinity are also included, so tliat no Cambridge medical work has ever received so high a degree of 
acEidemical commendation. In the ;;ear of his appointment the Regius Professors of Divinity ana Law, 
as well as Physic, were members of King's. 

5 Glisson's treatise on rickets, published in 1(S50. is, with the exception of ' Caius on the Sweating 
Slckiiess,' a much less thorough work, the first monograph on a disease published in England, and to some 
of his descriptions sul«eqnenr writers have added little. It has been described as 'one of the glories of 
English medicine.' He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society. 

(i See p. 30. He acted as deputy for his predecessor for two years before his appointment to the 
Professorship. He was a historian as well as a physician and at one time held the office of Keeper of the 
Records in the Tower. 

7 See p. 86 and p. 175. He was not admitted to the Professorship until June 14, 1794. 

8 See p. 88. He was the first Professor who gave regular courses on pathology and the practice of 
medicine : and he did much to make medical examinations real and satisfactory. 

9 His tenure of office was contemporary with a great rise in the reputation of the Medical School at 
Cambridge. 

10 An account of Sir George Paget's influence upon medical teaching in the University will be found in 
the Dictioruirji of Xational Biogruphy and in the Memoir attached to Charles E. Paget's edition of his 
Lei'tures, published in ISflQ. 

11 See p. 48. note 5. Sir Thomas Smith was the rival of Cheke as a classical scholar, and he was also 
an accomplished 'physician, mathematician, astronomer, architect, historian, and orator.' 

U Date of appointment uncertain, but be was holding office at the date named. 

13 ' One of the great and eminent lights of the Reformation under King Edward ' (Strype, Hfe of Parker, 
ii. 365). 

14 As he refused to accept the reformed doctrines. Sone left England and was for some years Professor of 
Law at the University of Louvain. Later he went to Antwerp and acted as assistant to the famous 
geographer, Abraham Ortelius. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 81 

1663 William Clarkei, M.A., Fellow of Cliire. LL.l). 1569. 
? 1570 Thomas Legge 2, M. A. , Fellow of Jesus. Master of Oaius, 1673. L L. D. 1674-6. 

Commissary, 1579. 
1574 Thomas Bynge", LL.D., Master of Clare. Public Orator, 1665. Dean of 

Arches, 1596. 
1594 John Cowell*, LL.D., Fellow of King's. Master of Tnnity Hall, 1698. 
1611 Tliomas Morrisson, LL.D., Fellow of King's. 
16-? George Porter, M.A., Fellow of Queens'. LL.l). 1612. 
1636 Thomas Goad', LL.D., Fellow of King's. 
1666 John Clark* LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1673 John Boorde, LL. D., Fellow t)f Trinity Hall. 
1684 George Oxenden', LL.D., Fellow of Trinitv Hall. Dean of Arches, 1688. 

Master of Trinity Hall, 1688. M.P. for the University, 1695. 
1703 Thomas Ayloffe, JjL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1714 Francis Dickins, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1755 Henry Monson, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1757 William Ridlington, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1770 Samuel HallifaxS, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. Sir Thomas Adams's 

Professor of Arabic, 1768. Lord Almoner's Reader, 1768. D.D. 1775. 

Bishop of Gloucester, 1781 ; of St Asaph, 1789. 
1782 Joseph Jowett^, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 

1814 James William (ieldart"', LL.B., Fellow of Trinity Hall. LL.D. 1814. 
1817 [Sir] Henry James Sumner Maine", M.A. LL.D. 1847. K.C.S.L 1871. 

Master of Trinity Hall, 1877. Whewell Professoi' of International Law, 

1864 John Thomas Abdy, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 

1873[-1913] Edwin Charles Clark, M.A., LL.M., Fellow of Trinity. LL.D. 1875. 
Fellow of St John's, 1883. Emeritus Professor of Law, 1913. 

SIR THOMAS ADAMS'S PROFESSORSHIP OF ARABIC 

Founded in 1632 by Mr Thomas Adams, draper, of London, 
afterwards Sir Thomas Adams, Bart., and endowed by him with 
£40 per annum. This sum is still paid to the University by the 
Drapers' Company as Trustees of the Benefaction. The 
Reverend John Palmer, B.D., Fellow of St John's, Arabic 
Professor, 1804-19, bequeathed £1000 in 1840 for the perpetual 
augmentation of the stipend. 

A letter of thanks to the Founder from the Vice-ChanceUor 
and Heads, dated May 9, 1636, refers to the maintenance of a 
Professor of Arabic in the University as tending 'not onely to 
the advancement of good Literature by bringing to light much 
knowledge which as yet is lockt upp in that learned tongue; 

I Formerly Fellow of Gonville Hall. '2 See n. 34. 3 See p. 48, note 12. 
4 See p. 24, note 3. 6 He hart been appointed Reader of LorIc in 162U. 

6 Entered first at Peterhouse. 7 See p. 31. 

8 Formerly Fellow of Jesus, and Praelector, Dean, Tutor, Steward, and Bursar. Mijjrated to Trinity Hall, 
1760, and was soon afterwards appointed Tutor. Sir Egerton Brydjics, who attended his law lectures, 
describes him as ' a mild, courteous little man. accomplished with learnnig, and of a clear intellect, not only 
of no force, but even languid.' He was the first English bishop who was translated to a Welsh see. 

9 Originally at Trini ty, but migrated to Trin ity Hall, where he w.ois Tutor, 177.^-!).'). He was a man of small 
stature, and when he laid out a garden in the angle between the two divisions of tlie east front of Trinity 
Hall, someone is said to have posted up the following couplet: 

'This little giirden little Jowett nuade, 
Surroundea by this little' palisade.' 
Soon after another couplet was found written below ■ 

' But little wit had little Dr Jowett, 
And little did this little garden show it.' 
This is the version given in the Cambridge Portfolio (i. p. 141), but there are several others. Thelines were 
' afterwards turned into Latin tlius : 

' Exiguum hunc liortum fecit .TowettiUus iste 

Exiguus vallo et muniit exi-nio. 
Exiguo hoc horto forsan— Jowettulus iste 
Exiguus mentem prodidit exiguam.' 
In Aukerman's History of the Univcrsitij (1815), 1.154. it is said that .Jowett 'was an elegant scholar and 
a man of mild and amiable m<inners.' 

10 Originally at Trinity Hall: Fellowof St Catharine's. 1808: Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall. 1809. 

II See p. 101. note 1. He was admitted to the Professorship June 21, 1847, and to the Degree of LL.D. by 
mandate the same day. 

H. R. 6 



82 PROFESSORSHIPS 

but also to the good service of the King and State in our 
commerce with those Easterne nations, and in Gods good time 
to the enlarging of the borders of the Church, and propagation 
of Christian religion to them who now sitt in darkenesse.' 

The present stipend is £700 per annum (or £500 per annum if 
the Professor holds a Headship or a Fellowship). This Professor- 
ship can be held in conjunction with the Lord Almoner's 
Readership in Arabic, but not with any other Professorship. 
The candidate must be well learned {probe eruditus), and skilled 
in the Oriental Languages, especially the Arabic. The electors 
are the Vice- Chancellor and eight pei-sons elected by the Senate, 
two being nominated by the Coimcil of the Senate, three by the 
General Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board for 
Oriental Studies, to which the Professor is assigned. 

1632 Abraham Wlieelock', B.I)., Fellow of (lare. Librarian. ltJ2it. Died, 1653. 

1666 Eduiuiid Castell-, 1>.D., Emmanuel. 

1685 John Luke, D.I)., IVllow of Christ's. 

1702 diaries Wright, D.I)., Fellow of Trinity. 

1711 Simon Ockley^, B.U., Queens'. 

1720 Leonard C'happelow*,.M. A., P'ellow of tst. John's. B.D. 1723. Lord Almoner's 

Reader in Arabic, 172!'. 
1768 .Samuel Hallifax", LL.I)., Fellow « if Trinity Hall. Lord Almoner's Header in 

Arabic, 1768. Regius Professor of Civil Law, 1770. D.D. 1775. Bishop of 

(Jloucester, 1781 ; of St .\saph, 17Sit. 
1770 William Craven, B.I)., Fellow of St John's. Lord .A.lmoner's Reader in 

.\rabic, 1770. Master of St John's, 1789. D.n. 1789. 
1795 Joseph Dacre Carlvle", B.I)., Fellow of Queens'. 
1804 Jolin Palmer", B.D., Fellow of St John's. 

1819 Samuel Lee», M.A., Queens'. D.I). 1833. Regius Professor of Hebrew, 1831. 
1831 Thomas Jarrett^, M..\., Fellow of St Catharine's. Reicius Professor of 

Hebrew. 1854. 
1854 Henry (Tritfin Williams, B.D., Fellow of Emmanuel. 
1870 William Wright 'o, Him. LL.I)., Fellow of Queens'. M..\. 1872. 
1889 William Robertson Smith", M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Lord Almoner's 

Reader in Arabic, 1883. Librarian. 1886. 
1894 Cliaries Pierre Henri Rieuia. M.A. 1895. 
1902 Edward Granville Browne, M.A., .M.B., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1 See p. .^, note 2. ' Wheelock appears to have both taught aiid studied Arabic diligently, .but he 
publi3hed little or nothing bearing on the subject, oninu. he says, to the want of Arabic types and 
compositors capable of setting theni up. In a letter to Uasher dated 1K41) he mentions that fae had 
prepared a refutation of the Konin, but that the missionar}' to whom he had shown a specimen of tlie 
worK Imd discouraj£e<l him from proceeding witli it' i /KS,B.\ He also studied Persian, and bejcan 
printing in \G^2 an etlition of the Persian version of the Gospels. The Professorship was interrupted by 
the Interregnum, but it may liave continued to Wheelock's death. It was reest;iblishe<i in 1(W. 

2 Tlie great work of his life was the Ijockon Heptai/lottoti. published in ISBst. which ' marks an epoch in 
Semitic scholarship' i/i.X.B.). He reduced himself to poverty by spending TiOOW. over the work, and in 
16OT he vas actu.illy in pri.wn for debt. .4s Castell himself stjUes. in a letter to Dr Spencer, Master of 
Corpus, the Chair of Anibic cost him more than it brought in (i6. 1. 

3 Said to have been made Hebrew Lecturer at Queens' when about seventeen years of age. He was a 
French, It-ilian. and Spanish scholar as well as an Orientalist. Like his predecessor Castell, be was 
imprisoned for debt, but he claimed to have found the quiet of Cambridge Castle more conducive to steady 
work than the interruptions of his ' overpopuUited parsonage ' at Swaveaey. 

4 He held the College livings of Great and Little Homiead, Hertfordshire, and lectured during one term 
of each academical vear. 

5 See p. 81, note 8. 

6 He studied Orient^il Linguages while in residence at Cambridge, but after his appointment to the 
Chair of Arabic he was appointed Chaplain to Lord Elgin's mission to Constantinople and travelled 
through the East collecting Greek and Syriac manuscripts for a new version of the New Testament His 
principal work was an .Arabic Bible, which was published after his death. 

7 It was said of him that he could be silent in more languiiges than any man in Europe. 

8 See p. 77. note 7. 9 See p. 77. note 9. 

10 Originally at St Andrews, and afterwards resided at Halleand Leyden. Professor of .Arabic at University 
College. London. 1S56—6: at Trinity Ckillege. Dublin. IS.%— 61. He was a memt>er of the Old Testament 
Revision Committee. He was most influential both as a student and as a teacher, and to his active 
mediation the University Librar) owes the possession of the finest European collection of e;irly Indian 
manuscripts. 11 See n.X.B. liii. 160. 

12 Bom at Geneva, and educatol there and at Bonn. Assisttnt at the British Museum. 1S17, and first 
holder of the office of Keeper of Oriental Manuscripts, 1867. Besides Arabic and Sanskrit, be had an 
extensive knowledge of Persian and Turkish. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 83 

LUCASIAN PROFESSORSHIP OF MATHEMATICS 

This Professorship was founded in 1663, in pursuance of the 
Will of Henby Lucas, M.A., of St John's College, M.P. for the 
University, and was endowed with an estate in Bedfordshire. 
By Grace of the Senate, May 27, 1886, the Lucasian Professorship 
was made subject to the provisions relating to Professors conr 
tained in Statute B. Stipend, £850 per annum paid by the 
University (or £650 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship 
or Fellowship). The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and the 
Heads of Colleges. The Professor is assigned to the Special 
Board for Mathematics. 

ELECTED 

16(i4 Isaac Harrowi, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. Resius Professor of Greek, 1660. 

D.D. 1666. Master of Trinity. 1673. 
1669 [.Sir] Isaac Newton 2, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.P. for the University, 1689. 

Knighted, 1705. 
1702 William Whiston^, M.A., Fellow of Clare. P^jected as an Arian, 1710. 
1711 Nicholas Sandersori. M.A., Christ's, 1712. LL.D. 1728. 
1739 John Colsou'', M.A., Emmanuel. 

1760 Edward Waring5,.M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. M.D. 1767. 
1798 Isaac Milner", U.I)., President of Queens'. .lacksonian Professor, 1783. 

l)ean of Carlisle, 1791. 
1820 Robert Woodhouse", M.A., Fellow of Calus. Plumian Professor, 1822. 
1822 Thomas Turton', B.l)., Fellow of St Catharine's. Regius Professor of 

Divinity, 1827. D.D. 1828. Dean of Peterborough, 1830 ; of Westminster, 

1842. Bishop of Ely, 1815. 
1826 [Sir] George Blddell Airv^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Plumian Professor, 

1828. Hon. LL.D. 1862. K.C.B. 1872. 
•1828 Cliarles Babbagei", M.A., Trinity. 
1839 Joshua King, LL.D., President of Queens'. 
1849 [Sir] George Gabriel .Stokes", M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. M.P. for the 

University, 1887. Hon. LL.D. and Sc.D. 1888. Baronet, 1889. Master of 

Pembroke, 1902. 
1903 [Sir] Joseph Larmor,' M.A., Fellow of St John's. Knighted, 1909. M.P. for 

the University, 1911. 

1 See p. 2.5 and p. 78, note 10. As a mathematician Barrow was considered by liis contemporaries as 
second only to N ewton. but Whewell suras up his merits thus : ' The principal part which Barrow plays in 
mathematical history is as one of the immediate precursorsof Newton and Leibnitz in the invention of tlie 
differential calculus.. .He wns a very considerable mathematician, and was well acquainted with mathe- 
matical literature.' He resigned the Lucasian Chair in favour of Newton in 1669. 

2 Born at Woolsthorpe, lfi4'2 ; attended Granth.im Grammar School, 16.M— 6. Sub-sizar at Trinity, 1661 ; 
Scholar, 1664: B.A. 166.") ; Fellow, 1667. F.R.S. l«?i ; President, 1703, and annually re-elected for twenty- 
five years. Master of the Mint, 1699. Knighted, 1705. Buried in Westminster Abbey, 28 March 1727. 
See also p. 31. Newton's Optical Lectures, published 1729, were given as professorial lectures, and his 
lectures for the Michaelmas Term, 1684, ' De Motu Corponim ' were the first draft of the first ten sections 
of the Prlncipia. They are preserved in Newton's autograph in the University Library. 

3 He is best known as the translator of Josephus, but he was one of the first to popularise the Newtonian 
theories. 

4 Cole speaks of him as ' a very worthy, honest man,' but ' an humourist and peevish ' ; the University 
' was much disappointed * in him as Professor. 

5 His examinations for the Smith's Prizes were considered ' the most severe test of mathematical skill in 
Kurope.' but his researches 'were not,' says Dr Parr, 'adapted to any form of communication by lectures.' 
In 1775 he migrated to Truiity. 

6 See p. 94, note 1 and p. '27. He delivered no lectures as Lucasian Professor, but was a most efficient ■ 
examiner for the Smith's Prizes. He held the living of St Botolph's, 1778—92. 

7 See p. 87, 'Woodhouse is entitled to distinction in the liistory of mathematics in England for the 
important share he had during his earlier years as a teacher at Cambridge in bringing to the notice of his 
countrymen the development in mathematical analysis which had taken place on the Continent. He was 
the first in England to explain and advocate the notation and methods of the calculus' {D.N.B.). He was 
the first Superintendent of the Cambridge Observatory. 

8 See p. 76, note 1. 

9 See p. 87. Astronomer Royal, 1835—81. Airy 'renewed the prestige of the Lucasian chair by his 
ardour for the promotion of experimental physics in the University' iD.N.B.). He left a detailed 
autobiography which was edited by his eldest son, Mr Wilfrid Airy, and published at Cambridge in 18B6. 

10 Entered at Trinity but graduated from Peterhouse. Itwas at Cambridge about 1812 tliat the idea first 
occurred to him of calculating numerical tables by machinery, and he devoted thirty-seven years of his 
life and a large part of his fortune to perfecting the extraordinary monument of inventive genius known 
as Babbage's calculating machine. Although he was Lucasian Professor for eleven years, he gave no 
lectures. 

11 See p. 33. < 

6—2 



84 PROFESSORSHIPS 



KNIGHTBRIDGE PROFESSORSHIP OF MORAL 
PHILOSOPHY 

Founded in 1683 as a Professorship in 'Moral Theology or 
Casuisticall Divinity ' in pursuance of the Will of John Knight- 
bridge, D.D., FeUow of Peterhouse; further endowed in 1707 
by a bequest from the first holder, Dr Smoult. Stipend, £700 
per annum (or £500 per annum if the Professor holds a Head- 
ship or a Fellowship). The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and 
eight persons elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the 
Council of the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and 
three by the Special Board for Moral Science, to which the 
Professor is assigned. 

ELBCTED 

1683 Thomas Smoult, B.D., Fellow of St John's. D.D. 1684. 

1707 .John Colbatchi, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. 

1744 Richard Walker'^, U.D., Fellow of Trinity. 

1764 Edmunil Law^, D.D., Master of Peterhouse. Protobibliothecarius, 1760. 

Hishop of Cariisle, 1768. 
1769 Robert Plumptre*, D.l)., President of Queens'. 
1788 George liorla.se*, B.l)., Fellow of Peterhouse. Registrary, 1778. 
1809 Robert Towerson Cory, D.D., Master of Emmaimel. 
1813 Francis liarnes, D.D., Master of Peterhouse. 
1838 William Whewell« B.D., Fellow of Trinity. Professor of Mineralogy, 18*28. 

-Master of Trinity, 1841. D.D. 1844. 
1855 John Grote', B.l)., I'ellow of Trinity. 

1866 John Frederick Denison Maurice^. Trinity Hall. M.A. 1867. 
1872 Thomas Rawson Birks ', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1883 Henrv Sidgwickw, .M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Litt.D. 1884. ^ 

1900 William Ritchie Sorley, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Fellow of King's, "901. 

Litt.1). 1905. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF MUSIC 

Founded by the University in 1684 on the recommendation 
of the Crown, but no stipend was assigned to the Professorship 
until 1868. Present stipend (1915) £200 per annum. The 
electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected by the 
Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, three 
by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board 
for Music, to which the Professor is assigned. 

1 The prot.igonist against Beutley in his quarrel with the Fellows of Trinity. His lectures its Professor 
brouRbt nim xreat reputation. 

2 Junior Bursar of Trinity, anil one of Bentley's chief supporters : as Vice- Master he refuseii to carry out 
tlie Bishop of Ely's sentence of deprivation. He was a Ikmuus gardener, and liave to the University the 
Old Botanic Ganlen isee p. 2141. 

3 See p. 55. He was a disciple of Locke. 

1 See p. 26. note & S See p. 51. 

4> See pp. ^ and 96. Tlie Profe^orship was of smidl value and for more than a century had 
been treated as a sinecure, but Whewell not oniy lectured, but published his lectures and wrote other works 
upon allied subjects. He also introduced Philosophy into the Trinity Fellowship Examination, and took 
an important part in founding the Moral Sciences Tripos. 

7 Brother of Georsfe Grote the historian. As Professor he lectured and WTOte copiously upon philo- 
sophical subjects. 

8 Entered at Trinity, ISZt. but roismted to Trinity Hall, 18Q9. There he would bare had a fair chance of 
election to a Fellowship but was prevented by the subscriptions from takingadeijree. Professor of English 
Literature and History at KiuK's CoUece, London. ISM. In I87D he accepted the living of St Edward^ in 
tlie Kift of Trinity Hall. He w;is :ils.> a member of Exeter CoUese, Oifoiii. 

9 Vicar of Trinity Church, IJ^jtJ— i*. He w.is a critic of Herbert Spencer. 

10 An account of .Sidt'wick':. influence upon Camhriil^e thouxht will be found in the Dictionary o/ 
Kattonal Bingraphy (First Supplementl. See alio llie Memoir by E. M. S. and A. S. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 85 

The Professor is not required to reside in the University, but he 
must give not less than four lectures in Music annually, and take 
part in aU the Examinations for Degrees in Music and in the 
Special Examinations in Music for the Ordinary B.A. Degree. 
For conducting these examinations he receives additional 
payments from the University amounting to £40. 

KLECTED 

1684 Nicholas Stagginsi, Mus.U. 

1706 Tliomas Tudway^, Mus.B., King's. Mus.D. 1705. 

1730 Maurice Greene^, Mus.D. 

1755 Jolin Randalls Mus.B., King's. Mus.D. 1756. 

1799 Charles llagueS, Mus.B., Trinity Hall. Mus.D. 1801. 

1821 .John Clarke-Whitfeld«, Mus.D., Trinity. 

18.36 Thomas Attwood Walmisley^, Mu8.B., Jesus. M.A. 1841; Mus.D. 1848. 

1856 [Sir] William Stenidale Bennetts, St John's. Mus.D. ISWi; M.A. 1868. 

Knighted, 1871. 
1875 [Sir] George Alexander Macfarren', Trinity. Mus.D. 1875; M.A. 1878. 

Knighted, 1883. 
1887 [Sir] Charles Villiers Stanford, M.A., Trinity. Mus.D. 1889. Knighted, 1902. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF CHEMISTRY 

Founded by the University in 1702. The Chair was at first 
unendowed and the University provided nothing but a lecture- 
room ; but in 1766 the Crown provided a stipend of £100, which 
was continued until 1856, when the obligation was taken over by 
the University. The stipend is now £850 per annum paid by the 
University (or £650 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship 
or Fellowship). The electors are the Vice -Chancellor and eight 
persons elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the 
Council of the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, 
and three by the Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, to 
which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

170.3 John Francis Vigani"). 

1713 John Waller, B.D., Fellow of Corpus. 

1718 John Micklebourgh, M.A., Fellow of Corpus. B.D. 1724. 

1 Master of the King's Music. Ib75. In 1682 he was admitted Mus.D., and it was said that this was 
through interest and without the proijer tests. To meet this charge, tlie University appointed him by 
Grace Profcjssor of Music, and a statement was published in tlie London Gazette tliat steKidns, having 
Iwen desirous to perform his exercise for the Degree of Mus. D. ui)on the first public opportunity, had 
acquitted liimself 'so much to the satisfaction of tlie wliole University this Commencement that by a 
solemn vote they had constituted and appointed him pul)lic Professor of Music tliere.' The ofHce thus 
establislied in order to p&y a compliment, was only honorary, 

2 Organist of King's, Pembrolte, and Great St Mary's. In 1706 he was deprived of his degree. Ids 
professorship, and his tln-ee posts as organist for nialiing puns at the Queen's expense, but on public 
submission and retractation in the Regent House he was reinstated in the following year. 

3 Organist of St Paul's, 1718 ; organist and composer to the Cliapel Royal, 1727. His exercise for the 
Degree of Mus.D. was a setting of Pope's 'Ode on St Cecilia's Day,' a new verse being specially written for 
him by Pope. Master of the King's Music, 173.x 

4 Organist of King's, 1745—99. 5 Celebrated as a vioUn-player. 

6 Organist of Trinity and St John's. From 1820— S) he was organist of Hereford Cathedral. 

7 Organist of Trinity and St John's, ISB— Jifi. He entered at Corpus but migrated to Jesus before takinn 
the B.A. Degree. As Professor he instituted a system of lectures, in one of which he prophesied the 
supremacy of Bach's music, tlien almost unknown in England. There is a brass tablet to his memory 
in the ante-chapel of Trinity. 

8 Entered tlie King's choir, 1824 ; but passed on to tlie newly-formed Royal Academy of Music, 1838, and in 
1866 became its Principal. 

9 Succeeded Sterndaie Bennett as Princiiml of the Eoyal .Academy of Music, 187.5. His eyesight had 
always been defective, and in 1860 he l)ecame blind. 

10 Born at Verona ; travelled much in Spain, France, and Holland, studying Mining, Metallurgy, and 
Pharmacy. Settled in Cambridge in 1683, and gave private tuition in Chemistry and Pharmacy. The 
Professorship created for him was only titular, and in recognition of the fact that lie had taught 
Chemistry with reputation ' in Cambridge for 20 years. 



86 PROFESSORSHIPS 

£LSCTBD 

1756 John Hadley », M.A., Fellow of Queens'. M.D. 1763. 

1764 Richard Watson 2. M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1771. Regius Professor of 

Divinity 1771. Bishop of Llandaff, 1782. 
1773 iSirj Isaac PenningtonS, M.A., Fellow of St John's, M.L. 1773 ; M.D. 1777. 

Regius Professor of Physic, 1793. Knighted, 1796. 
1794 William Parish*, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. Jacksonian Professor, 1813. 

B.D. 1820. 
1813 Smiths<jn Tennant^, M.D., Emmanuel. 
1816 .James Camming*, M..\^ Fellow of Trinity. 

1861 George Downing Liveing, M. A., Fellow of St John's. Hon. Sc.D. 1908. 
1908 AViUiam Jackson Pope^ M.A. 1908. Fellow of Sidney, 1909. 



PLUMIAN PROFESSORSHIP OF ASTRONOMY AKD 
EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY 

Founded in 1 704 in pursuance of the Will of Thomas Plume.D. D. , 
of Christ's, Archdeacon of Rochester, and endowed with the rent 
of an estate situated at Bakham. The purpose of the bequest 
was 'to erect an Observatory (see p. 215) and to maintaine a 
studious and learned Professor of Astronomy and experimental! 
Philosophy, and to buy him and his successors VtensiUs and 
Instruments Quadrants Telescopes etc.', and to provide him with 
a convenient residence, ' soe as any ingenious Scholars or (Jentlemen 
may resort to him at all proper Seasons to be instructed and 
improved by him in the knowledge of Astronomy the Globes 
Navigation natural! Philosophy dialling and other practical! 
parts of the Mathematicks in or near Cambridge.' The stipend 
was increased. by a bequest, in 1768, from Dr Smith, formerly 
Plumian Professor, a sum now producing about £46 per annum 
being left by hira to the Plumian Professor on condition of an 
examination for Smith's Prizes (see p. 299) being annually held. 
By a Statute sanctioned by the Queen in Council, March 7, 1860, 
the stipend was augmented by one-eighth of the net annual 
income of Lady Sadleir's Foundation for Algebra Lectures (see 
p. 98). 

Stipend, £800 per annum (or £600 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or a Fellowship). 

1 An intimate friend of the poet Gray. 

•1 See p. 75, note 16. Watson's own statement is that he " had never read a syllable ' on the subject 
of Chemistry, ' nor seen a single experiment,' but he was ' tired with Mathematics and Natural Philo- 
sophy,' and wanted to try his strength in a new pursuit. On liis election he sent to Paris for an 
' openitor,' shut himself up in his laborator)", anci in fourteen months, in the course of which his 
workshop was shattered by an explosion, he be^u a course of lectures which were largely attended. 
Besides Chemistry, he studied Aiiatomy and practised dissection. See also Gunning, ReminiKencet, 
i. 2fi-6. 

3 See p. 175, note 6. 

4 In his lectures as Professor. Parish was the first to introduce the application of Chemistrj- to manu- 
factures. In 180O he became Vicar of St Giles's. 

;> Entered at Christ's, ITgt!, but migrated to Emmanuel, 1786. In 17S4 he travelled in Denmark 
and Sweden; and afterwiu-ds resided jwtly in London and partly near Cheddar, where he fanned his 
own land. He only itave one course of lectures on Chemistry In Cambridge. On 22 Feb. 181.5 he was 
accidentally killed by the collapse of a bridne near Boulogne over which he was riding. See ^so 
Gunning. RefninUcencei, ii. 5&--62. 

tS He contributed much to the early tame of the Cambridge Philoso|>hical Society, of which be was 
for some time President, and his papers * though extremely unpretentious, are landmarks in electro- 
magnetism and thermo-electricity' iD.N.B.). 

7 Professor of Chemistry in the University of Manchester, 1905—8, 



PROFESSORSHIPS 87 

Candidates may be Englishmen (nostrates), or foreigners. 
The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
b3'^ the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Mathematics, to which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1707 Roger Cotesi, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1716 Robert Smith^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. LL.l). 1723. D.D. 1739. Master of 

Trinity, 1742. 
1760 Anthony Shepherd ■', M.A., Fellow of Christ's. D.I). 1766. 
1796 Sainxiel Vince*, M.A., Sidney. Archdeacon of Bedford, 1809. 
1822 Robert WoodhouseS, .M.A., Fellow of Caius. Lucasian Professor, 1820. 
1828 [Sir] George Biddell Airy^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Lucasian Professor, 

1826. LL.U. 1862. K.C.B. 1872. 
1836 James Cliallis^ M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1883[-1913] [Sir] George Howard Darwin, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. K.C.B. 1905. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF ANATOMY 

Founded by the University in 1707. Stipend, £600 per annum 
(or £400 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or a 
Fellowship). The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight 
persons elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the 
Council of the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, 
and three by the Special Board for Medicine, to which the 
Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1707 George Rolfe. Deprived «, 1728. 
1728 .John Morgan, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1734 George Cutlibcrt, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1736 Robert Bankes, M.A., Fellow of King's. M.D. 1735. 
1746 William Gibson, M.A., .Jesus. M.D. 1746. 
1753 diaries CollignonS, M.B., Trinity. M.D. 1754. 

1785 [Sir] Busick Harwoodw, M.B., Christ's. M.D., Emmanuel, 1790. Downing 
Professor of Medicine, 1800. Knighted, 1806. 

1 While he was still an uiiderjrraduate, Cotes's extraordinary proficiency in science hat! attracted the 
attention of Bentley, and It was his influence, tosether with the testimonials of Newton and Whiston, 
which secured his election to the newly-founded Chair. He stave Newton important assistance in the 
reissue of the Principin. 170ft— i:i. Bentley spoke of Cotes as ' one of the finest yoiuig men in Europe,' 
and when he died in the thirty-fourth year of liis a«e, Newton exclaimed 'Had Cotes lived we might 
have known somethiUK '■' He is buried in the Chapel of Trinity. 

2 See p. 26, note 4. During his tenure of the Chair, the Observatory over the great gate of Trinity, 
begun under his predecessor, was completed, and assigned (1739) to the use of the Plumian Professor. 
Smith published two important mathematical works, one on Optics and the other on Harmonics. 

:! Originally at St John's, but migrated after his first degree to Christ's: Tutor of Christ's, 1768. 
Master of Mechanics to George 111,1768: Canon of Windsor, 1777. Frances Burney describes him as 'dull- 
ness itself,' but it is said that Captain Cook named an island 'after his friend. Dr Shepherd." There is a 
portrait of him in the University Library and a bust in the Library of Trinity. 

J 'Tlie son of a Suffolk bricklayer, who worked with his father until he was twelve years of age. 
He was educated at Caius 

.-) See p. 83, note 7. « See p. 8.'!. note 9. 

7 Director of tlie Cambridge Observatorj', 18:i6— 61. To him, in September, 1815, Adiinis communicated 
his first results, and when Leverrier's similar indications became known in England, Challis began, on 
'29 .July 1846, to search for the undiscovered planet : but, pvrtly owing to the elaborateness of his plan. 
tiie discovery was made first, on 23 September, at Berlin. 

M He was deprived for continued absence from his office (Cooper. Annals, iv. 80 n.). 

,t He was of French extraction, and had practised in Cambridge as a physician before his election to 
the Professorship. Cole says of him ' He is an ingenious, honest man, and if they had picked the three 
kingdoms for a proper person to represent an anatomic.il professor, they could not have pit«lied upon 
a more proper one. for he is a perfect skeleton himself, absolutely a walking shadow, nothing but skin 
and Ixines. 

10 Entered the University Lite, having already practised in India as a surgeon for some years. He 
retained the Chairof Anatomy when appointed Downing Professor of Medicine. He is best known for his 
experiments on the transfusion of blood. See also Gunning, Remiiiiacences, i. .!2— 6. 



i PROFESSORSHIPS 

ELECTED 

1814 John Havilandi, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Regius Professor of Physic, 1817. 

M.D. 1817. 
1817 William Clark-:, M..\., Fellow of Trinity. M.D. 1827. 
IStiti [Sir] George Murrav Humphry^ M.U., Downing. Professor of Surgery, 1883. 

Fellow of King's, 1884. Ivniglitefl, 1891. 
1883 Alejsander Macalister*, M.D. (Dubl.). M.A. 1883. Fellow of St Jolm's, 

1883. M.D. (incorporated from Dublin), 1884. 



REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF MODERN HISTORY 

iNSTiTtTTED by Geoege I in 1724, and continued by succeeding 
Sovereigns. The King's original letter to the University indicates 
his intention of appointing at Cambridge and Oxford respectively 
'two Persons of Sober Conversation and prudent Conduct'... 
'Skilled in Modern History and in the knowledge of Modern 
Languages '...' to be Our Professors of Modern History.' The 
Professors were each to maintain out of their stipends of £400 
'two Persons at least, well qualified to teach and instruct in 
writing and Speaking the Said Languages ' who were to give free 
instruction to twenty Scholars of the King's nomination. The 
motive of the Foundation was declared to be the desire to remove 
'the prejudice that has accrued to the Said Universitys' through 
' Persons of Foreign Nations being often employed in the Educa- 
tion and Tuition of Youth both at home and in their Travels,' 
and 'great numbers of Young Nobility and Gentry being either 
sent abroad diiectly from School or taken away from the 
Universitys before the Course of their Studys can be there com- 
pleated, and Opportunitys frequently lost to the Crown of 
employing and encouraging Members of the two Universitys by 
coiierring on them such Employment both at home and abroad 
as necessarily require a competent Skill in wTiting and Speaking 
the INIodern Languages.' 

Stipend, £800 per annum (or £600 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or Fellowship). The Professor is appointed by 
the King, and holds the Professorship during pleasure. He is 
assigned to the Special Board for History and Archaeology. 

APPOINTED 

1724 .Samuel Harris', M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. 
1735 Shallet Turner, LL.I)., Fellow of Peterhouse. 
17t>2 Laurence Brockets, B.D., Fellow of Trinity. 

1 See p. 80. note a 

- He w:i3 a friend of LonI Byron, who cnine up to vote for him when he contestetl tlie Cliair un- 
successfully in 1S14, and was clieered by the undergraduates in the Senate House. Clarlc laid the fouUfU- 
tion of the School of Biological Science in CambridKe, and made lartce collections for the Museum of 
Comparative Anatomy. He took orders in 1318 and held three livings in succession during his tenure of 
the Cliair. 

3 In 18Rt he resigned the Professorship of .Anatomy for the newly-founded but unpaid Profei^'orship of 
Surgery. An account of his influence in Cambridge will lie found in the Dictimiiry of .Vitiuiial 
Bioaraphf. 

i Professor of Zoology, 1S89, and Professor of Anatomy and Chinirgeo', 1S7T, in the University of Dublin. 

5 His inaugural lecture |in Latin) was printed. He was also the author of a curious and learned com- 
mentary on the ."SSrd chapter of Isaiali. 

6 Killed l)y a fall from his liorse, 24 July inS". when returning from a dinner with Loni Sandwich 
at Hinchinbroke. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 89 



APPOINTED 

1768 Thomas Grav', LL.B., Pembroke. 

1771 John SvinondsS, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. LL.l). 1772. 

1807 William SmvthS, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse. 

1849 Sir James Stephen*, LL.B., Trinity Hall. LL.D. 1850. 

1860 Charles KinRslev*, M.A., Magdalene. 

1869 [Sir] John llobert Seelev", M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Fellow of Caius, 18«2. 

Hon. Litt.l). 1892. k.C.M.n. 1894. 
1895 Sir John Emerich Kdward Dallwrg Acton, Baron Acton of Aldenham^. 

Hon. LL.D. 1888. M.A. 1895. 
1902 John Bagnell BuryS, M.A. (DuW.). M.A. 1903. Fellow of King's, 1903. 



THE LORD ALMONER'S PROFESSORSHIP OF ARABIC 

Instituted 1724. The Reader or Professor of Arabic is 
appointed by the Lord Almoner, and the stipend (£50 per 
annum) is paid out of the Almonry bounty. The Professor is 
required by his commission to deliver at least one public lecture 
yearly Avithin the University on a subject connected with Arabic 
or Arabic history or literature. The Professor is assigned to the 
Special Board for Oriental Studies. 

APPOINTED 

1724 David Wilkins^, D.D. 

1729 Leonard CliappelowW, B.D., Fellow of St John's. Sir Thomas Adams's 

Professor of Arabic, 1720. 
1768 Samuel HallifaxH, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. Sir Thomas Adams's 

Professor of .Arabic, 1768. Hegius Professor of Civil Law, 1770. D.D. 1775. 

Bishop of Gloucester, 1781; of St Asaph, 1789. 
1770 William Craven i'-, B.D., PYIlow of St .Tolin's. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor 

of Arabic, 1770. Master of .St .John's, 1789. D.D. 1789. 
1815 George Cecil kenouard'S, B.D., Fellow of Sidnev. 
1821 Thomas Musgrave", .M.A., Fellow of Trinity. " D.D. 1837. Dean of Bristol, 

18.37; Bishop of Hereford, 1837: Archbishop of York, 1847. 
1837 Thomas HobinsonW, M.A., Trinitv. D.D. 1844. Master of the Temple, 

1845-69. 
1855 Theodore Preston. M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1871 Kdward Henry Pahner''', M.A., Fellow of St .lohn's. 

1 Entered at Peterhouse, 1734: his migration to Pembrolie in consequence of a practical joke did 
not take place until IZ.'^. As Professor he had to maintain out of his stipend of £:$71 a French and 
an Italian teacher in accordance with the terms of the original foundation of the chair (see p. 8S alwve) ; 
the Italian was Agostiiio Isola. xnindfuther of Emma Isola, adopted by Charles and Mary Lamb. He does 
not appear to have lectured. 

2 Oristinally at St John's, but elected a Fellow of Peterhouse in 1715.'*': in 1772 he migrated to Trinity. He 
was Recorder of Bury St Edmunds. He w<%s not actually admitted to the Professorship until 1772. 

3 Tutor of Peterliouse. 1806. A collection of books. «iven by him for the use of his successors in the 
Chair, now forms the nucleus of t!ie Seeley Memorial Library (see p. aWI. 

4 Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. 18a>— 17 : K.C.B. and Privy Councillor. 1S47. 

5 An accoimt of the difficulties encountered by KiuKsley as Rewus Professor will be found in the 
Dictionary of XatiotuU Rm-jraphy. There was no serious School of History at CambridKe in bis day,, 
and as his clerical duties prevented regular residence he was not able to establish one. 

6 An account of Seeley's remarkable influence as Regius Professor will be found in the Dictionary 
of Sational liitgraphy. He Wiis the foimder of the existing History School. 

7 See the Dictionani i,f Xatiotial liingraphy (Second Supplement). 

8 Professor of Mixlern History, 189:i— lixfe, and Regius Professor of Greek, 18HS, in the University of 
Dublin. 

9 He was of Prussian parentage, his true name being Wilke. Besides Arabic, be was versed in Hebrew,. 
Chaldalc, Coptic, and Armenian : but he is best known for his Concilia Mufftiae Britanniae et ffibemiac, 
A.n. 44fi— 1717, 'amaanificent monument of learning and industn' not yet entirely superseded 

10 See p. 82. note 4. 11 See p. 81, note 8. 12 See p. 27. 

i:! Renouard had served as British Chaplain at Con^itantinople and Smyrna, and had travelled mucli in 
the East. He was an admirable cla.ssical scholar, and was well acquainted with French, German, and 
Italian, as well as with Atiibic. Tiu-kish. and Hebrew : he h:id also a considerable reputation as a 
geographer and botnnist. 

14 Senior Bursar of Trinity. 18-i5--?7 : Vicar of Great St Mary's, 11«5-SI. 

I."} He went out to India as a missionary in 1816, and as a chaplain on the Bombay establishment 
translateil the Old Testament into Persian,' He was .\rchdejiron of Madras. 

16 An account of Palmer's remarkable genius for languages will l)e found in the Dictionary of XatioiiaT 
Kiotrraphy. His portr.iit in Ea-stern dress painted bv the Hon. .John Collier, is in the Hall of St John's. 



90 PROFESSORSHIPS 



APPOINTED 

1883 William Robertson Smith 1. M. A. 1883. Fellow of Christ's, 1886. Librarian, 
1886. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic, 1889. 

1886 Hon. Ion Grant Neville Keith-Falconer^, .M.A., Trinity. 

1887 Robert Lubboqk Bensly^, M.A., Fellow of C^us. 
1893 Anthony Ashley Bevan, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF BOTANY 

Founded by the University on Nov. 10, 1724. In 1793 the 
Professor received a patent from George III, with a stipend of 
£200 a year, and this was continued to his successor. In 1857 
the obhgation was taken over by the University. Stipend, £700 
per annum (or £500 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship 
or Fellowship). The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight 
persons elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the 
Council of the Senate, three by the Greneral Board of Studies, 
and three by the Special Board for Biology and Geology, to 
which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1724 Richard Bradley <. 
1733 John Martvn^ Emmanuel. 

1762 Thomas MartTn«, M.A., Fellow of Sidney. B.n. 1766. 
1825 .Jolm .Stevens Ilenslow", M.A., St John's. Professor of Mineralogv, 1822. 
1861 Charles Cardale Babington", M. A., Fellow of St John's. 
1895 Harry Marshall Ward^, Sc.D., Fellow of Christ's. Fellow of Sidney, 1897. 
1906 Albert Cliarles Seward, M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel. Fellow of St Jolin's, 
1899 ; re-elected, 1910. Master of Downing, 1915. 



WOODWARDIAN PROFESSORSHIP OP GEOLOGY 

Founded and endowed by John Woodward, M.D., of Pem- 
broke College, in 1728. By his Will the 'Lecturer' was to be 
appoiated in the first instance by the executors, and afterwards 
elected by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Ely, the 

1 See D.N.B. liii. 16a 

'J Third son of the ninth Earl of Kintore. His tenure of the Professorship was short, as he left 
Cambridge in 1886 to take up his duties as a missionary at Aden, where his knowledge of Arabic 
might be directly utilised. He died there of fever, 11 May 1887. 

H See the Dictionary of Xationil Biotjraphy (First Supplement). His strongest point as an Oriental 
sclioljir was his exhaustive knowledge of Syriac literature. 

4 His entire ignorance of Latin and Greek caused some scandal in the University, and his neglect to 
give the prescribed courses of lectures gave much offence; but his botanical publications were in some 
respects in advance of his time. 

5 He entered at Emmanuel in 1730, at the age of 31, but only kept five terms. On the election of bis 
son Thomas to succeed him, he presentetl his botanical collections to the University. 

6 Originally at Emmanuel ; Tutor of Sidney, 1760—74. He was Professor of Botany for sixty-three years, 
but only lectured until 1796, <ts the subject was not popular. 

7 ' His enthusiasm rendered Botany a popular subject in the University," and Darwin, Berkeley, and 
Babington were among his pupils. He recommended Darwin as naturalist for the Beagle, and during 
the five years of the voyage took charge of all the specimens sent home. He also cooperated with Adam 
Sedgwick in founding the Cambridge Philosophical Society. He was at one time curate of St .Mary-the- 
Less. 

8 The influence of the successive editions of Babington's Manual of BritUh Botany upon field botany 
can liardly be over-estimated, as it harmonised English work with that of Germany, and later with France 
and Scandinavia. In 1836 he was one of the founders of the Ray Club, and acted as its secretary 
for fifty-five years. 

9 Professor of Botany in the Royal Indian Engineering College at Cooper's HilL 1885—95. An account 
•f his work as a bottnist and as a teacher will be found in the Dictionary of Sational Biography. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 91 

Presidents of the Royal Society and the College of Physicians, 
the Members of Parhament for the University, and 'by the whole 
Senate' 'or a majority of the above specified illustrious and 
excellent persons.' It was also provided 'that none be chose 
but BatcheUours,' and that the office should be immediately 
vacated by marriage, ' lest the care of a wife and children should 
take the Lecturer too much from study, and the care of the 
Lecture ' ; and a preference was to be given to laymen. He was 
to reside in the University, and to attend at certain fixed hours 
on three days in the week to shew the Founder's collection of 
fossils gratis 'to all such curious and intelligent persons as shall 
desire a view of them for their information and instruction.' His 
stipend was £100 a year. 

On the next vacancy the statutory stipend of the Chair will be 
£700 per annum (or £500 per annum if the Professor holds a 
Headship or Fellowship). The electors are now the Vice- 
Chancellor and eight persons elected by the Senate, two being 
nominated by the Council of the Senate, three by the General 
Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board for Biology 
and Geology, to which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1731 Convers Middletoni, !).!)., Fellow of Trinitv. Frotobibliotliecarius, 1721. 

1734 Cliarles Mason, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 1).U. 1749. 

17(i2 .John Miclieir-!. B.U., Fellow of Queens'. 

1764 Samuel Oldens, U.l)., Fellow of St .John's. 

1778 Thomas (ireen, M.A., Trinitv. 

1788 .John Hailstone <, M.A., Fellow of Trinitv. 

1818 Adam SedKWickS, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Hon. LL.IX 1866. 

1873 Thomas McKenny Hughes, M.A., Trinity. Fellow of Clare, 1S83. 



LOWNDEAN PROFESSORSHIP OF ASTRONOMY 
AND GEOMETRY 

Founded in 1749 by Thomas Lowndes of Overton in Cheshire. 
Under the original WiU the electors to the Professorship were 
the Lord Chancellor, the Lord President of the Privy Council, 
the Lord Privy Seal, the Lord High Treasurer or the First Lord 

1 Appointed by the executors of the fouiuler July 13, 1731 ; admitted, June 19, IT.S. 

2 Senior Bursar of Queens', 1756—60. He is best Itnown as an astronomer, and his leisure and fortune 
were devoted to the twlvancement of science ; but he .ilso cultivated music, and was a skilful player 
upon the violin. He was Kector of St Bot<ilph's, 1760—3. 

3 Vicar of the Round Church, where for about eighteen years he preached to crowded congregations 
consisting mostly of members of the University. He is buried in the Church, and a tablet has been 
placed there to his memory. He was ' an excellent classical scholar, a scientific divine, and a proficient 
m the Oriental languages. Boswell admired his sermons and pressed tliem upon the attention of Dr 
.Johnson, who read one of tliem aloud * witli a distinct expression and pleasing solemnity. He praised, .bis 
elegant language and remarkiible acuteness. ..' Gunning, who describes him as 'amongst the very 
eccentric characters of the University,' has a whole collection of stories about him (RemlnUcences, 
I. pp. 236-^0). 

4 He was elected Professor when he was only twenty-nine years of age, and held the office for thirty 
years. He did not lecture, but devoted himself to the study and collection of geological specimens, by 
which the Museum was greatly enriched. Vicar of Trumpington, 1818 — 47. 

5 On his election to the Chair, Sedgwick was practically ignorant of geology. The stipend was only 
£100 a year, and the office had been reganied almost as a sinecure ; but he succeeded in realising what 
he descrilted in bis last published words as the * three i>rominent hopes' of his life— to fomi a collection 
worthy of the University, to secure the building of a suitable museum, and to ' bring together a class 
of students who would listen to mj; teaching, support me by their sympathy, and help me by the 
labour of their hands.* He is buried in Trinity Chapel, and the Sedgwick >IU8eum is a worthy memorial 
of his life-work. 



92 PROFESSORSHIPS 

of the Treasury should it be in Commission, and the Lord Steward 
of the Household. The earliest statutes required residence for 
the major part of each term or two whole terms in each academical 
year, and two courses of 20 lectures each, one on Astronomy and 
the other on Geometry. The Professor was also to make astro- 
nomical observations for six weeks in every year. 

The stipend is now £800 per annum (or £600 per annum if the 
Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship). The electors are 
the Vice-ChanceUor, the President of the Royal Society of London, 
the President of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, the 
Astronomer Royal, and the Lucasian, Plumian, and Sadleirian 
Professors. If a majority of the electors is not obtained, that 
person is elected in whose favour the Chancellor and any three 
of the electors concur. The Professor is assigned to the Special 
Board for Mathematics. 

BLKCTEI) 

1750 Itoger Long', D.l)., Master of Pembroke. 
1771 Jolin Smith, D.D., Master of Caius. 
1795 William La.\2, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1837 George Peacock », M. A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1839. Dean of VAy, 1839. 
1859 .John Couch Adams*, M. A., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1892C-1914] .Sir KoI)ert Stawel! Balis, LL.l). (Duhl.). M.A. 1892. Fellow of 
King's, 1892. 



NORRISIAN PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY 

John Norris, of Gonville and Caius College, B.A. 1761, 
bequeathed, in 1777, £105 a year to found and endow this 
Professorship. The testator's original directions for the Pro- 
fessorship provide, among other things, for a fresh election every 
five years. 'The Professor may have been educated at either 
of our English Universities ; may be Lay or Clerical, but he shall 
not be elected into the office under his 30th year, nor re-elected 
after his 60th ' . . . ' no pupil or auditor shall be admitted into the 
Lecture Room unless he be provided with the Old and New 
Testament, and with Pearson on the Creed ; if anyone not thus 
provided be admitted, the Professor shall forfeit . . . out of his 
salary 21s. for every such person so received.' Benedict Chap- 

1 LotiK erected in 1785 in one of the courts of Pembroke a hollow revolving sphere, 18 feet in diameter, 
and capable of Mccommodating SO persons, representing on Its inner surface tlie iipparent movements of 
the heavenly bo4lles. He was at one time Vicar of Cherry Hinton. 

2 See D.y.n. 

S Tutor of Trinity, 1823— S». As Dean of Ely he csirried through the restoration of the Cathedral His 
work on "The Statutes of tlie University,' published In ISil.is an important contribution to University 
History. 

i Fellow and Tutor of St John's. Director of the Cambridge Observatory, 1861. The calculations 
which should have led to the discovery of the planet Neptune were deposited at tbe Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich, 21 Oct. IBK, but the actual discoiery was m.ide by Galle at Berlin from Leverrler's 
calculations announced seven months later. The memor.indum made by Adams as an undergraduate, 
dated 3 July 1841, is now in the Library of St John's College :— ' Formed a design, in the beginning of this 
week, of investigating as soon as possible after taking my degree, the irregularities in the motion of 
Uranus which are yet un.iccountea for ; in order to find whether they may be attributed to tbe action 
of an undiscovered planet beyond it, and if possible thence to determine the elements of its orbit, &c. 
approximately, whicn would probably lead to its discovery." 

^ Originally at Trinity College. Dublin. Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1874—92. Director of the 
Cambridge Observatory, 1892. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 93 

man, D.D., Master of Gonville and Caius College, left, in 1852, 
£1000 to augment the stipend. By a Statute, confirmed by the 
Queen in Council in 1860, the Professorship is now further 
endowed with the rectorial tithe rent-charge of Terrington 
St John's and a portion of the rent-charge of Terrington St 
Clement's. The stipend is at present (1915) about £530, exclusive 
of any Fellowship. 

The electors are the Heads of Houses, eleven of whom must be 
present and vote. In case of equahty of votes after three 
scrutinies, the Master of Trinity, or in his absence the Provost 
of King's, or in the absence of both, the Master of Caius, has a 
casting vote. The Professor is assigned to the "Special Board for 
Divinity. 

KLEC'TED 

178U .John Ileyi, D.I)., Fellow of Sidney. 

1795 .Jaine.s Fawcett^, |{.l)., Fellow of St .John's. 

1815 Thomas .Jackson, B.I), (afterwartls ('alvert)^, Fellow of St .John's. 

1824 .John Banks Hollinifworth, D.l)., Fellow of Peterhouse. Archdeacon of 

Huntingdon. 
1838 George Elwes Corrie*, B.I)., Fellow of St Catharine's. Master of .Jesus, 184!). 

D. I). 1853. 
1854 Edward Harold Krowne", M.A., Fellow of Kmnianuel. D.I). 18C4. Bishop 

of Flv, 1864 ; of Winchester, 1873. 
1864 Cliarles Anthony Swainson", M..\., Fellow of Christ's. D.I). 1864. Lady 

.Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 1879. Master of Christ's, 1881. 
1879 .Joseph Rawson Luinby', D.I)., Fellow of St Catharine's. Lady Margaret's 

Professor of Divinity, 1892. 
1893 .Joseph Armitage Robinson, B.D.. Fellow of Christ's. D.D. 1896. Dean of 

Westminster, 1902-11 ; Dean of Wells, 1911. 
' 1899 Handlev Carr filyn Moule, I). D., Fellow of Trinity. Fellow of St Catharine's, 

1899. Bishop of Durham, 1901. 
1901 Frederick Henry Chase, D.l)., President of Queens'. Bishop of Ely, 1905. 
1905 Francis Crawford Burkitt, M.A., Trinity. D.D. 1915. 

JACKSONIAN PROFESSORSHIP OF NATURAL 
EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY 

Founded in 1783 in pursuance of the Will of the Reverend 
Richard Jackson, M.A., formerly Fellow of Trinity College. 

By the Founder's Will the Professor is to be chosen for 'his 
knowledge in Natural Experimental Philosophy ... and of 
Chymistry/ but he is allowed great latitude in the choice of the 
subjects of his lectures, provided they be of an experimental 
character. It is directed that the natural bodies which are the 
subject of inquiry be exhibited at the lectures, and a course of 
experiments made upon them in the way of chemical analysis. 
The Professor was requested to 'have an eye more particularly 
to that opprobrium medicorum called the gout.' The electors 

1 Oriftinally at St Catharine's', Tutor of Sidney. 1700— 79. He published in 1801 a ' Set of Discourses on 
the Malevolent Passions.' 

•J His lectures were 'less efficient than iniKht have been expected from their undoubted excellence,' 
as he suffered from 'an easiness of temper little calculated to curb the sallies of a lar^e assembly of 
young men constrained to sit out a lecture of an hour in length.' He was for a time Vicar of the Round 
Church. 

S Tutor of St .Johns, 1814. He changed his name to Calvert in 1819 on inheriting property. 

4 Tutor of St Catharine's. While Professor he took lessons in Ltngiiages, especially Danish and Irish. 

5 .Senior Tutor of Emmanuel, 18S8-40. 

ti See p. 74, note 1. 7 See p. 74. note 3. 



94 PROFESSORSHIPS 

were to be the Regent Masters of Arts resident in the University, 
and in making their election they were to give preference to a 
member of Trinity, and to a Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Derby- 
shire, or Cheshire man. 

The electors are now the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons 
elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the CouncU of the 
Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the 
Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, to which the Professor 
is assigned. Statutory stipend at the next vacancy, £800 per 
annum (or £600 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or 
Fellowship). 

ELECTED 

1783 Isaac Milner', M.A., Fellow of Q,ueeiis'. President of Queens', 1788. Deau 

of Carlisle, 1791. D.l). 1792. Lueasian Professor, 1798. 
1792 Francis .John Hyde Wollaston^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. B.l). 1795. 

Archdeacon of Essex, 1813. 
1813 William Farisli'*, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. Professor of Clieniistrv, 1794. 

B.l). 1820. 
1837 Robert Willis*, .M.A., Fellow of Caius. 
1875 [Sir] .Jauies Hewar. M.A. 1875. Fellow of Peterhouse, 1883. Knighted, 

1904. 



DOWNING PROFESSORSHIP OF THE LAWS 
OF ENGLAND 

Founded in 1800, in pursuance of the WiU of Sir Geoege 
Downing, Bart., K.B. In the original Charter of Downing 
College it was provided that the election should be by the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Masters of Clare and 
St John's, and the Master 'of the said intended College to be 
called Downing College.' Annual stipend, an amount greater by 
£500 than the share of the revenue of Downing College paid 
to each Fellow. 

The electors are now the Vice-Chancellor, the Master of 
Downing College, or, if the Master be a candidate or the Master- 
ship vacant, the senior member of the Governing Body of 
Downing College who is not a candidate, and eight persons 
elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the CouncU of the 
Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and three by 
the Special Board for Law, to which the Professor is assigned. 

1 See p. Si, note (>, and p. 27. Gunning says that 'the University perhaps never produced a man of 
more eminent abilities ' {lieniinUcences, i. 257). Professor William Smyth de*icribed him as ' a very capital 
lecturer,' and added * what with him and his German assistant, Hoffmann, the audience was always in a 
hiRh state of interest and entertainment.' Cf. also Gunning, Jteminiscences, i. 259. 

2 Originally at Sidnev; Tutor of Trinity Hall. He began by lecturing alternately on Chemistry and 
Experimental Philosophy, and is said to have exhibited 'not less than three hundred experiments 
annually,' but after 1796. when Vince became Plumian Professor, he lectured on Chemistry only. In 1807 
he was made Master of Sidney, but the election was declared invalid by the Visitor on the ground that he 
had never been a Fellow of the College. 

S See p. 86, note 4 

4 'His practical knowledge of carpentrj. his inventive genius, and his iMwer of lucid exposition, made 
him a most attractive Professor, and his lecture-room was always full' {D.A'.B.); but he will always be 
remembered in Cambridge as a student of Architecture and Archaeology, who planned and partly carried 
out the comprehensive work afterwards published in 1886 as The Architectural History of the University 
and Colleges of Cu mbrldge 



PROFESSORSHIPS 95 



BLBCTED 

11788 Edward airistian^, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

1823 Thomas StarkieS, M.A., Fellow of St Catharine's. University Counsel, 1825. 
1849 Andrew Amos*, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1860 William Llovd Birkbeck, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Master of Downing, 1885. 
1888 Frederic William Maitlands, M.A., Trinitv. Reader in English Law, 1884. 

LL.O. 1891. 
1907 Courtney Stanhope Kenny, LL.D., Fellow of Downing. Reader in English 

Law', 1888. 



DOWNING PROFESSORSHIP OF MEDICINE 

Foundation and election as for the preceding, except that the 
Special Board of Studies ^s the Board for Medicine. Annual 
stipend, an amount greater by £300 than the share of the revenue 
of Downing College paid to each Fellow. 

ELECTED 

1800 [Sir] Busick Harwood^, M.I)., Emmanuel. Professor of Anatomy, 1785. 

Knighted, 1806. 
1814 Cornwallis Hewett", M.A., Fellow of Downing. M-D. 1822, 
1841 William Webster Fisher*, M.D., Fellow of Downing. 

1874 Peter Wallwork Latham «, M.D., Fellow of Downing. i 

1894 .John Buckley Bradbury, M.D., Downing. . 



PROFESSORSHIP OF MINERALOGY 

Founded by the University in 1808. 

Lectures had been given by Dr Clarke for two years prior to 
the establishment of the Professorship, and they were illustrated 
by specimens which had been collected during his travels. After 
the death of Dr Clarke the Senate decreed that the Professorship 
should be continued. 

The Professor's salary, £100, was paid by the Crown until 
1857, when it devolved upon the University. The statutory 
stipend at the next vacancy will be £600 per annum (or £400 
per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship). 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 

1 The foundation of the Downing Professorships dates from 1800, but by Grace of 1 November 1788, tlie 
University appointed Edward Christian 'Professor of the Laws of England' until the foundation of 
BownInK Cofleije. 

2 Brother of Fletcher Christian, wlio headed the mutiny of the Bounty. He was not very successful, 
either as a lawyer or a professor, and it was said at his death that he had passed away *in the full vigour of 
his mcapacity. Gunmng tells several anecdotes about him (see Heyniniscences, i. 211—20). 

3 OriKinally at St John's. 

4 First Professor of English Law at University College, London, 1829, Succeeded Macaulay as ' fourtli 
member' of the Governor.Generars Council in India, 1837. He published many worlis and pamphlets 
both legal and literary, but he is best known in the legal world through his sliare in a treatise on the law 
of fixtures, 1827. In 1846 he dedicated to his lifelong friend, Dr Whewell, four * Lectures on the Advantages 
of a Classical Education as auxiliary to a Commercial Education.' 

5 An account of Maitland's remarkable influence upon legal studies will be found in the two brief 
memoirs, published soon after his death, by A. L. Smith and H. A. L. Fisher, 

6 See p. 87, note 10. He was admitted to the Professorsliip, Jan. 16, 1801. 

7 Originally' at Trinity. 

8 Entered at Trinity; M.B. from Downing, 18*4. In addition to fulfilling the duties of the Professorship, 
he had a large practice as a physician in Cambridge. 

9 Originally at Caius ; Fellow of Downing, 1860. 



96 PROFESSORSHIPS 

Board for Physics and Chemistry, to which the Professor is 
assigned. 

KLECTKD 

1808 Edward Daniel Clarkei, LL.l)., Fellow of Jesus. Librarian, 1817. 

1822 John iStevens Ilenslow^, M. A., St John's. Professor of Botany, 1825. 

1828 Wiliiani VVheweU3, M.A.. Fellow of Trinity. Knightbridge Professor of 

.Moral Philosophy, 1838. .Master of Trinity, 1841. D.l). 1844. 
1832 William Hallowos Miller*, M.A., Fellow of St Jolui's. M.l). 1841. 
1881 \Villiani James Lewis", M.A. (incorporated from Oxford), Trinity. 



DISNEY PROFESSORSHIP JOF ARCHAEOLOGY 

Founded in 1851 by John Disney, of the Hyde, Ingatestone, 
who also presented to the University a valuable collection of 
Ancient Marbles. The Professor must be a member of the 
University of Cambridge, and of the degree of M.A., or some 
higher degree. He is required to deliver six lectures at least 
during the academical year, 'on the subject of Classical Mediaeval 
and other Antiquities the Fine Arts and aU matters and things 
connected therewith.' The appointment remained with the 
Founder during his life-time^, and it is now vested in the Vice- 
Chancellor and Heads of Colleges : the locum tenens of the Head 
of any College being entitled to vote in his stead. The Professor- 
ship is tenable for five years, and the Professor may be re-elected. 

Present stipend (1914) about £95, with £100 a year in addition 
granted to the present Disney Professor only and not per- 
manently assigned to the Chair. The Professor is assigned 
to the Special Board for History and Archaeology, but he is not 
in other respects subject to the provisions of Statute B. 

BLECTBD 

1851 John Howard Marsden, li.l).. Fellow of St John's. Re-elected, 1856 and 1801. 
1865 Churchill Habington, KD., Fellow of St John's. Re-elected, 1870 and 1875. 

D.l). 1879. 
1880 Percy Gardner, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Re-elected, 1885. Litt.D. 1883. 
1887 George Forrest Browne, B.D., Fellow of St Catharine's. D.D. 1897. Bishop 

Sutt'ra^an of Stepney, 1895 ; Bishop of Bristol, 1897. 
71892 William Ridgewav, M.X., Fellow of Caius. Re-elected, 1898, 1903, 1908 [and 

1913]. Breretou Reader in Classics, 1907. Sc.D. 1909. 



1 See p. 5.5. Bursar of Jesus, 17fl8 ; Senior Tutor, 1805. Clarke was a meat traveller aiid visited Asia 
Minor, Palestine, and Greece, collectinjt minerals, coins, manuscripts, and marbles. He presented his Greek 
statues to the University in 1803, and his collection of minerals was purchased after his death for flJMOO 
He was called '.Stone' Clarke, to distinKuish him from ' Bone' Clark, the Professor of Anatomy (see p. 88) 
and 'Tone' Clarke, afterwards Clarke- Wliitfleld, the Professor of Music (see p. 8.il. Gunning describes 
him as one of the kindest and^ most benevolent of human beiiigs. but throws some doubt on his 
scientific atUiinmenta (see Reminiscences, ii. 202—1.5). 

2 Gunninn gives an account of the dispute with regard to this election (RemiuUcence$, ii, 337—47). See 
also p. 90, note 7. 

a See p. 84, note 6. 

4 Miller's great reputation was won in crystallostraphy. His system 'gave expressions adapted for 
working all the problems th>it a crystal can present, and it gave them in a form that appealed at once to 
the sense of symmetry and appropriateness of the mathematician, .he thus placed the keistone into the 
arch of tlie science of ciystallograpliy." 

5 Fellow of Oriel College. Oxford. 

6 Mr Disney died in 1857. 7 Admitted, August 2, 189;!. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 97 



HULSEAN PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY 

The Reverend John Hulse, of St John's College, B.A. 1728,, 
died in 1790, bequeathing his estates in Cheshire to the University, 
first, to maintain two Scholars at St John's College ; secondly, to 
found a Prize for a Dissertation; thirdly, to found and support 
the office of Christian Advocate, and fourthly, that of the Hulsean 
Lecturer or Christian Preacher. 

The Christian Advocate was required to be a 'learned and 
ingenious person of the degree of Master of Arts or of Bachelor 
or Doctor of Divinity, and of the age of thirty years or upwards,' 
and resident in the University, who should ' prepare some proper 
and judicious answer or answers every year to all... new and 
popular or other cavils and objections against the Christian or 
Revealed Religion, or against the ReHgion of Nature,' 'such his 
written answer to be in EngUsh, and only against notorious 
infidels, whether Atheists or Deists, not descending to any par- 
ticular controversies or sects amongst Christians themselves, 
except some new and dangerous error either of superstition or 
enthusiasm, as of Popery or Methodism, either in opinion or 
practice shall prevail.' 

By a Statute confirmed by the Queen in Council Aug. 1, I860, 
the office of Hulsean Professor of Divinity was substituted for 
that of Christian Advocate; and the office of Hulsean Lecturer 
considerably modified. The Bishop of Ely is Visitor. The gross 
annual income from Mr Hulse's Benefaction is about £1000. 

The Professor is to print and publish at least six lectures in 
the course of every six years. Candidates must be thirty years 
of age or upwards, in Hoty Orders, and Master of Arts or of some 
higher degree in the University of Cambridge. Annual stipend, 
eight-tenths of the net income from Mr Hulse's benefaction. 

The Professor is appointed by the Vice-ChanceUor, the Master 
of Trinity College, the Master of St John's College, and the 
Regius, the Lady Margaret's, the Norrisian, and the Ely Professors 
of Divinity, the Vice-ChanceUor having a casting vote. If the 
Master of Trinity or the Master of St John's be Vice- Chancellor, 
the Regius Professor of Greek suppHes his place. The Professor 
is assigned to the Special Board for Divinity. 

Christian Adcncates 

BtBCTBD 

1803 ISirl William Cockburn, M.A., Fellow of St John's. D.D, 1823. Baronet, 
1853. 

1810 Edward Pearson i, D.D., Master of Sidney. 

1811 George D'Oyly, B.D., Fellow of Corpus. D.I). 1821. 

1810 Thomas Rennell^, M.A., Fellow of King's. B.D. 1822. F.R.S. 1823. 

1 See p. 27. Tutor of Sidney, 1788. 

2 Dr Parr described him rs standing 'by profound erudition and by various and extensive knowlaise.. 
among the brightest luminaries of our national literature or national church.' 

H. R. 7 



98 PROFESSORSHIPS 



BLBCTBD 

1821 John Lonsdale', M.A., Fellow of King's. Archdeacon of Middlesex, 1842. 

Bishop of Lichfield, 1843. I). P. 1844. 

1822 Thomas Smart Hughes-, B.D., Fellow of St .John's. Fellow of Trinity Hall, 

1816 ; of Emmanuel, 1818. 

1829 Hugh James Rose^, B.D., Trinity. 

183.3 James Amiraux Jeremie*, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1850. Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinitv, 1850. 

1834 George Pearson*, B.D., Fellow of St John's. 

1839 William Hodge .Mill 6, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Christian Advocate, 1839. 
Regius Professor of Hebrew, 1848. 

1844 Thomas Worsley, M.A., Master of Downing. D.D. 1859. 

1860 -John Ale.xander Frere, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1866 Charles Hardwick', M..4.., Fellow of St Catharine's. B D. 1859. Archdeacon 
of Ely, 1869. 

Hulsean Professors 

BLBCTKD 

1860 aiaries John Ellicotts, B.D., Fellow of St John's. Dean of Exeter, 1861; 

Bishop of Gloucester, 1863. D.D. 1863. 

1861 Joseph Barber Lightfoot', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. D.D. 1864. Lady 

Margaret's Professor, 18V5. Bishop of Durham, 1879. 
1875 John James Stewart PerowneW, D.D., Fellow of Trinity. Formerly Fellow 

of Corpus. Dean of Peterborough, 1878 ; Bishop of Worcester, 1891. 
1878 Fenton John Anthony HortU, D.D., Fellow of Emmanuel. Lady Margaret's 

Professor, 1887. 
1887 Herbert F^ward Kyle, M.A., Fellow of King's. D.D. 1896. President of 

Queens', 1896. Bishop of Exeter, 1901; of Winchester, 1903. Dean of 

Westminster, 1911. 
1901 William Emery Barnes, D.D., Fellow of Peterhouse. 



SADLEIRIAN PROFESSORSHIP OF PURE 
MATHEMATICS 

Lady Sadleir, wife of Sir Edwin Sadleir of Temple Dinsley, 
Hertfordshire, by Will dated 25 September 1701, made provision 
for Lectm-es in the different Colleges 'for the fuU and clear 
explication and teaching that part of Mathematical knowledge 
commonly called Algebra.' The testatrix died in 1706, and the 
lectures began in Emmanuel (to which preference was given be- 
cause her first husband, William Croone^^, M.D., who had suggested 
the Foundation, had been a Fellow there) at Michaelmas, 1710. 
Lecturers were ultimately appointed in all the Colleges, but the 
arrangement was not found to work satisfactorily, and in 1860, 
by a Univei-sity Statute approved by the Queen in Council, 
the Lectureships were abolished and a Professorship of Pure 
Mathematics substituted for them. 

Stipend, £850 per annum (or £650 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or Fellowship). 

1 Princip.Tl of Kind's College, London, ISS. ' There was but one opinion of Lonsd.ile's episcopate during 
his time — that he was the best bishop the diocese had ever had " iD.N.B.). 

2 See D.X.B. xxviii, 188. 

3 Professor of Divinitv at the University of Dutbam, ISB — 1 ; Principal of King's College, London, 1S36. 
He took part with Palmer, Perceval, anS Richard Hurrell Froude in the 'Hadleigh Conference'— an 
important landmark iu the early history of the Tractarian movement. 

4 See p. 76, note 3. B Originally at Emmanuel. 6 See p. 77, note 8. 

7 He was killed, 18 .\ug. 1^9, by fallini^ over a precipice in the Pyrenees. 

8 See the IHctionartf of Xalional Biorrrapliy (Second Supplement, i. 618). 9 See p. 73, note 16. 
10 See the Dictionary of A'aticiml Biography (Second Supplement, Hi. 108). 11 See p. 74. note 2. 
12 Professor of Rhetoric at Gresh.om College, 1659. One of the first Fellows of the Royal Society. Founder 

cf the Croonian Lecture at the College of Phys" 



PROFESSORSHIPS 99 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor, three Heads of Colleges 
elected by the persons whose names are on the Electoral Roll, 
to hold office as long as they continue to be Heads of Colleges, 
and the Lucasian, the Plumian, and the Lowndean Professors. 
These were technically called the 'Algebra Trustees.' 

The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for Mathematics. 

ELECTED 

18«3 Arthur t'ayleyi, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Hon. Sc.D. 1888. 
1895 Andrew Russell Forsyth, ScJJ., Fellow of Trinity. 

1910 Ernest William Hobson, Sc.l)., Fellow of Christ's. Stokes Lecturer in 
Mathematics, 1903. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 

The title of Professor of Political Economy was conferred by 
a Grace of the Senate, May 21, 1828, on George Pryme, M.A., 
late Fellow of Trinity College. 

The Professorship was established by Grace of the Senate, 
Oct. 29, 1863. 

Stipend, £700 per annum (or £500 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or Fellowship). The electors are the Vice- 
Chancellor and eight persons elected by the Senate, two being 
nominated by the Council of the Senate, three by the General 
Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board for Economics 
and Pohtics, to which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1828 George Pryme ■2, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

lSti3 Uenry Fawcetta, M. A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. Postmaster-General, 1880-4. 

■p TO (J 1009 

1884 Alfred Marshall, M. A., Fellow of St .John's. Hon. Sc.D., 1908. 
1908 Arthur Cecil Pigou, aM.A., Fellow of King's. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF ZOOLOGY AND 
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 

Founded by the University in 1866. Stipend, £700 per annum 
(or £500 if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship). The 
electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected by 
the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Biology and Geology, to which the Professor is assigned. 

1866 Alfred Newton*, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene. 

1907 Adam Sedgwick, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Reader in Animal Morphology, 

1890. 
1909 .John Stanley Gardiner, M.A., Fellow of Caius. 

1 .'In account of Cayley's distiuguiahed caieer as a mathematician will be found in the DMionari/ of 
Mational Biography (First Supplement, i. 4011. 

2 Although he graduated !is Sixth Wrangler (ISWi), Pryme obtained the Browne Medal twice— once for 
a Latin epigram and again (or a Greek ode ; he also twice gained the Members' Prize for 3 Latin Essay. 
He began to lecture on Political Economy, not then a recognised subject, in 1816, and in 1828 he received 
the title of Professor by Grace. He continued to lecture until 18S3, and at his death in 1868 he bequeathed 
his books and pamplilets on Polittail Economy to the University for the use of his successors. 

3 Entered at Peterhouse in 18.')2, but migrated to Trinity Hall at the beginning of his second year of 
residence. The shooting accident which occasioned his blindness took place near balisbury, 17 Sept. 1868. 
Most of his professorial lectures have been published in book form. A full account of his influence as an 
•economist is given in the Life by Leslie Stephen. 

4 An account of Newton's great services to Zoology in Cambridge will be found in the Dictionary of 
National Hlography (Second Supplement, ill. 10'. 

7—2 



100 PROFESSORSHIPS 



PROFESSORSHIP OF SANSKRIT 

^Established by Grace of the Senate, May 16, 1867. Stipend, 
£700 per annum (or £500 if the Professor holds a Headship or 
Fellowship). 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
by the Senate, two being nominated by the Comicil of the 
Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and three by 
the Special Board for Oriental Studies, to which the Professor 
is assigned. 

1867 Edward Uvles Cowelli. M.A. 1868. Fellow of Corpus, 1874. 

1903 Cecil Bendall-i, M.A., Fellow of Caius. 

1906 Edward Jaiues Kapson, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

WHEWELL PROFESSORSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL 
LAW 

FoTJKDED in 1867, in accordance with the Will of William 
Whewell, D.D., late Master of Trinity College. 

The Professor is required to give annually a course of twelve 
lectures 2 at least on the subject of International Law, and by 
the Founder's express injunctions he is 'to make it his aim,' in 
aU parts of his treatment of the subject, 'to lay down such rules 
and to suggest such measures as may tend to diminish the evils 
of war and finally to extinguish war between nations.' 

The salary is £500 per annum, subject to the condition that 
the Professor shall deliver every year, at the end of the Easter 
Term, to the Council of Trinity College, a certificate ^ signed by 
ten resident members of the University, that they have each of 
them attended ten at least of the Professor's lectures during 
the preceding academic year. 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor, the Master of Trinity 
(with a casting vote), the Regius Professor of Civil Law, the 
Prolessor of Moral Philosophy, the Downing Professor of the 
Laws of England, and the Professor of Political Economy. The 
Professor is assigned to the Special Board for Law. 

ELECTED 

1869 [Sir! William Ceorge rirauville Veiiables Vernon Harcourt-', B.A., Trinity. 
M.A. 1869. Solicitor-General, 1873-4. Knighted, 1873. H.ime Secretary, 
1880-5. Chancellor of the K.\chequer, 1886 (Feb.-.Iul.v) and 1892-5. 

1 M:«sdalen Hall, Oxford. Professor of English Histor.v in the Preadency College, Calcutta. 1856, and 
Principal of the Sanskrit CoUexe (founded b^ Warren Hastings), I&% As an undergraduate he had 
already made a reputation hj- his Oriental publications, and during his 36 years' tenure of the Professorship 
he achieved an inunense amount of teaching and literary work. He was a student of Persian, Hebrew, 
Spanish, and Welsh, and also took up archaeologj". botany, and geoloRy. 

2 Entered at Trinity, but mifcrated to Caius at the beginning of his tliird year. .Senior .Assistant in the 
Itepartnient of Oriental MSS. at the British Museum. 1SS2— 98. Professor of Sanskrit at University 
Collie, London. 188S— 190a Tlie Bendall Exhibition (19121 was founded in his memory. He left hi» 
Oriental MS."*, to the University, and part of his valuable musical collection was acquired by the 
Fitzwilliani .Museum. 

3 This condition has since been modified (see rnitt^fitt/ Calendar). 

4 In H letter to Lord .Tolin Russell, Harcourt described International Law as 'my passion, not my 

Profession,* and his letters to the Thn^^i over tlie sigiiature of * Historicus,' dealing chiefly with questions of 
nternational Law .trising out of the .American Civil W.ir, early won him a reputation in this field. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 101 

ELECTED 

1887 Sir Heiiry James Sumner Mainei, M.A., Master of Trinity Hall. Regius 

Professor of Civil Law, 1847. 

1888 John Westlake 2, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. LL.D, 1895. 

1908 Lassa Francis Lawrence Oppenheini, LL.D. (GOttingen). M.A. 1908. 



[KENNEDY] PROFESSORSHIP OF LATIN 

A Subscription was set on foot by the friends and former 
pupils of Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D.D., on his retirement 
in 1865 from the Headmastership of Shrewsbury School, the 
amount to be offered to the University for the purpose of founding 
a Professorship of Latin to be called the Kennedy Professorship, 
in recognition of his great services to Literature and Education. 
Dr Kennedy offered to give £500 to the fund on condition that 
his name should riot be attached to the proposed Professorship, 
and this offer was accepted by the subscribers. [By Grace of 
June 15, 1911, it was provided that the Professorship should be 
called the Kennedy Professorship of Latin. This step was taken 
af ten consultation with Dr Kennedy's family, it being generally 
agreed that the objection entertained by Dr Kennedy during his 
lifetime could not be regarded as fatal to a proposal for per- 
petuating his memory.] 

The fund was accepted and the Professorship established by 
Grace of the Senate, April 29, 1869. By Grace of the Senate, 
May 30, 1872, the stipend was augmented from the University 
Chest to £300 a year. The Professor is required to deliver a 
course of not less than ten lectures in each of two terms in every 
year. [The present stipend is £800 per annum (or £600 if the 
Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship); and the residence of 
the Professor is now governed by Statute B.] 

The electors to the Professorship were originally the Vice- 
Chancellor, the Regius Professor of Greek, the Public Orator, the 
Professor of Sanskrit, the members of the Senate for the time 
being who have been specially elected by Grace to serve on 
the Special Board for Classics, the Professor of Latin in the 
University of Oxford, and the Headmaster of Shrewsbury 
School. [By Grace of March 16, 1911, the election to the Pro- 
fessorship was transferred to a Board consisting of the Vice- 
ChanceUor and eight persons elected by the Senate, two of such 
persons being nominated by the Council of the Senate, three by 
the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board 
for Classics.] 

The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for Classics. 

1 See p. 81. Corpus Professor of Jurispnulence at Oxford, 1869—78. Maine's Wliewell Lectures for 1887 
were edited after liis death by Mr Frederic Hiirrison and Sir Fredericlc Pollocli, and published in 1888. 

2 Westlalte's Collected Papers mi Pablie International Law, edited by his successor, were published in 
1914. 



102 PROFESSORSHIPS 



KIKCTKD 

1869 Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munroi, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Litt.D. 1884. 
1872[-1910] John Eyton Bickersteth Mayor^, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Librarian, 
1864-7. 



SLADE PROFESSORSHIP OF FINE ART 

This Professorship, founded in pursuance of the Will of 
Felix Slade, with an endowment of £12,000 Three per Cent. 
Consolidated Annuities, was established by Grace of the Senate, 
June 24, 1869. It is tenable for three years, but the holder is 
eUgible for re-election. By Grace of June 6, 1907, it was further 
provided thait, if re-elected, he holds the Professorship during 
life or until resignation, provided that he has at any time 
previous to re-election held the Professorship for the full period 
of three years, or is re-elected during his third year of tenure. 
The Professor is not required to reside at the University until 
the stipend of the Professorship shall have been increased to not 
less than £500 per annum. [Stipend in 1915, about £340.] The 
Professorship is not tenable with any other University Professor- 
ship, Readership, or Lectureship. 

It is the duty of the Professor to deliver annually in the 
University in some place to be appointed from time to time 
by the Vice-Chancellor not fewer than twenty-four lectures on 
the History, Theory, and Practice of the Fine Arts, or of some 
section or sections of them. The lectures must be given in full 
term and must be open to all members of the University free 
of charge. It is also his duty to organise and develope the 
study of Art in the University. 

The Professor is required to present annually to the Board 
of Electors before the end of the Michaehnas Term a Report on 
the work of his Chair and the studies with which it is concerned. 

The Professor is elected by a Board consisting of four members 
resident at Cambridge and three non-resident. The resident 
members are the Vice-Chancellor (who has a casting vote), and 
three persons on the Electoral RoU appointed by the Senate. 
The non-resident members are the President of the Royal Academy 
of London, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of London, and 
the Director of the Art Museum, South Kensington, nominated 
for life. [By Grace of June 20, 1911, the number of non-resident 
electors was increased by the addition of the Secretary (as well 
as the Director) of the museum now described as the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, South KensirTgton.] 

The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for History 
and Archaeology. 

1 An account of this distinguished scholar will be found in the JHctionary of national Biography. He 
was educated at Shrewsbury School. 

2 Also eilucated at Shrewsburj- SchooL For an account of his life see obituary notices in the F,agle,—0[ie 
St John's College Magazine (xxxii. 18S>— 2;!2). 



PROFESSORSHIPS 103 



1869 Sir Mattliew Uigby Wyatt'. M.A. 1870. 

1873 [Sir] Sidney Colvin2, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Re-elected 187«, 1879, 1882, and 

1885. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 1876. Knighted, 1911. 

1886 John Henry MiddletonS, Fellow of Kinx's. Re-elected, 1889 and 1892. M.A. 

1886. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 1890. Litt.D. 1893. 

1895 [Sir] Cliarles Waldstein, Litt.D., Fellow of King's. Re-elected, 1898. Reader 
in Classical Archaeology, 1883. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 1883. 
Knighted, 1912. 

1901 Sir William Martin Conway*, M.A., Trinity. 

190-t[-ll] rsir] Charles Waldstein, Litt.D., again. Re-elected, 1907. 



CAVENDISH PROFESSORSHIP OF EXPERIMENTAL 
PHYSICS 

Established by Grace of the Senate, Feb. 9, 1871. The name 
of the Chair commemorates the munificent endowment of 
William Cavendish, seventh Duke of Devonshire, when Chan- 
cellor of the University, for building the Laboratory of Experi- 
mental Physics. 

Stipend, £850 per annum (or £650 if the Professor holds a 
Headship or Fellowship). 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Physics and Chemistry, to which the Professor m 
assigned. 

ELBCTED 

1871 James Clerk Maxwell*, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1879 John William Strutt, Baron Bayleigh, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Hon. Sc.D. 
1888. Chancellor of the University, 1908. 
61884 [Sir] Joseph John Thomson, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Knighted, 1908. O.M. 
1912. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF MECHANISM AND APPLIED 
MECHANICS 

Established by Grace of the Senate, Oct. 28, 1875. 

Stipend, £700 per annum (or £500 if the Professor holds a 
Head.«hip or Fellowship). , 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Physics and Chemistry, to which the Professor is 
assigned. 

1 Surveyor to the East India Company, 18S.5. He was the architect of Addenbrooke's Hospital. 

2 Keeper of the Prints and Drawings, British Museum. 18S4 — 1912. 

3 Kxeter College, Oxford. Art Director of the Soutli Kensini^n Museum, 1898—6. 

4 Professor of Art, University College. Liverpool. 188-5—8. 

5 Entered at Peterhouse, but migrated to Trinity after one term. Professor of Natural Philosophy at 
Aberdeen, 1356 — 60, and at King's College, London, 1860 — .5. His remarkable achievements as an original 
investigator are described in the /Hctionary of National Bioqraphii. By his will he left funds to 
the University to found the Scholarship in Experimental Physics which bears his name (p 279). 

6 Admitted Feb. 5, 18a5. 



104 PROFESSORSHIPS 

BLECTED 

1876 IRiglit Hon.] James Stuarti, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Privy Councillor, 1909. 
1890 [Sir] .James Alfred KwiugS, B.Sc. (Edinb.). M. A. 1891, pott 'J'rinity. Fellow 

of King's, 1898. K.C.B. 1911. 
190.3 Bertram Hopkinson, M.A., Trinity. Fellow of King's, 1914. 



ELRINGTON AND BOSWORTH PROFESSORSHIP 
OF ANGLO-SAXON 

Joseph Bosworth, D.D., of Trinity College, Rawlinsonian 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford, gave in 
1867 the sum of £10,000, which was to accumulate until it would 
provide for a stipend of not less than £500 per annum for a 
Professorship to be thereupon founded and called the Elrington 
and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon^. The Professorship 
was founded in 1878. 

A candidate must be a graduate of Cambridge, Oxford, or 
DubUn. The electors are the Vice-Chancellor,.the Rawlinsonian 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford, the Masters 
of Trinity, Caius, and Corpus Christi Colleges, the Regius 
Professor of Greek, the Professor of Modern History, and the 
Professor of Sanskrit. In case of an equality of votes the 
Vice-Chancellor, or, in his absence, the elector present next in 
rotation according to the above order, has a casting vote. 

The Professor is required to reside within one mile and a half 
of Great St Mary's Church for eighteen weeks at least in term 
time during each year, and to deUver not less than fifteen lectures 
in each year, the subject, and times and places of delivery, 
being approved by the Special Board for Medieval and Modern 
Languages, to which the Professor is assigned. Stipend in 1914, 
about £500. 

'l878[-1912] Walter William Skeat, iM.A., Fellow of Christ's. Litt.D. 1886. 



DIXIE PROFESSORSHIP OF ECCLESIASTICAL 
HISTORY 

Sir Wolstan Dixie, Lord Mayor of London, who died in 
1594, endowed Fellowships and Scholarships at Emmanuel. In 
1878 the Fellowships were abolished, and in 1882 a Statute was 
approved by the Queen in Council for the University and 
Emmanuel in common, in virtue of which there was ' established 

1 Originator of University Extension Lectures, 1873. M.P. for Hackney, 1884; for Hoxton, 188.5—1900: 
for Sunderland, 1906—10. 

2 Professor of Mechanical Ens;ineerin^ at the Imperial University, Toliyo, 1878 — 83. Professor of 
Engineering at University College. Dundee, 1883—90. Director of Naval Education, 1903. 

3 The foundation of the Professorship was in a great measure due to Anne .Marsaret Elliot, wlio was 
married first to Colonel Hamilton Elrington, and afterwards to Dr Bosworth. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 105 

in the University a Professorthip to be called the Dixie Pro- 
fessorship of Ecclesiastical History.' 

Stipend, £500 per annum paid by Emmanuel College, and 
in addition a Fellowship at the College. The electors are the 
Vice-Chancellor, the jMaster of Emmanuel College, and eight 
persons elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the 
Council of the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, 
and three by the Special Board for History and Archaeology, 
to which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED ^„„, 

1884 Mandell Creiglitoii i, M.A. (Oxford). Fellow of Emmanuel, 1884. .M.A. 1885. 

D.D. 1891. Bishop of Peterborough, 1891; of London, 1897. 
1891[-1916] Henry .Melvill Gwatkin, M.A., formerly Fellow of St John's. Fellow of 

Kmmanuel, 1891. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF ANIMAL MORPHOLOGY 

A Grace was passed on May 11, 1882, to estabUsh in the 
University a Professorship of Animal Morphology, to terminate 
with the tenure of office of the Professor first elected, unless 
the University should decide that the Professorship should be 
continued. On May 31 was elected 

1882 Francis Maitland Balfour-, M.A., Fellow of Trinity, 

who died in the same year. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF PHYSIOLOGY 

Established by the University by Grace of May 10, 1883. 
Stipend, £800 per annum (or £600 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or a Fellowship). The Professor may not 
undertake the private practice of Medicine or Surgery. The 
electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected by 
the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Biology and Geology, to which the Professor is assigned. 

BLECTBD 

1883 rSir]Michael Fosters, Hon. M.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1883. K.C.B. 1899. 
1903 John Newport Langley*, So.])., P'ellow of Trinity. 

1 Fellow .iiid Tutor of Merlon College, Oxford. First Editor of the English HtUorical Review, foundetl 
in 1886. See aiso the Life by Mrs Creighton. 

2 His career of extraordin.iry promise was cut short by an accident. On 18 July 3882, Balfour and 
his guide set out from Coumiayeur to ascend tlie virgin peak of the -Aiguille Blanche de Peuteret : but, 
either on the ascent or descent, some time on tlie following day, they must have fallen and been killed 
instantaneously. 

o Educated at University College, Lomlon. Suc(:eede<l Huxley as FuUerian Professor of Physiology at 
the Royal Institution, 1869. Praelector of Physiology at Trinity, 1870. M.P. for the University of Lonaon, 
IHOO. AS a teacher Foster had a large share in the development of the present method of making practi<^ 
work In the lattoratory an essential part of the courses in biological science. See also D.y,B. for an account 
of hit influence upon research. 

4 Originally at St John's. 



106 PROFESSORSHIPS 



PROFESSORSHIP 'OF SURGERY 

Established by the University by Grace of May 10, 1883. 
The Professorship was suspended in 1896, and re-established 
by Grace of the Senate, June 11, 1903. 

The Professor is subject to the general regulations for the 
residence and duties of Professors and Readers passed by the 
Senate, June 18, 1885 (see p. 71). Stipend, £600 per annum 
(or £400 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellow- 
ship). The electors are the Vice- Chancellor and eight persons 
elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of 
the Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and three 
by the Special Board for Medicine, with which the Professorship 
is connected. 

ELECTED 

1883 [Sir] George Murray Humphrvi, M.D., Downing. Professor of Anatomy, 1866. 

Fellow of King's, 1884. Knighted, 1891. 
1903[-15] Fre<lerick Howard Marsh. M.A. 1903. Fellow of King's. M.C. 1904. 

Master of Downing, 1907. Sc.D. 1912. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF PATHOLOGY 

Established by the University by Grace of Dec. 6, 1883. 
Stipend, £800 per annum (or £600 per annum if the Professor 
holds a Headship or a Fellowship). The Professor may not 
undertake the private practice of Medicine or Surgery. The 
electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected by 
the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Medicine, to which the Professor is assigned. 

ELECTED 

1884 Cliark's Smart Roy, M.D. (Fxlinb.). M.A. 1885, Trinity. 
1897 Alfred Antunes Kantliack, St .John's. M.A. 1897. Fellow of King's, 1898. 
1899 German Sims ^^'oodhead, .M.D. (FMiub.). M.A. 1899. Fellow of Trinity Hall, 
1899. 



ELY PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY 

The Universities Act of 1877 had given authority for 'the 
Canonry in the Chapter of the Cathedral Church at Ely, which 
is annexed and united to the Regius Professorship of Greek, 
being on a vacancy severed therefrom, and being thenceforth 
permanently annexed and united to a Professorship in the 
University of a theological or ecclesiastical character.' This led 
to the establishment in 1889 of the Ely Professorship of Divinity, 
endowed with the aforesaid Canonry. The Professorship is 
governed by a special statute. Statute B, c. xiv. 

1 See p. 88. note 3. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 107 

The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons elected 
by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, 
three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the Special 
Board for Divinity, to which the Professor is assigned. No 
person is eUgible who is not at the time of election in Priest's 
Orders. 

ELKCTKI) 

1889(:-1916] Vincent Henry Stanton, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. D.U. 1892. Regius 
Professor of Divinity, 1916. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF CHINESE 

This Professorship was first established by Grace, Feb. 9, 1888, 
for Sir Thomas Wade, who was wUling to discharge the duties of 
the office without stipend. It was however provided that the 
Professorship should terminate with the tenure of office of the 
Professor first elected. Sir Thomas Wade died July 31, 1895, 
but the Professorship was re-established by Grace, Oct. 28, 1897, 
and by Grace of June 8, 1899, the Professor was made subject 
to the general regulations for the residence and duties of Pro- 
fessors and Readers passed by the Senate June 18, 1885 (see 
p. 71). The stipend was also fixed at £200 per annum subject 
to deduction in case the Professor should hold a Headship or 
Fellowship. The Professor is assigned to the Special Board for 
Oriental Studies. 

KLBCTED 

1888 Sir Thomas Francis Wadei, K.C.B., Hon. Litt.D., Trinity. M.A. 1888, 

G.C.M.G. 1889. Fellow of King's, 1889. 
1897 Herbert Allen Giles 2, Hon. LL.U. (Aberdeen). M.A. 1898, Trinity. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF MENTAL PHILOSOPHY 
AND LOGIC 

Established by Grace, December 10, 1896. To aid in its 
foundation Dr Henry Sidgwick gave, until 1900, £200 a year 
towards the stipend of the Professor. Stipend, £700 per annum 
(or £500 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellow- 
ship). The electors are the Vice-Chancellor and eight persons 
elected by the Senate, two being nominated by the Council of the 
Senate, three by the General Board of Studies, and three by the 
Special Board for Moral Science, to which the Professor is 
assigned. 

BLECTBD 

189T .James Ward, Sc.D., Fellow of Trinity. 



1 Served in the arm)'. Ambassador at Pekin, 1871—83. He nave to the University his valuable collection 
of Chinese books. 

2 In the Chinese Consular serviee, 1967—1893. 



108 PROFESSORSHIPS 



PROFESSORSHIP OF ANCIENT HISTORY 

Established by the University by Grace of October 27, 1898. 
Stipend now (1915) £700 per annum (or £500 per annum if the 
Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship). The electors are 
the Vice-ChanceUor and eight persons elected by the Senate, 
two being nominated by the Council of the Senate, three by 
the Greneral Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board 
for Classics, to which the Professor is assigned. 

BLBCTED 

1899 James Smith Reid, Litt.D., Fellow of Caius. Formerly Fellow of Christ's. 



DRAPERS PROFESSORSHIP OF AGRICULTURE 

Established by the University by Grace of May 11, 1899, 
from a Benefaction provided by the Worshipful Company of 
Drapers. Stipend, £800 from the Agricultural Education Fund 
(or £600 per annum if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellow- 
ship). The Professorship ceases at the end of the Easter Term, 
1919, unless before the expiration of that period the University 
shall have otherwise determined. The electors are the Vice- 
ChanceUor and eight persons elected by the Senate, two being 
nominated by the C/Oimcil of the Senate, three by the General 
Board of Studies, and three by the Special Board for Biology 
and Greology, to which the Professor is assigned. 

KL£CT£D 

1899 William Somervillei, B.Sc. (Edinburgh), M.A. (Durham). M.A. 1899. 

Fellow of Kind's, 1899. 
1902 Thomas Hudson Middleton^, B.Sc (Glasgow and Edinb.). .M.Sc. (Durham). 

M.A. 1902, St .John's. 
1907 Thomas Barlow Wood, M..\., Fellow of Caius. Reader in Agricultural 

Chemistry, 1902. 

QUICK PROFESSORSHIP OF BIOLOGY 

This Professorship, in pm-suance of the Will of Frederick 
Jambs QmcK, B.A., Trinity Hall, 1859, of Eltham in the County 
of Kent, was established by Grace of the Senate, May 10, 1906. 
The stipend is nine-tenths of the income of the Frederick James 
Quick Fund, provided that if in any year nine-tenths of the 
income of the fund exceeds the sum of £1000, the Professor's 
stipend shall be £1000, and no more; and provided further 
that if in any year the Professor holds a Fellowship or Headship 
in any CoUege of the University, his stipend as such Professor 

1 Educated at the Universities of Edinburgh and Munich. Professor of Agriculture and Forestry, Durham 
CoUege of Science, 1891—9. Assistant Secretary to the Board of Azriculture, 1902—6. Now Sibthorpian 
Professor of Rural Economy, and Fellow of St John's CoUeRe, Oxford. 

2 Educated at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Professor of Agriculture, Baroda College, 
India. 1889-96 ; Professor of Asriculture, Durham College of Science, 1899—1902. Now .\8sistant Secretary 
to tlie Board of .Viniculture. 



PROFESSORSHIPS 109 

shall not exceed £800. The Professorship is not tenable for 
more than three years without a fresh election, open to all 
candidates, including the prior holder thereof. 

Unless and until the Senate shall otherwise determine, it is 
the duty of the Professor to devote himself to the study of the 
Protozoa, especially such as cause disease, and generally to 
promote that branch of science by research and by the super- 
intendence of a laboratory and otherwise. He is not required 
to give lectures in more than one University Term in each year, 
when he sets forth the result of researches carried . out in his 
Laboratory and elsewhere. He is required to make an annual 
report to the Board of Managers of the work done and of the 
discoveries and advances made in the knowledge of Protozoa 
in the Laboratory, together with a list of the papers on the 
subject written by himself or his pupils and published in any 
journal or otherwise. 

The Professorship is not tenable with any other Professorship, 
Readership, or Lectureship in the University or elsewhere. 

The election of the Professor rests with the Board of Managers 
of the Quick Fund, who are to proceed as if they were a Board 
of Electors constituted under Statute B. The Board consists of 
the Vice-Chancellor and six members of the Senate appointed 
by Grace, three on the nomination of the Council of the Senate, 
and three on the nomination of the Special Board for Biology 
and Geology, to which the Professor is assigned. 

The Professorship is governed by, and the Professor is required 
to comply with the provisions of. Statute B, chapter xi, for 
the Residence and Duties of Professors and Readers (see p. 71), 
so far as such provisions are not inconsistent with the special 
regulations for the Professorship. 

ELECTED 

190() George Henry Falkiner NuttalU, Sc.l)., Fellnw of Christ's. He-elected, 1909, 
1912, [and 1915]. Reader in Hygiene, 1906. Fellow of Magdalene, 1908. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF AGRICULTURAL BOTANY 

Established by the University by Grace of February 13, 1908. 
The Professorship ceases at the end of the Easter Term, 1919, or 
earlier if the Professor first elected vacate the office, unless the 
University shall previously have determined otherwise. Stipend, 
£500 from the Agricultural Education Fund, with an additional 
stipend of £200 from the portion of the Fund devoted to research 
as soon as, in the opinion of the Board of Agricultural Studies, 
the state of the Fund shall permit. The stipend is subject to 
a deduction of £200 if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellow- 
ship, provided that it is not thereby reduced below £500. The 

1 M.D. California; Ph.D. Gottiiigeii. 



110 PROFESSORSHIPS 

electors are the Council of the Senate. The Professor is assigned 
to the Special Board for Biology and Greology. 

£LECTBD 

1908 Rowlaud Harry Biffen, M.A., Emmanuel. Fellow of St Catharine's, 1909. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF BIOLOGY 

Established by the University by Grace of May 14, 1908, in 
pursuance of Statute B, c. vi, § 3. [In consequence of the 
estabhshment of a Professorship of Genetics, this Professorship 
was suppressed by Grace, Feb. 15. 1913.] 

1908 William Batesoui, M.A., Fellow of .St .Jolin's. Reader in Zooloiry, 1907. 
1910(-12] Reginald Cruudall Funnett, .VI. A., Fellow of Caius. Superintendent of 

the Museum of Zoology, 1909. Artliur Balfour Professor of Genetics, 

1912. 

PROFESSORSHIP OF ASTROPHYSICS 

Established by the University by Grace of May 13, 1909. 
The Professorship has at present no stipend attached to it [but 
owing to an anonymous Benefaction accepted by Grace of 
the Senate on March 7, 1913, a stipend of £800 per annum (or 
£600 per armum if the Professor holds a Headship or Fellowship) 
will be attached to the Professorship on the next vacancy. The 
election will be governed by Statute B, chapter ix, and the 
residence and duties of the Professor by Statute B, chapter xi 
(see p. 71)]. 

The Professor, who is assigned to the Special Board for 
Physics and Chemistry, is ex officio Director of the Solar Physics 
Observatory. 

1909 Hugh Frank Xewall, M..A.., Fellow of Trinity. 

SCHRODER PROFESSORSHIP OF GERMAN 

Messrs J. H. Schroder & Co. offered in October, 1909, the 
sum of £20,000 for the endowment of a Professorship of German. 
This offer was accepted by Grace of October 28, 1909. 

The election to the Professorship and the residence and duties 
of the Professor are governed by Statute B (see p. 71). 

The Professorship is assigned to the Special Board for Medieval 
and Modern Languages. 

The stipend attached to the Professorship is the income yielded 
by the Schroder Fund, so long as this income does not exceed 
£800; Avhen the income exceeds this sum, the stipend is £800. 
The stipend is subject to a deduction of £200 in any year in 
which the Professor shaU hold a Fellowship or Headship in any 

1 Director of the John.lnnes Horticultural Institution, Merton Park, Surrey, 1910. 



PROFESSORSHIPS HI 

College of the University; and whenever a deduction is made 
in accordance with this provision, the sum deducted is added to 
the Schroder Fund. 

If and whenever the income of the Schroder Fund exceeds 
£800, the excess of the income above this amount is to be 
employed for the furtherance and study of the German Language 
and Literature in the University in such manner as may be 
approved by the Senate, on the recommendation of the General 
Board of Studies. 

ELBCTBD 

1910 Karl Hermann BreuU, Litt.D., King's. Reader in Gennanic, 1900. 



*^* Lists of the holders of Professorships since 1910 wiU be 
found in the current issue of the University Calendar, where 
an account of Professorships established after 1910 is also given. 



1 Ph.D., Berlin. 



Readerships 



The Statutes of 1882 contemplated the appointment of not 
less than twenty Readers with stipends of £400 a year, but so far 
the funds at the disposal of the University have not permitted 
the assignment of more than £300 a year to these offices, except 
in a few cases. 

Readers are appointed by the General Board of Studies, 
subject to confirmation by the Special Board with which the 
Readership is connected. The residence of Readers is governed 
by the same regulations as that of Professors (see p. 71). 

INDIAN LAW 

The Readership in Indian Law, which had already been in 
existence since 1878, was established by Grace of Dec. 6, 1883, 
as a Readership under the new Statutes. It was suppressed by 
Grace, Oct. 13, 1892, on the resignation of the first holder, but 
was re-established by Grace, May 23, 1901. The Readership 
finally lapsed on the retirement of Sir Raymond West in 1907. 

1878-92 Sir Udland Knyvet Wilson, Bart., LL.M, M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1901-1907 Sir Kayinond West, K.C.I.E., M.A., Domiing. 

TALIMUDIC AND RABBINIC LITERATURE 

The Readership in Talmudic, which had already been in 
existence since 1879, was established as a Readership under the 
new Statutes by Grace of Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Oriental Studies. In 1885 an increase of 
stipend was provided by a Benefaction of Dr Charles Taylor, 
Master of St John's. The Readership was suppressed by Grace 
of April 28, 1890, and re-estabUshed by Grace of Dec. 17, 1891. 

The stipend of the Reader in Talmudic is £100, to be increased 
to £350, if and so long as £250 per annum is furnished for this 
purpose by private donation or bequest. This additional sum 
will be provided during the tenure of the present Reader from 
Mr Claude G. Montefiore's Benefaction (1891). 

1879-90 Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, M.A., Christ's. 

1892 Solomon Schechter. M. A. 1892. Litt.l). 1898. 

1902 Israel Abrahams, M.A. (Lend.). M.A., Clirist's, 1902. 



READERSHIPS 113 



CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Readership in Greek Art already in existence, was 
established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, as a Readership under the 
new Statutes. The stipend is £300 per annum. The Readership 
is connected with the Special Board for Classics. 

1S83 [Sir] Charles Waldstein, M.A., King's. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
1883. Litt.l). 3888. Fellow of King's, 1894. Slade Professor of Fine Art, 
1895. Knighted, 1912. 

1907 Arthur Bernard Cook, M.A., Fellow of Queens'. Formerly Fellow of Trinity. 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. The stipend is £300 
per annum. The Readership is connected with the Special 
Board for Classics. 

1884 .John Peilei, M. A., Fellow of Christ's. Litt.D. 1884. Master of Qirist's, 1887. 
1891 Peter Giles, M. A., Fellow of Emmanuel. Litt.D. 1910. Master of Emmanuel, 
1911. Formerly Fellow of Caius. 



BOTANY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. The stipend is £300 
per annum. The Readership is Connected with the Special 
Board for Biology and Geology. 

1884 Sydney Howard Vines 2, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. ScD. 1887. 

1888 [SirJ Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., Trinity. Fellow of Christ's, 1888. Hon. 

Sc.D. 1909. Knighted, 1913. 
1904 Frederick Frost Blackman, M.A., Fellow of 8t John's. 



ENGLISH LAW 

Established by Grace, June 12, 1884. The Readership was 
originally endowed by Dr Henry Sidgwick with £300 a year for 
four years paid out of his own stipend as Knightbridge Professor 
of Moral Philosophy. The stipend is now £300 per annum. The 
Readership is connected with the Special Board for Law. 

1884 Frederic William Maitland 3, M.A., Trinity. Downing Professor of the Laws 

of England, 1888. LL.D. 1891. 
1888 Courtney Stanhope Kenny, LL.D., Fellow of Downing. Downing Professor of 

the Laws of England, 1907. 
1907 Harold Dexter Hazeltine, LL.B. (Harvard), Dr Jur. (Berlin). Fellow of 

Emmanuel, 1908. M.A. 1908. Litt.D. 1914. 

1 'To him much more than to anyone else was due the successful study of Comparative Philelogy in 
Cambridge' (H.N.H.). 
•2 Now Sherardian Professor of Botany and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
3 See p. 96, note 5. 



lU READERSHIPS 



AXIMAL MORPHOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Oct. 30, 1890. By Grace, December 5, 
1907, the Readership in Animal Morphology was transferred to 
the subject of Zoology (see p. 116). 

1890-1907 Adam Sedgwick, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Professor of Zoology and 
ComparatiTe Anatomy, 1907. 



GEOGRAPHY 

Established by Grace, March 10, 1898, mainly from funds 
provided by the Royal Greographical Society. By Grace, June 11, 
1908, the Readership was suppressed. 

1896-1908 Henry Yule Oldliam, M.A. (incorporated from Oxford), King's. 



SURGERY 

Established by Grace, Meirch 10, 1898, in place of the Pro- 
fessorship of Surgery. Suppressed by Grace, June 11, 1903, 
when the Professorship of Surgery was re-established. 

1898-1903 Joseph Griffiths, M.A., King's. M.C. 1905, 



GERMANIC 

Established by Grace, Jime 8, 1899. The Readership came 
to an end in 1910, when Dr Breul was appointed to the Pro- 
fessorship of German. 

1900-10 Karl Hermann Breul », Litt-D., King's. Schroder Professor of German, 1910. 

ROMANCE 

Established by Grace, June 8, 1899. The stipend of the 
present Reader is £400 per annum. The Readership is connected 
with the Special Board for Medieval and Modem Languages. 

1900 Eugen Gustav Wilhelm BraunholUi, M.A., King's. 

AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 

Established by Grace, May 22, 1902. The Readership came 
to an end in 1907, when Mr Wood was appointed to the Pro- 
fessorship of Agriculture. 

1902-7 Thomas Barlow Woo<l, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Drapers Professor of 
Agriculture, 1907. 

1 Ph.D. BerUn. 



READERSHIPS 115 

CHEMICAL PHYSIOLOGY 

Established by Grace, June 12, 1902. The Readership 
terminates with the tenure of office of the first holder. The 
stipend is £100 per annum, to be increased to £200 per annum 
if and so long as a payment of £100 towards the stipend is made 
by Emmanuel College. On May 27, 1910, Trinity College, with 
a view to making increased provision fgr higher teaching and 
research in the subject, elected the Reader to a Praelectorship in 
Bio-Chemistry, tenable with the Readership, and' involving no other 
duties than those connected with the Readership, and the Reader 
was at the same time elected to a Fellowship at the College. 
[In 1914 he was elected to the newly-established Professorship of 
Bio- Chemistry, an appointment without stipend but tenable 
with the Readership and Praelectorship.] The Readership is 
connected with the Special Boiard for Biology and Geology. 

1902 Frederick Gowland Hopkins, M. A., Fellow of Emmanuel. Fellow of Trinity, 
1910. Professor of Bio-C'liemistry, 1914. 

HYGIENE 

Established by Grace, May 24, 1906. The Readership came 
to an end on Dr Nuttall's appointment to the Quick Professorship 
of Biology in 1906. 

1906 George Henry Falkiner XuttiilP, Sc.l)., Christ's. Fellow of Christ's, 1906. 

Quick Professor of Biology, 190(5. Fellow of Magdalene, 1908. 

CLASSICS (BRERETON) 

Established by Grace, December 13, 1906, from the Bequest 
of Robert Pearson Brereton, M.A., of Jesus College, who left 
his residuary estate to the University for the promotion and 
encouragement of classical studies. The Reader, who is ap- 
pointed for five years at a time, receives the whole net annual 
income of the Brereton Bequest. [In 1914 this was about £276.] 
The Readership is connected with the Special Board for Classics. 

1907 William Ridgeway,M. A., Fellow of Caius. Re-elected, 1912. Disnev Professor 

of Arcliaeology, 1892. ScD. 1909. 

FORESTRY 

Established by Grace, May 9, 1907. The stipend is £400 per 
annum, payable from the funds to the credit of the Forestry 
Account. The Readership is in connexion with the Special Board 
for Biology and Geology. The Reader is ex officio a member of 
the Board of Agricultural Studies and of the Forestry Committee. 

1907[-13] Augustine Henry ^, M.A. (Royal Fniversity, Ireland), Caius. M.A. 1908. 

1 M.D. C'aliforni.a; Ph.D. GottiiiKeii. 

2 Professor of Forestry, Royal College of Science, Dublin, 1913. 

S— 2 



116 READERSHIPS 



ZOOLOGY 

By Grace, December 5, 1907, the Readership in Animal 
Morphology was transferred to Zoology (see p. 114). The stipend 
is £100 per annum. The Readership is connected with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology. 

1907 William Batesoni, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Professor of Biologj-, 190*-10. 

1908 Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Master of Christ's, 1910. 

8cD. 1911. 

GOLDSMITHS READER IN METALLURGY 

In 1908 a sum of £10,000 was granted by the Goldsmiths 
Company for the purpose of founding and endowing a Reader- 
ship in Metallurgy. This was accordingly established by Grace, 
June 11, 1908. The Readership is connected with the Special 
Board for Physics and Chemistry. It is the duty of the Reader 
to give instruction in Metallurgy and especially to promote by 
teaching and research the study of the precious metals and of 
the theory and practice of assajdng. The stipend is the net 
annual income of the Benefaction. The Readership is not 
tenable with any other Readership in the University or with a 
Professorship in the University or with a University Lectureship. 
Stipend in 1914, about £360. 

1908 Charles Thomas Heycock, M.A., Fellow of King's. 



ETHNOLOGY 

Established by Grace, June 3, 1909. The stipend is £200 
per annum. The Readership is connected with the Special 
Board for History and Archaeology, and the Reader is also a 
member er officio of the Boards of Anthropological and Geo- 
graphical Studies. The Readership terminates with the tenure 
of office of the first holder. 

1909 Alfred Cort HaddonS, Sc.D., Fellow of airist's. Curator in Zoology, 1879. 



*^^* Lists of the holders of Readerships since 1910 will be 
found in the current issue of the University Calendar, where an 
account of Readerships established after 1910 is also given. 

1 Director of the John Innes Horticultural Ii«titution. Merton Park, Surrey, 1910. 
•i Professor of Zoologr at the Rojal College of Science. Dublin, 188l>-1901. 



University Lectureships 

The Statutes of 1882 authorized the appointment of 'College 
Lecturers or other persons' as University Lecturers, each 
receiving from the University 'an annual stipend of not less 
than £50.' 

Except where otherwise stated, University Lecturers are 
appointed by the General Board of Studies, subject to con- 
firmation by the Special Board with which the Lectureship is 
connected. By Grace of Jan. 28, 1886, the General Board was 
authorized to Umit these appointments to a term of years not 
exceeding five, and they are now made for five years only but 
may be renewed as they expire. 

CLASSICS (EPIGRAPHY AND DIALECTS) 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Classics, with a stipend of £50. The Lecture- 
ship was at first assigned to Comparative Philology. 

1883 Ernest Stewart Roberts, M. A., Felluw of Cains. Master of Caius, 1903. 
1906 Kidney George Campbell, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. 



CLASSICS (ANCIENT HISTORY) 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, as a University Lecture- 
ship in Roman History in connexion with the Special Board for 
Classics, with a stipend of £50 a year. In 1899 it became a 
Lectureship in Ancient History, and by Grace of Dec. 13, 1906, 
the stipend was increased to £200 a year. 

1883 .James Smith Reid, LL.M., Fellow of Caius. Litt.D. 1885. Professor of 

Ancient History, 1899. 
1887 Arthur Augustus Tilley, M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1899-1910 Leonard Whibley, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 



SANSKRIT 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. The Lectureship was 
suppressed by Grace of Nov. 26, 1903, in consequence of the 



118 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 

election of Mr Bendall to the Professorship of Sanskrit (see 
p. 100). 

1883 Robert Alexander Neil', M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 

1901-3 Cecil Ben(lall2, M. A., Fellow of Caius. Professor of Sanskrit, 1903. 



MATHEMATICS 

FrvE University Lectureships in Mathematics were estabUshed 
by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the Special Board for 
Mathematics, with an annual stipend of £50 each. 

1883-95 Andrew Russell Forsyth^, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Sc.D. 1890. 

Sadleiriau Professor of Pure Mathematics, 1895-1910. 
1883-1910 Ernest William Hobaon, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Sc.D. 1892. 

Sadleirian Professor of Pure Mathematics, 1910. 
1883-98 Richard Tetley Glazebrook*, M..\., Fellow of Trinity. 
1883-4 [Sir] Josepli .John Thomson, .M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Cavendish 

Professor of Kxperimental Physics, 1884. Knighted, 1908. O.M.,1912. 
1883-8 William Herrick Macaulay, .M. A., Fellow of King's. 
1885-1903 [Sir] .Joseph Larmor, .M.A., Fellow of St .John's. Lucasian Professor 

of Mathematics, 1903. Knighted, 1909. M.P. for the University, 

1911. 
1888-1901 Richard Pendlebury, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 
1895[-19141 Henry Frederick Raker, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Sc.D. 1902. Cayley 

Lecturer, 1903-14. Lowudean Professor of Astronomy, 1914. 
1898-9 Augustus Kdward Hough Love*, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 
1899-1904 Hector .Munro Macdonald*, M. A., Fellow of Clare. 
1901 Herbert William Richmond, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

1903-5 George Ballard Mathews?, M. A., Fellow of St John's. 
1904-5 James Hopwood .Jeans', M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Stokes Lecturer, 

1910-12. 
1906-6 Edmund Taylor Whittakeri*, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. 
1905-9 John Gaston J^eathem, M. A., Fellow of St Jolm's. 
1906 Robert Alfred Herman, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1909 Thomas .John I'Auson Bromwich, Sc.D., Fellow of St John's. 

1910 John Hilton Grace, M. A., Fellow of Peterhouse. 



BOTANY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Greology. Present stipend (1915) 
£100. 

1883 [Su] Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., Trinity. Fellow of airisfs, 1888. Reader 
m Botany, 1888. Hon. Sc.D. 1909. Knighted, 1913. 

1888 Walter Gardiner, M.A., Fellow of Clare. ScD. 1905. 

1897 Frederick Frost Blackman, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Reader In Botany, 
1904. 

1904 Arthur William HUUO, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

1907 Reginald Philip Gregory, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

1 Originally at Peterliouse. Senior Tutor of Pembroke. 1900, until his death 19 June 1901. For an 
account of Neira Canibridfee career see the Dictiowxrp of National Biography (Second Supplement, iii. 1). 

2 See p. 100, note 2. 

3 Chief Professor of Mathematics, Imperial CoileKe of Science and Technology, South Kensington. 

4 Director of the National Physical Laiwratory". 1899- 

5 Sedleian Professor of Natural Pliilosophy, Oxford. 

6 Professor of Mathematics. University of Aberdeen, 1904. 

7 Professor of Mathematics at Bangor. 18&i— 96. 

8 Professor of Applied Matliematics in Princeton University. 1905 — 9. 

9 Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 190(>— 12 : Professor of Mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, 191S. 

10 Assistant Director of the Royal Cimlens, Kew, 19U7. 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS U^ 



ANIMAL MORPHOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. The Lectureship lapsed 
when a Readership was established by Grace, Oct. 30, 1890 
(see p. 114). 

1883-90 Adam Sedgwick, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Header in Animal Morphology, 
1890. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, 1907. 

PHYSIOLOGY 

Three University Lectureships in Physiology were established 
by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the Special Board for 
Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £50 each, but the stipend 
of Dr Gaskell was increased by Graces of Nov. 21, 1889, and 
June 15, 1899, to £150. 

1883[-1914] Walter Holbrook Gaskell, M.U., Trinity. Fellow of Trinity Hall, 1H89. 
1883-96 Arthur Sheridan Lea, M. A., Trinity. Fellow of Caius, 1886. Sc.l). 188(j. 
1883-1903 .John Newport Langley, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Sc.D. 1896. Pnrfessor 

of Physiology, 1903. 
1896 Lewis Erie Shore, .M.U., Fellow of St .John's. 

1903[-12] Hugh Kerr Anderson, M.U., Fellow of Caius. Master of Caius, 1912. 

GEOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £100. 
Dr Marr's stipend was increased by Graces of June 4, 1891, 
and June 15, 1899, to £150. 

1883 Robert Uavies Itobertsi, M.A., Fellow of Clare. 
' 1886 John Edward Marr, M.A., Fellow of St John's. Sc.D. 1904. 

HISTORY 

Five University Lectureships in History were established by 
Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the Special Board for 
History and Archaeology, with a stipend of £50 each. One of 
these was suppressed by Grace of Nov. 10, 1892, and a second by 
Grace of June 13, 1907, in each case on the resignation of the 
holder. [The others have been replaced by a Readership in 
Modern History, established in 1911.] 

1883-1910 Oscar Browning, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

1883[-1912] Basil Edward Hammond, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 

1883-91 William Cunningham, M. A., I'^ellow of Trinity. D.D. 1889. Archdeacon 

of Ely, 1907. 
1883-94 George Walter Prothero, M. A., Fellow of King's. Litt.D. 1894. 
1883-1907 Thomas Thornely, M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 
1894-1909 James Bass Mullinger, M.A., St John's. Hon. Litt.D. 1912. 

1 Secretary to the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching, 1885— M; Secretary for 
Lectures to the Local Examinations and Lectures Syndicate, 1894—1902; Registrar of the Extension 
Board in the University of London. 190i— 11. See also IHctionary of National Biography (Second 
Supplement, iii. '211|. 



120 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 



MORAL SCIENCE 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Moral Science, with a stipend of £50. 

188.S[-1911] John Neville Keynes, M.A.,» Fellow of Pembrokei. Sc.D. 1891. 
Registrary, 1910. 



HARMONY AND COUNTERPOINT 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Music, with a stipend of £100. 

! 1883 George Mursell Garrett, Mus.1)., St Jolm's. 

1897 Charles Wood, Mus.I)., Fellow of Caius, 



MEDICINE 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883 [but suppressed as from 
Oct. 1, 1911, by Grace of Jan. 18, 1912]. 

1884 [Sir] Donald MacAlisteri, M.D., Fellow of St John's. K.C.B. 1908, 
1901[^-llj Laurence Humphry, M.D., Trinity. 



MIDWIFERY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. The Lectureship was 
suppressed by Grace of March 11, 1909. 

1884 Robert Nichols Ingle, B.A. (M.D. St Andrews), Downing. M.A. 1886. 

1891 Walter Spencer Anderson Griffith, M.O., Downing. 

1894 Edward Ifenry Douty, M.A., M.H., HX\, King's. M.D. 1898. 

1897 Arthur Francis Stabb, M.B., H.C., Downing. 

190.5-9 Arnold Clarkson Ingle, M.D., Emmanuel. 



MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medicine, with a stipend of £50. 

18841-1916] Bushell Anningson, M.D., Caius. 



SURGERY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883 [but suppressed as from 
Dec. 31, 1911, by Grace of Jan. 18, 1912]. 

1884[-1911] George Edward Wherry, M.A., M.C., Downing. 
1 Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Glasgow, 1907, 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 121 



FRENCH 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. Suppressed by Grace, 
June 8, 1899, when a Readership in Romance was established 
(see p. 114). 

1884-99 Eugen Gustav Willielni Braunlioltz, Pli.l). (Berlin). M.A., Kings, 1886. 
Reader in Itoinance, 1900. 

GERMAN 

Established by Grace, Dec. 6, 1883. Suppressed by Grace, 
June 8, 1899, when a Readership in Germanic was established 
•(see p. 114). 

188i-99 Karl Hermann Breul, I'li.D. (Berlin). M.A., King's, 188«. Litt.D. 1896. 
Reader in Germanic, 1900. Schroder Professor of German, 1910. 

ADVANCED MORPHOLOGY OF VERTEBRATES 

Established by Grace, June 12, 1884, with a stipend of £100 
a year. The stipend of Mr Gadow was raised by Graces of 
June 4, 1891, and June 15, 1899, to £150 a year. 

1884 Hans Friedrich Gadow, Ph.D. M.A., 1884, pout King's. 

ZOOLOGY 

Established by Grace, June 12, 1884, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £50 
a year. [The stipend of Mr Borradaile was increased by Grace 
of June 6, 1912, to £100 a year.] Until 1908 the subject to which 
the Lectureship was assigned was the Advanced Morphology of 
Invertebrates. 

1884 Walter Frank Raphael Weldon', B.A„ Fellow of St .John's. M.A. 1885. 
1891 Sydney .John Hickson^, M.A., Fellow of Downing. 

1894 Arthur Kverett Shiplev, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. Reader in Zoology, 1908. 
Master of Christ's, 1910. Sc.D. 1911. 

1909 .John Stanley (Jardiner, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Professor of Zoology and 

C'omparative Anatomy, 1909. 

1910 Lancelot Alexander Borradaile, M.A., Selwyn. Fellow of Selwyn, 191.3. 

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS 

Established by Grace, May 26, 1887, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, with a stipend of £50. 

1887 [Sir]William Napier Shaw'i.M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel. Sc.D. 1902. Knighted, 
1916. 

1900 Lionel Robert Wilherforce *, M.A., Trinity. 

1901 Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, .M.A., Fellow of Sidney. 

1 Succeeded Sir E. Ray Lankester as Jodrell Professor of Zoology at University College, London, 1891 : 
Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1899. Died 13 April 1906. See also Dictionary of 
National Biography (Second Supplement, iii. ()'29(. 

2 Professor of Zoology at the University of Manchester, 1894. 

3 Director of the Meteorological Office, 1905; Reader in Meteorology in the University of London, 1907. 

4 Professor of Physics in the Univei-sity of Liverpool, 1900. 



122 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 



GEOGRAPHY 

Established by Grace, June 9, 1887, with a stipend of £200 
a year, £150 of which was provided by the Royal Geographical 
Society. The Lecturer was appointed by a Committee consisting 
of an equal number of representatives of the Council of the 
Society and the Council of the Senate. The Lectureship was 
converted into a Readership by Grace, March 10, 1898 (see 
p. 114). 

1888 Francis Henry Hill Guillemard, M.D., Caius. 

1889 John Youn^ Buchanan. Christ's. M.A. 1891. 

1893-8 Henry Yule Oldham, M.A. (0.\ford), King's. Incorporated 1894. Reader 
in Geography, 1898. 

PERSIAN 

Established by Grace, May 24, 1888, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Oriental Studies, with a stipend of £100 a year. 

1888 Edward Granrille Browne, M..\., M.B., Fellow of Pembroke. Sir Tliomas. 

Adams's Professor of Arabic, 1902. 
1902 Reynold AUeyne Nicholson, M. A., Fellow ..f Trinity. Litt.». 1909. 



HUMAN ANATOMY 

Established by Grace, Nov. 8, 1888, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medicine, with a stipend of £50. 



1888 Alex Hill, M.D., .Master of Downing. 
1907[-16j Mward Barclay-Smith, M.D., Ki 



ing's. 



BOTANY 

An additional Lectureship in Botany (see p. 1 18) was established 
by Grace, Feb. 27, 1890, in connexion with the Special Board 
for Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £100. 

1890 Albert Charles Seward, M..\., Fellow of Emmanuel, formerly Fellow of .St 
John's. Professor of Botany, 1906. Re-elected Fellow of St John's, 1910. 
Master of Downing, 1915. 

1906 Arthur George Tansley, .M.A., Trinity. 



TALMUDIC 

On the suppression of the Readership in Talmudic in 1890 (see 
p. 112) a University Lectureship was established in its place by 
Grace of May 22, 1890. This Lectureship lapsed when the 
Readership was restored in 1891. 

1890-1 Solomon Schechter. Reailer in Talmudic, 1892. M.A. 1892. LittD. 1898. 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 123 



ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

Established by Grace of June 13, 1891, in connexion with 
the Special Board for Physics and Chemistry. Present stipend 
(1915) £200. 

1891[-1915] Siegfried Ruhenmiini, M.A., Caius. 



PALAEOGRAPHY 

Established by Grace of June 2, 1892, in connexion with 
the Special Board for Divinity. Continued on the resignation 
of the first holder, by Grace of June 11, 1903. On Mr Burkitt's 
election to a Professorship, it was allowed to lapse, but it was 
re-established by Grace, May 26, 1906, with a stipend of £100 
a year in connexion with the Special Board for History and 
Archaeology. 

1892-1903 .Tames Rendel Harris2, M.A., Fellow of Clare. 

1903-5 Francis Crawford Burkitt, M.A., Trinity. Norrisian Professor of Divinity, 

1905. D.D. 1915. 
1906 Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 



ARAMAIC 

In order to provide for the teaching in Aramaic which had 
come to an end with the death of Professor Bensly (see p. 90), 
a Lectureship was established by Grace, June 1, 1893, in con- 
nexion with the Special Board for Oriental Studies, with a 
stipend of £200. 

1893 Robert Hatcli Kennett, M. A., P'ellow of Queens'. Ilegius Professor of Hebrew, 

1903. D.D. 1911. 
1903 Norman McLean, M.A., Fellow of Christ's. 



MORAL SCIENCE 

A SECOND LTniversity Lectureship in Moral Science (see p. 120) 
was established by Grace, June 7, 1894. This lapsed on the 
establishment of the Sidgwick Lectureship in Moral Science by 
Grace, Dec. 12, 1901 (see p. 126). 

1894 Georsre Frederick Stout s, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

1896-1901 William Ernest .Johnson, M. A. , Fellow of King's. Sidgwick Lecturer, 1902. 



1 Ph.D. Berlin. 

2 Professor of Theolojjy at the University of Leyden, IWCf— 4. 

3 Anderson Lecturer in Comparative Psycliology at the University of Aberdeen, 1896 : Wilde Reader i 
Mental Philosophy at Oxford, 1898; Professor of LoKic and Metjiphysics at St Andrews. 19fti. 



124 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 



ENGLISH 

Established by Grace, Jan. 30, 1896, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medieval and Modern Languages. The 
Lectureship was partially endowed by a sum of £1220 collected 
by Professor Skeat, who undertook himself to make up the 
income of the Fund for five years to £50. In November 1899 
the total sum collected amounted to £2100. By Grace of June 8, 
1899, an additional £50 was assigned to the Lectiu-eship from 
the Common University Fund. 

1896 Israel Gollanczi, .M.A., Clirist's. Litt.D. 1906. 

1905{-15] George Campbell Macaulay 2, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 

Established by Grace, June 10, 1897. Suppressed by Grace 
of Nov. 7, 1907, when two new Lectureships were established in 
the Physiology of the Senses, and Experimental Psychology 
(see pp. 128, 129). 

1897-1907 William Halse Rivers Rivers, -M.D. (London). M. A., St John's, 1898. 
Fellow of St John's, 1903. 



CHEMICAL PHYSIOLOGY 

EsTABUSHED by Grace, June 16, 1898. Suppressed by the 
Grace of June 12, 1902, which established a Readership (see 
p. 115). 

1898-1902 Frederick Gowland Hopkins, .M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel. Reader in 
Chemical Physiology, 1902. Fellow of Trinity, 1910. Professor of 
Bio-fhemistry, 1914. 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

Established by Grace, June 8, 1899, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £50. 

1899 Wynfrid Laurence Henry Duckworth, M.A., Fellow of Jesus. .M.D. 1906; 
Sc.D. 1906. 

PALAEOZOOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Dec. 2, 1899, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology. Present stipend (1915) 
£100. 

1899 Henry Woods, .M.A., St John's. 



1 Professor of English L.ingua«e aiid Literature at King's CoUexe, London. 

2 Professor of English Language and Literature at Aber}'stw}'th, 1901—6. 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 125 



ETHNOLOGY 

Established by Grace, May 24, 1900. The Lectureship was 
suppressed by Grace, June 1, 1909, on the estabUshment of a 
Readership in Ethnology (see p. 116). 

1900-9 Alfred Cort lladdoni, Sc.I)., Fellow of Christ's. Header in Etlinology, 1909. 



BACTERIOLOGY AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 

Established by Grace, May 24, 1900. The Lectureship 
came to an end in 1906 when a Readership in Hygiene was 
estabUshed (see p. 115). 

1900-6 George Henry FalkinerNuttall, M.D. (California), Pli.I). (GottinKcn). M.A., 
Christ's, 1900. Sc.D. 1906. Fellow of Christ's, 1906. Reader in Hygiene, 
1906. Quick Professor of Jliology, 1906. Fellow of Magdalene, 1908. 



EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS 

A SECOND Lectureship in Experimental Physics (see p. 121), in 
connexion with the Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, 
was established by Grace, May 24, 1900, with a stipend of £50 
a year. 

1900 George Frederick Charles Searle, M.A., Peterliouse. Fellow of Peterhouse, 
1911. ScD. 1912. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 

Established by Grace, May 24, 1900, but suppressed by the 
Grace of May 22, 1902, which estabUshed a Readership (see 
p. 114). 

1900-2 Thomas Harlow Wood, M.A., Caius. Reader in Agricultural Chemistry, 
1902. Drapers Professor of Agriculture, 1907. Fellow of Caius, 1908. 



ANCIENT HISTORY 

An additional Lectureship in Ancient History (see p. 117), in 
connexion with the Special Board for History and Archaeology, 
was estabUshed by Grace of May 9, 1901. [It was suppressed 
by Grace, Jan. 18, 1912.] 

1901[-12] Nathaniel Wedd, M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1 Professor of Zoology nt the Koyal College of Science, Dublin, 1880—1901. 



126 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 



MORAL SCIENCE (SIDGWICK LECTURESHIP) 

EsTABLiSED by Grace, Dec. 12, 1901, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Moral Science, with a stipend provided by the 
Sidgwick Memorial Fund of £50, or such larger sum as the Fund 
may from time to time produce. [By Grace of Oct. 31, 1913, 
an offer from an anonymous Benefactor to increase the stipend 
of the present Lecturer by £200 a year for five years from Oct. I 
was accepted by the University.] 

1902 William Ernest .Johnson, M.A., Fellow of King's. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

Established by Grace, June 11, 1903, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, with a stipend from 
the University of £100. The Lectureship was established in 
the first instance for five years only, but was renewed by Grace 
of May 28, 1908. 

1903 Charles George Lamb, M.A., Clare. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

Established by Grace, June 11, 1903, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Physics and Chemistry, with a stipend from 
the University of £100. The Lectureship was established in 
the first instance for five years only, but was renewed by Grace 
of May 28, 1908. 

1903 .James Bennet Peace, M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel. University Printer, 1916. 
1908 Charles Edward Inglis, M. A., Fellow of King's. 



ARABIC 

Established by Grace of Nov. 26, 1903, for the first holder, 
for a period of two years. 

1903-5 Shaykh Hasan Tawfiq. 



PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION 

Established by Grace, April 28, 1904, from a benefaction 
offered by Dr Stanton, Ely Professor of Divinity. The Lecturer 
is connected with the Special Board for Divinity, and receives a 
stipend of £100 or such greater or less sum as the income for 
the year may afford. He is appointed for three years only, but 
a retiring Lecturer is ehgible for re-appointment provided that 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 127 

no Lecturer hold office for more than six years in succession. 
It is the duty of the Lecturer to deliver at least twelve lectures 
in each academical year. 

1904 Vernon FaitJifulI Storr, M.A.i (<)x(()rd). 

1907[-13j Frederick Robert Tennant, D.l)., Caius. Re-elected, 1910. Fellow of 
Trinity, 1913. 

ECONOMICS (GIRDLERS LECTURESHIP) 

Established for three years by Grace, May 12, 1904, from 
a grant of £100 a year for three years by the Worshipful Company 
of Girdlers. This grant has since been continued for successive 
periods of three years. The Lectureship is connected with the 
Special Board for Economics and PoUtics. 

1904 Arthur Cecil Figou, M.A., Fellow of King's. Professor of Political Economy, 

1908. 
1908[-11] Hugh Owen Meredith^, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

CHEMISTRY 

Two additional University Lectm-eships in Chemistry (see 
p. 123) were established by Grace, May 26, 1904. The Lecture- 
ships are connected with the Special Board for Physics and 
Chemistry, and each Lecturer receives a stipend of £50 a year 
from the University. 

1904t-16] William .James Sell, M.A., t'hrist's. Sc.D. 1906. 

1904 Henry .John Horstman Fenton, M.A., Christ's. SaD. 1906. 

PETROLOGY 

Established by Grace, May 26, 1904, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology, with a stipend of £50 
from the University. 

1904 Alfred Harker, M.A., Fellow of St John's. 

RUSSIAN 

In 1899 Sir David Lionel Salomons, Bart., of Caius (B.A. 1874, 
M.A. 1877) offered to provide a stipend of £50 for five years for 
a Lecturer in Russian, to be called the Salomons Lecturer. This 
offer was accepted by Grace of Jan. 18, 1900. 

1900-5 Alexander Porter Goudy. M.A. 1902. 

In 1904 the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers made a 
grant to the University of £250 to provide a stipend of £50 a 

1 Fellow of University College, Oxford. 

2 Professor of Economics, Queen's University, Belfast. 



128 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 

year for five years, and Sir David Salomons offered an additional 
sum of £50. A University Lectureship in Russian was there- 
fore established by Grace, Dec. 3, 1904, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medieval and Modern Languages, with a 
stipend of £60. By Grace of Feb. 3, 1910, the Lectureship 
was continued with a stipend of £50 payable out of further funds 
placed at the disposal of the University by the Fishmongers 
Company for the purpose of providing instruction in the Russian 
Language [and by Grace of June 6, 1912, a further £50 a year 
was granted to the present Lecturer from the funds of the 
University.] 

1905 Alexander Porter Goudy, M. A. Salomons Lecturer in liusaian, 1900-5. 

SPECIAL PATHOLOGY (HUDDERSFIELD LECTURESHIP) 

Established by Grace, Feb. 16, 1905, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medicine. The Lectureship is endowed from 
a Fund of £1600 contributed at the instance of Professor 
Woodhead by friends residing in or connected with Huddersfield. 
The stipend of the Lecturer is £50 or such larger sum as the 
Endowment Fund may produce [in 1914 about £100]. 

1905 Thomas Strangeways Pig? Strangeways, M.A., St John's. 

HYGIENE 

Established by Grace, Jan. 17, 1907, when the Readership in 
Hygiene came to an end (see p. 115). The Lectureship is con- 
nected with the Special Board for Medicine, and the Lecturer 
receives a stipend of £100, payable out of the funds in the hands 
of the State Medicine Syndicate. 

1907 George Stuart Graham-Smith, M.D., Pembroke. 

PATHOLOGY 

Established by Grace, March 9, 1907, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medicine, with a stipend of £100 a year. 

190" Louis t;obbetti, M.D., Trinity. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SENSES 

Established by Grace, Nov. 7, 1907, on the suppression of the 
existing Lectureship in Physiological and Experimental Psy- 
chology (see p. 124). The Lectureship is connected with the 
Special Board for Biology and Geology, and the Lecturer 
receives a stipend of £100 a year. 

1907[-16] William Halse Rivers Rivera, .M.A., .M.D. (London), Fellow of St John's. 
1 Formerly Professor of Patholoisy at the Unirersity of Sheffield, 



UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 129 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Nov. 7, 1907, on the suppression of the 
existing Lectureship in Physiology and Experimental Psychology 
(see p. 124). The Lectureship is connected with the Special 
Board for Moral Science, and the Lecturer receives a stipend 
of £50 a year. 

1907 Charles Samuel Myersi, M.l)., Caius. Sc.D. 1910. 



AGRICULTURAL PHYSIOLOGY 

Established by Grace, May 28, 1908, for a period of five 
years from Midsummer, 1908, [and since continued for five years 
from Midsummer, 1913]. Present stipend (1915) £200, payable 
out of the Agricultural Education Fund. The Lecturer is re- 
quired to advance by teaching and by research the application of 
Animal Physiology to Agriculture. The Lectureship is connected 
with the Special Board for Biology and Geology, and the Lecturer 
is ex officio a member of the Board of Agricultural Studies. 

1908 Francis Hugh Adam Marshall, M. A. .Christ's. Fellow of Christ's, 1909. Sc.D. 
1912. 



GEOGRAPHY 

By Grace of June 11, 1908, the Readership in Geography 
(see p. 114) was suppressed, and the three following Lectureships 
were established in its place for a period of five years: — 

1. A Lectureship in Historical and Economic Geography, 
in connexion with the Special Board for History and 
Archaeology, with an annual stipend of £150. 

1908 Henry Yule Oldham, M.A., King's. Header in Geography, 1898. 

2. A Royal Geographical Society Lectureship in Regional 
and Physical Geography, in connexion with the Special 
Board for Biology and Geology, with an annual stipend 
of £150 provided by the Royal Greographical Society. 

1908 Philip Lake, M.A., St .John's. 

3. A Royal Geographical Society Lectureship in Survey- 
ing and Cartography, in connexion with the Special Board 
for Mathematics, with an annual stipend of £50 provided 
by the Royal Geographical Society. 

1908[-13] Arthur Robert Hinks2, M.A., Trinity. 

1 Professor of Psychology, King's College, London, 1906—9. 

2 Gresham Lecturer in Astronomy, 1913. Secretary of the Koyal Geographical Society, 1915 

H. E. 9 



130 UNIVERSITY LECTURESHIPS 



PHARMACOLOGY 

Established by Grace, Nov. 12, 1908, for five years in con- 
nexion with the Special Board for Medicine, with an annual 
stipend of £50, [and since continued for five years from 
Michaehnas, 1913]. 

1909 Walter Krnest Dixon ', M.A., Downing. 

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS IN THEIR APPLICATION 
TO HYGIENE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 

Esta:^lished by Grace, Nov. 11, 1909, for five years as from 
Oct. 1, 1909, [and since continued for five years from Oct. 1, 1914], 
in connexion with the Special Board for Medicine, with a stipend 
of £60 payable out of the funds in the hands of the State Medicine 
Syndicate, with such additional sum as may be determined from 
time to time by that Syndicate. 

1909 .John Mward Purvis, M.A., St .lolin's. Pott Corpus. 

AGRICULTURE 

Established by Grace, March 5, 1910, for five years as from 
Jan. 1, 1910, [but suppressed by Grace of December 11, 1914, 
on the establishment of a Readership in Agriculture]. 

1910[-14] Kenneth .Tames .Josepli Mackenzie. M.A., Christ's, 1911. 

GERMAN 

Established by Grace, Nov. 10, 1910, in connexion with the 
Special Board for Medieval and Modem Languages, with a 
stipend of £100 a year. 

1910 Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A., Fellow of Caius. 

SCANDINAVIAN 

Established by Grace, Nov. 10, 1910, for five years as from 
Oct. 1, 1910. [This lapsed on the appointment of the holder 
to the Elrington and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon 
in 1912.] 

1910[-121 Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A., Fellow of Clare. Elrington and Bosworth 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon, 1912. 

*^* Lists of the holders of University Lectureships since 1910 
wiU be found in the current issue of the University Calendar, where 
an account of Lectureships established after 1910 is also given. 

1 Professor of Materia Medica and PbarmacoloKy at King's College, London. 



University Teachers 

Certain Syndicates and Boards have been authorised from 
time to time to nominate to the Senate or themselves to appoint 
lecturers and supervisors who, although not University Lecturers 
in the sense referred to in the preceding section, have the status 
of University Teachers. University Teachers appointed by 
Grace of the Senate, or by a Board of Studies, or by the Foreign 
Service Students Committee, have the privilege (provided that 
they are resident in the University) of borrowing books from 
the University Library. 

TEACHERS TRAINING SYNDICATE 

By Grace of April 3, 1879, the Teachers Training Syndicate 
was appointed to organize courses of lectures on the Theory, 
History, and Practice of Education, and to provide examinations 
in those subjects upon the results of which certificates of pro- 
ficiency could be awarded. The Lecturers were to be appointed 
annually by the Syndicate, subject to confirmation by Grace 
of the Senate. Under this arrangement continuous courses 
were provided in the Theory and History of Education, but 
teaching in the Practice of Education took the form of short 
courses or separate lectures from experienced schoolmasters. 
The holders of the more permanent appointments were as 
follows : 

Theory of Edttcation 

1880-8 James Ward, M.A.. Fellow of Trinity. Sc.D. 1887. Professor of Mental 

Philosophy and Logic, 1897. 
1888 .James Sully I, M. A. (Lend.). LL.D. 
1889-90 Herbert Courthope Bowen, M.A., Corpus. 
1891 James Sully ', a^ain. 
1893-8 William Ernest Johnson, M.A., King's. Fellow of King's, 1902. Sidgwick 

Lecturer in Moral Science, 1902. 

History of Education 

1880 Oscar Browning, M.A., Fellow of King's. University Lecturer in History 

1883 

1881 Robert ilebert Quick, M.A., Trinity. 
1884 Herbert Courthope Bowen, M.A., Corpus. 

188-5-95 James Bass MuUinger, M.A., St John's. University Lecturer in History 

1894. Litt.D. 1912. 
189S-8 Herbert Courthope Bowen, again. 

1 Professor of Philosophy, University College, London. 

9—2 



132 UNIVERSITY TEACHERS 

Since 1898 the subject of the Theory, History, and Practice 
of Education has been dealt with by one Lecturer. 

1898 Samuel Sigmund Fechheimer Fletcher, Ph.D. (Jena), B.A. (Lond.). M.A., 
King's, 1901. 



BOARD OF INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE STUDIES 

Teachers of Hindustani, Hindi, and Telegu were already 
being employed by the University in 1883, when the new 
Statutes were beginning to come into operation; and by Grace 
of May 10, 1883, the Board of Indian Civil Service Studies was 
constituted to superintend the work of Indian Civil Service 
Candidates resident at Cambridge. By Grace of June 4, 1891, 
a scheme was approved under which, with Government assist- 
ance, Teachers of Hindustani, Bengali, Tamil, Marathi, Burmese, 
Sanskrit, Persian, and Indian History were to be permanently 
maintained for the instruction of Selected Candidates; and 
teaching in other subjects has also been provided from time to 
time as necessity required. By Grace of March 12, 1896, the 
Board was also authorised to supervise the training of Student 
Interpreters sent by the Foreign Office from time to time to 
pursue their studies in the University; but in 1905 (see p. 134) 
this was transferred to the Foreign Service Students Committee. 

By Grace of March 11, 1897, the Board of Indian Civil Service 
Studies was constituted a Special Board of Studies imder the 
provisions of Statute B, Chapter v, § 3, with power to appoint 
University Teachers. These University Teachers are appointed 
by the Board, subject to the consent of the Vice-Chancellor. 

In the following lists the names of all the more permanent 
teachers employed by the Board of Indian Civil Service Studies 
or the Foreign Service Students Committee are given, those ap- 
pointed ' University Teachers ' in or after 1897 being so described. 

Law 

1889-94 William Warwick Buckland, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Regius Professor 
of CiWl Law, 1914. 

Indian Law 

1884-93 Sir Holaiid Knyvet WUson, Bart., .M.A., LL.M., Fellow of King's, 

Reader in Indian Law, 1878. 
1892-5 Francis Brandt. 
1895-1907 Sir Ravmond West, K.C.I. E M..\., Downing, 1897. Tniversity Teacher, 

1897. Reader in Indian Law, 1901. 
1907[-13] Sir Edward Townshend Candy, C.S.I., M. A., Caius. University Teaclier. 

Indian History 

1885-6 Arthur Reed Ropes, B.A., Fellow of King's. M.A. 1885. 
1885-92 Joseph Robson'Tanner, B. A., St John's. M.A. 1886. Fellowof St John's, 
1886. Litt.D. 1905. 



UNIVERSITY TEACHERS 133 

1892-5 Henry Morse Stephensi, M.A. (0.\f.). 

1895 Gerald Patrick Moriarty 2, M.A. (Oxf.). M. A., Pembroke, 1897. University 

Teacher, 1897. 

Political Economy 

1884-93 JohnNevilleKeynes.M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. Sc.D.1891. Registrary, 
1910. 

Tamil 

1883-90 Albert Henry Arden, M.A., Christ's. 

1891-5 Francis Brandt. 

1895 Joseph Light Wyatt. University Teacher, 1897. M.A., Christ's, 1899. 

^ Hindustani 

1883[-1912] Lieutenant-Colonel Woodford Wright Sherlock. M.A. 1897. University 
Teacher, 1897. 

Bengali 

1883-8 James Fuller Blumharlts, M.A. (Lond.). 

1888-1907 Robert Mason Towers, -M.A. (Dubl.). M.A. (incorp.), Caius, 1889. 

University Teacher, 1897. 
1907 James Drummond Anderson. M. A., Caius, 1907. University Teacher. 

Persian 

1883-8 Charles Kdward Wilson*, M.A. (Lond.). 

1888-1902 Edward Granville Browne, M.A., M.B., Fellow of Pembroke. University 

Lecturer in Persian, 1888. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic, 

1902. 
1902-4 Iteynold Alleyne Nicholson, M. A., Fellow of Trinity, University Lecturer 

in Persian. Litt.D. 1909. 
1904-6 H&jji Mirza 'Abdu'l Husayn Khan. University Teacher. 

Burmese 

1883-5 Major-General R. D. Ardagh. 

1885-92 St John 

1892-5 Taw Sein Ko. 

1895-1909 David Aldridge. University Teacher, 1897. M.A. 1899. 

1909 Louis Allan Goss. University Teacher. M.A. 1913. 

Marathi 

1883-4 James Fuller Blumhardts, M.A. (Lond.). 

1884-1902 A. H. Frost. University Teacher, 1897. 

1902-7 Syed Ah Bilgrumi, B.A., LL.B. (Calcutta). University Teacher. 

1907-10 Sir Edward Townshend Candy, C.S.L, M.A., Caius. University Teacher. 

1910 William Doderet. M.A., St John's, 1914. University Teacher. 

Sanskrit 

1886-9 Robert Alexander Neil, M. A., Fellow of Pembroke. University Lecturer 

in Sanskrit, 1883. 
189.'-1901 The same again. 

1902 (only) Cecil Bendall, M.A., Fellow of Caius. University Lecturer in Sanskrit, 

1901. Professor of Sanskrit, 1903. 

1903 William Henry Denham Rouse, LittD., formerly Fellow of Christ's. 

Russian 

1896-9 Ivan Nestor Schnurrman, Christ's. 

1902-6 Alexander Porter Goudy, M.A. Salomons Lecturer in Russian, 1900-5. 
University Lecturer in Russian, 1905. 

1 Balliol College, Oxford. Professor of Modern Kuropean and English History at Cornell University, 
18W-1902. Professor of History .it the University of California, 1902. 

2 Balliol College, Oxford. 

3 Professor of Hindustani at University College, London. 

4 Professor of Persian at University College, London. 



134 UNIVERSITY TEACHERS 

Turkish 

1902-6 Hain H&lid Kfendi. M.A., Pembroke, 1902. University Teacher. 
1903-4 Shaykh Hasan Tawflq. University Lecturer in Arabic, 1903. 

Arabic 

1904-6 Shaykh Muhammad 'Asal. B.A., Pembroke, 1910. University Teacher. 

Chinese 

1898-1906 Herbert Allen Giles, M.A., Triuity, Professor of Chinese. 

BOARD OF MILITARY STUDIES 

A Board of Military Studies was established by Grace of 
March 5, 1904, with power to arrange for the registration, super- 
vision, and instruction of members of the University wishing 
to be candidates for commissions in the Army or the Auxiliary 
Forces, and to recognise such teachers as they deem desirable in 
the interests of MiUtary Education. [The first formal appoint- 
ments under these powers were made in 1912 and 1913.] 

FOREIGN SERVICE STUDENTS COMMITTEE 

The Foreign Service Students Committee was established by 
Grace of June 15, 1905, to make arrangements for the instruction 
and general supervision of the Student Interpreters sent from 
time to time to the University by the Foreign Oflfice and of 
Selected Candidates for the Egyptian and Sudan Civil Service, 
and to promote in the University the study of Living Oriental 
Languages. The teachers of these languages may, on the 
recommendation of the Committee, with the consent of the 
Vice-Chancellor in each case, have the title, status, and privileges 
of University Teachers. 

• Arabic: 1906[-11] Shaykh Muhaniniad 'Asal. B.A., Pembroke, 1910. M.A. 1911. 
University Teacher. 
Persian: 1906 (only) HSiji MJrzS 'Abdu'l Husayn Khan. I'niversity Teacher. 

1907-10 Shaykh Hassan, l^niversity Teacher, 19<^7. 
Russian: 1906 Ale.vander Porter (ioudy, M.A. Salomons Lecturer in Russian, 

1900-5. Universitv Lecturer in Russian, 1905. 
Turkish: 1906[-11] Halil H&lid Efendi, M.A., Pembroke. University Teacher. 



A Teacher of Vaccination in the University is also appointed 
by Grace. The first formal appointment was made by Grace of 
Feb. 27, 1890, but the office lapsed on the death of the fii-st 
holder in 1900. It was, however, revived by Grace of Dec. 4, 
1902. 

1890-1900 Robert Cory, M.A.. M.D., Pembroke. 

1902 Frederick Deighton. M. A., M.B.,Peterhou8e. 

*0* Lists of the University Teachers appointed since 1910 will 
be found in the current issue of the University Calendar, where 
an account of Teachershipa established after 1910 is also given. 



University Demonstrators 

The University Accounts for the year 1883 sljew that eight 
Demonstratorships were at that time akeady in existence with 
stipends charged upon the University Chest: a Demonstrator in 
Human Anatomy, two Demonstrators in Chemistry, two in 
Comparative Anatomy, two in Experimental Physics, and 
a Demonstrator of Mechanism. By a Report of the General 
Board of Studies (then recently constituted under the new 
Statutes), which was approved by Grace of the Senate, Dec. 6, 
1883, provision was made for the appointment of two Assistant 
Demonstrators in Physics, one in Mineralogy, one in Botany, 
a Senior and a Junior Demonstrator in Physiology, and 
a Demonstrator in Geology. Since then the number of these 
appointments has been largely increased. 

The opportunity was also taken to define the position and 
tenure of Dempnstrators. It was provided that each Demon- 
strator receiving his stipend or any part of it from the University 
should be appointed by the Professor of the subject with which 
his Demonstratorship is connected, with the consent of the 
Vice-Chancellor, and that he should be under the general direction 
of the Professor, being removable by him with the consent of 
the Vice-Chancellor. By Grace of June 7, 1894, it was further 
provided that each appointment should be for a limited time, 
to be fixed by the Professor at his discretion on making the 
appointment, not exceeding five years, and that on a vacancy 
in the Professorship all Demonstrators appointed by the previous 
holder of the Professorship should vacate their offices in the 
Department within a period of three months after the appoint- 
ment of the new Professor. 

The duty of the Demonstrators is to assist the Professors in 
giving catechetical or class instruction to students and in super- 
intending the practical work of students in the Laboratories or 
Museums. 

No official list of Demonstrators appears in the University 
Reporter until April, 1885. There were then fourteen appoint- 
ments; in April, 1910, there were thirty-two. 

HUMAN ANATOMY 

A Demonstratorship in Anatomy, established by Grace of 
Feb. 8, 1866, was already in existence in 1883, when the new 
Statutes were coming into operation. By Grace of Nov, 8, 1888, 



136 UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 

m 

this office was abolished, and one Senior Demonstratorship in 
Anatomy was created with a stipend of £100 a year, and two 
Junior Demonstratorships with stipends of £50 a year each: 
these stipends remain unaltered at the present time (1915). 
By Grace of Jan. 29, 1903, two Additional Demonstrators were 
appointed without stipend from the University. 

Demonstrators 

1868 Henry Season Wilson. M.A. Is71 

1876 Charles Creigliton, Kind's. M.A. 1880. 

1878 Bushell Amilngsou, M.l)., Caius. University Lecturer in Medical Juris* 

prudence, 1884. 
1882-8 Ales Hill, M.A., M.B., Fellow of Downing. M.D. 1886. University 

Lecturer in Huuian Anatomy, 1888. Master of Downing, 1888-1907. 

Senior Demonstrators 

1888 Edward Henrj- Douty, M.A., King's. .M.D. 1898. I'uiversity Lecturer in 

Midwifery, 1894. 
■ 1893 William Stanley .Melsome.M.A., B.C., Fellow of Queens'. M.D. 1894. 

1896 Edward Barclay-Smith i, M.A., M.D., King's. I'niversity Lecturer in 

Human Anatomy, 1907. 

1907 Wvnfrid Laurence Henry Duckworth, .M..\., M.D., Sc.D., Fellow of 

.Jesus. University Lecturer iti Physical .\nthropology, 1899. 

Junior Demonstrators 

1888-9-2 William Stanley Melsome, B.A., Fellow of Queens'. M.A. 1890; M.D. 

1894. 
1888-92 Robert Williams Michell, B. A., Caius. M.A. 1889 ; M.D. 1900. 
1892-6 Edward Barclay-Smithi, .M.A., .M.B., B.C., Downing. M.D. 1893. Post 

King's. University Lecturer in Human .\natomy, 1907. 
1893-1900 Hubirt Higgins, B.A., King's. .M.A. 1901. 
1897-1900 Frederic Claude Kempson, B.A., M.B.. Caius. .M.A. 1911. 
1900-5 (iraftou Elliot Smith, B. A., Fellow of St .John's. M.A. 1903. 
1900[-14] George Freilerick Rogers, .M.A., M.D., Caius. 

1908 Frederic Claude Kempson, B..\.,M.B., Caius. .M..\. 19n. 

Additional Demonstrators 

1902[-12] Thomas .Manners-Smith, .M.A., .M.a, B.C., Downing. 

1903-6 Henry William .Marrett Thus-, -VI.D. (Edin.), B.A., Kings. .'tf.A. 1906. 

1906-8 Wvnfrid Laurence Henry Duckworth, .M.D., Sc.D., Fellow of Jesus. 

Uuiversitv Lecturer in Plivsical Antliropologv, 1899. 
19(^-14] Douglas GaVin Reid, .\LB. (Edin.). R.A., •frinity, 1910; M.A. 1914. 



CHEMISTRY 

A Demonstrator of Chemistry was first appointed under the 
authority of a Grace of Feb. 9, 1871. An Additional Demon- 
stratorship was established by Grace of Nov. 1, 1878, and 
a second Additional Demonstratorship by Grace of June 17, 
1909. The present stipends (1915) of the two former are £125 
and £100 respectively; the stipend of the last is paid from the 
Chemical Laboratory Fund, but the holder of the office is 
subject to the Greneral Regulations for Demonstrators (seep. 135). 

1 Profesaor of Anatomy at King's CoUetfe, London. 

2 Protcnor of BiolotiT at the Royal Veterinaiy College. 



UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 137 



Demonstrators 

1871 John Wale Hicks, M.A., Kellow of .Sidney. Bishop of Bloenifonteiii, 1892. 

1>.U. 1892. 
1877[-1916] William James Sell, M.A., Christ's. University J^ecturer in Chemistry, 

1904. Sc.U. 1906. 

Additional Demonstrators 

1878 Henry John Horstman Fentou, M.A., Christ's. University Lecturer in 

Chemistry, 1904 (ScU. 190ti. 
190y[-14] Frederick William Dootson, M.A., Trinity Hall. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 

The Demonstratorship of Comparative Anatomy was estab- 
lished by Grace of March 13, 1873. Present stipend (1915) £100. 

187:? Thomas William Bridge ', B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1880. Sc.D. 1896. 

1876 Arthur Milnes .Marshall, H.A., St John's. Fellow of St John's, 1877. M.A. 

1878. .M.l). 1882. 

1877 Thomas William HridKei, a^'ain. 

1880 Alfred Cort Haddon^, H.A., Christ's. -M.A. 1882. .Sc.U. 1897. University 

Lecturer in Ethnology, 1900. Fellow of Christ's, 19U1. Reader in Ethnology, 
■ i9()9 

1881 Joseph Jackson Lister, B.A., St John's. M.A. 1883. Fellow of St John's, 1899. 

1882 William Hay Caldwell, B. A., Caius. Fellow of Cains, 188.3. -M.A. 1884. 

188.3 Sidney Frederic Harmer^, B.A., King's. Fellow of King's, 1886. M.A. 1887. 

Superintendent of the Museum of Zoology, 1892. Sc.D. 1898. 
1884 Walter Frank Rapiiael Weldon*, B.A., Fellow of St John's. M.A. 1885. 

University Lecturer in Zoology, 1884. 
1884 Sidney Frederic Harmer'*, again. 

1886 Arthur Everett Shipley, B.A., Christ's. Fellow of Christ's, 1887. M.A. 1888. 

University Lecturer in Zoology, 1894. Reader in Zoology. 1908. Master of 
Christ's, 1910. Sc.D. 1911. 

1887 Montague Arthur Fenton, B.A., St John's. M.A. 1887. 
1887 Arthur Everett Shipley, again. 

1894 Joseph Jackson Lister, again. 

1902 Reginald Crundall Punnett, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Superintendent of the 

Museum of Zoology, 1909. Professor of Biology, 1910-12. Arthur Balfour 

Professor of Genetics, 1912. 
1904 .Joseph .Jackson Lister, again. 
1908[-13] Frank Armitage Potts, M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 



EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS 

A Demonstratorship of Experimental Physics was established 
by Grace of March 12, 1874, and a second Demonstratorship 
by Grace of March 24, 1881: present stipends (1915) £100 each. 
By Grace of Dec. 18, 1890, an Additional Demonstratorship 
was estabhshed without stipend from the University, but the 
holder was to be subject to the General Regulations for Demon- 
strators (see p. 135). 

By Grace of December 6, 1883, two Assistant Demonstrator* 
ships were created: present stipends (1915) £60 each. 

1 Professor of Biolow at Mason College, BirmiiiKlinm, 1880 ; d. 1909. 

2 See p. 125, note 1. 

3 Keeper of Zoology in the British .Museum (Natural History). 

4 Seep. 121, note]. 



138 UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 

Demonstrators 

1874-«0 Wmiam Garnett >, B. A. , Fellow of St John's. M. A. 1876. 

1880-91 Eichard Tetley Glazebrook-, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Assistant Director 

of the Cavendish Laboratory, 1891. 
1880-7 [Sir] William .Napier Sliaw*! M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel. University 

Lecturer in Experimental Physics, 1887. Assistant Director of the 

Cavendish Uboratory, 189S. ScD. 1902. Kuiglited, 1915. 
1887-90 Hugh Frank Newall, M.A., Trinity. Fellow of Trinity, 1909. Professor 

of Astrophysics, 1909. 
1891-1900 Lionel Robert Will)erforce«. M. A., Trinity. University Lecturer in E.\peri- 

mental Physics. 1900. 

1891 George Frederick Cliarles Searle, M..\., Peterhouse. University Lecturer 

in Experimental Physics, 1900. Fellow of Peterhouse, 1911. SaD. 1912. 
1891-1904 Sidney SkinnerS, .M.A., Christ's. 
1900 Cliarles Thomson Rees Wilson, M.A., Fellow of Sidney. University 

Lectui-er in Exi>erimental Physics, 1901. 
1904-« Penrv Vaughan Bevan*, M.A., Fellow of Trinitv. Sc.D. 1911. 
1909-10 Alexander Wood, B. A., Fellow of Emmanuel. M.A. 1909. 

Assistant Demonstrators 

1884-7 James Henry Randell, B.A., Fellow of Pembroke. M.A. 1885. 

1884-5 James Cannan .McConnel, B.A., Clare. M.A. 1886. 

1885-6 Richard ThrelfalP, B.A., Cains. M.A. 1888. 

1886-7 Hugh Frank Newall, M..\., Trinitv. Fellow of Trijiity, 1909. Professor 
of .\stropliysics, 19<.»y. 

1887-90 Lionel Robert Wilberforce^, M.A., Trinitv. I'ttivereity Lectureriu Experi- 
mental-Physics, imJO. 

1887-« Hugh Longbourne Callendar*, B. A., Fellow of Trinitv. M.A. 1889. 

1888-1906 Thomas Cecil Fitzpatrick, H.A., Fellow of Christ's. M.A. 1889. President 
of Queens', 1906. 

1890-2 Reginald Son-6 Cole, B.A., Emmanuel. M.A. 1892. 

1892 (only) Cvril Ernest Ashford», B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1893. 

1892-4 William C'eoil Dampier Wlietham, B.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1893. 
1894-6 John Walton Capstick, B..\., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1895. 
1896-9 Percy Elliott liateman, B..\., Fellow of Jesus. M.A. 1897. 
1899-1900 Rudolf Gustav Karl Lempfertio, B. A., Emmanuel. M.A. 1901. 
1900-1 John Sealv Edward Townsend", B.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1903. 
1901-4 Penrv VauKhanBeyan«,B. A., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1903. Sc.D. 191L 
1904-9 C^raufui-d Hiittock, B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1908. 
1907[-12] Thoma-s George Bedfoi-d, M..\., .Sidney. 

19091-11] Geofficv Insiram Tavlor, B. A., Trinitv. Fellow of Trinity, 1910. M.A. 
1912. 

MECHANISM 

A Demonstratorship of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics 
was, estabhshed by Grace of Dec 2, 1880, but in 1884 there were 
three Demonstrators appoijited, although only one of these held 
an office established by Grace. A second Demonstratorship 
was established by Grace of March 12, 1891. By Grace of 
June 11, 1903, it was provided that three Demonstrators be 
appointed, and in 1908 the title of Senior Demonstrator was 
assigned to one of them. Present stipends (1915): Senior, 
£100; the other two, £50 each. 

1 Educational Adi-iser to the London County Council. 1904— 15. 

2 PrinciiwI of University Colleee, Liverpool, 1898—9. Director of the National Physical Utboratoiy, 1889. 

3 Director of the Meteorological Office. 1905, Reader in MeteoroIOQ' iu the University of London, 1907. 

4 Professor of Ph>-sics at the University of LiverpooL 190(1. 
6 Principal of Clielsea Polytechnic. 

6 Late Professor of Physics. Ro>tU Holloway College. 

7 Professor of Physics at tlie University of Sydney. 1886. 

8 Professor of Ph>-sics .it McGill Colleee, Montreal. 1««— 3 ; at University College, London. 1896—1902, at 
the Imperial College of Science. London. IHirj. 

9 Head Master. Royal Naval Collese. Osborne. 

10 Superintendent of Forecasting Department. Meteorological Office. 

11 Wykeham Professor of Phvsics and Fellow of New College, Oiford. 



UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 139 

1884-7 EdwardCecil Ames, B.A. M. A. 1886. 

1884-9 Baldwn Harry Bent. B.A., I'.nimanuel, 1888. M.A. 1896. 

1884-5 Jestyn Hunu? Nicholl, H.A., Trinity. 

1885-90 Charles Dixon. 

1887-90 E. C. Dowson. 

1889-92 John Tlionias Nicolsou ', B.Sc. (E<liii.). 

1891-(J William Ernest Dalby-!, H.Sc. (l.ond.). M.A. 1894. 

1891-1903 Charles George Lamb, B.Se. (l.ond.). M.A., Clare, 1894. University 

Lecturer in Electrical EuKineering, 1903. 
1896-7 Stanley Dunkerley, M.Sc. (Vict.). 
1897-1903 James Bennet Peace, M.A., Fellow of Ennnanuel. University Lecturer 

in Mechanical Engineering, 1903-8. University Printer, 1916 . 
1903-8 Charles Edward IngKs, M.A., Fellow of King's. University Lecturer in 

Mechanical Engineering, 1908. 
1903 Austin Henry Peake,B. A., St John's. M. .A. 1905. Settlor Demonstrator, 

1908. 
1908 Joseph Whittington Landou, M.A., .Sidney, Junior Deitiomtrator. 

1908 Talbot Peel, M.A., Magdalene, Junior Demonstrator. Fellow of 

Magdalene, 1909. 



BOTANY 

A Demonstratorship in Botany was established by Grace of 
Dec. 6, 1883: present stipend from the University (1915) £100. 
By Grace of June 7, 1894, an Additional Demonstratorship was 
established without stipend from the University, but the holder 
was to be subject to the General Regulations for Demonstrators 
(see p. 135). The holders of these offices are now known as the 
Senior and Junior Demonstrator in Botany. 

1884-8 Walter Gardiner, K. A., Clare. M.A. 1885. Fellow of Clare, 1885. Sc.D. 

1906. University Lecturer in Botanv, 1888-97. 
1889-91 Charles Alfreil Barber, B. A., Christ's." M.A. 1892 ; Sc.D. 1908. 
1891-7 Frederick Frost Hlackman, B.A., St John's. M.A. 1895. Fellow of St 

John's, 1895. Universit\ Lecturer in Botany, 1897-1904. Reader in 

Botany, 19IJ4. • 

1895-8 William Georire Pharoe Ellis, M..\., St C&t\\!i,nne'!i, Junior Demonstrator. 

M.D. 1906. 
1898-1900 Rowland Harry Bitten, B.A., Caius (formerly Emmanuel). M.A. 1902. 

Professor of Agricultural Botanv, 1908. Fellow of St ('atharine's, 1909. 
1899-1905 Arthm William 111113, B.A., King's. M.A. 190L Fellow of King's, 1901. 

LTniversity Lecturer in Botany, l!WJ4-6. 
1900-4 Laurence I.ewton-Brain*, B.A., St .John's, Junior Detnonstrntor. 
1902-7 Reginald Pliilip (iregory, B.A., St John's. Fellow of St John's, 1904. 

M. A. 1905. Settlor Demoitstrator, 1905. I'niversity Lecturer in Botany, 

1907. 
1905 Frederick Tom Brooks, B.A., lOnunanuel. M.A. 1909. Senior Demon- 

.ttrator, 1909. 
1907-9 Albert Malins Smitli, H.-V., Ennnanuel, Senior Dfmonstrator. M.A. 

1908. 
1909(-11] David Thnday, M.A., Trinity, Junior Detnottstrator. 

GEOLOGY 

Established by Grace of Dec. 6, 1883, with a stipend of £100 
a year. The appointment of an Additional Demonstrator in 

1 Afterwards Professor of Engiiieerhi!! in the Municip<tl School of Eiigineerinit, Manchester. 

2 Professor of Civil and Meclianical Engineerini; at the City and Guilds Engineering College of tlie 
Imperial College of Science and Technology. South Kensington, 1904. 

H Assistant Director of the Hoyal Gardens, Kew, 1907. 
4 Government Mycologist. Barbados. 



140 UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 

Geology was also authorised by Grace of March 5, 1910, he being 
subject to the General Regulations for Demonstrators (see p. 135) 
and paid from the funds of the Gteological Department. 

From 1894 until 1907 the Demonstrator in Geology was 
frequently described in official lists as the Demonstrator in 
Petrology. 

Demonstrator 

1883 Alfred Harker, B.A., 8t John's. M.A. 1885. Fellow of St .John's, 1886. 
University Lecturer in Petrology, 1904. 

Additional Demonstrator 

1910 Robert Heron Rastall, .M.A., Fellow of Christ's. 



MINERALOGY 

Established by Grace of Dec. 6, 1883. The Demonstrator in 
Mineralogy is also required to act as Assistant Curator of the 
Museum. The stipend of the present Demonstrator is £150. 

1883 Richard Harrison Solly. M.A., Downing, 1888. 
1895 Arthur Hutchinson, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. 



PHYSIOLOGY 

• 

By Grace of Dec. 6, 1883, a Senior Demonstratorship in Physi- 
ology was established with a stipend of £200 a year, and a Junior 
Demonstratorship towards the stipend of which the University 
contributed £50 a year. An Additional Demonstrator was 
appointed under the authority of a Grace of Dec. 18, 1890, and 
a second Additional Demonstrator under the authority of 
a Grace of May 23, 1907, both without stipend from the Uni- 
versity but subject to the General Regulations for Demon- 
strators (see p. 135). 

Senior Demonstrators 

1883 Arthur Sheiidan Lea, M.A., Trinity. University Lecturer in Physiology, 
1883-96. Fellow of Caius, 1886. Sc.D. 1886. 

1886 .Joseph Reynolds Green, B. A., Trinity. M.A. 1888; ScD. 1894. Fellow of 

Ilowning, 1902. 

1887 Lewis Eile Shore, B.A., M.B., B.C., St John's. M.A. 1889. Fellow of St 

John's, 1890. M.D. 1891. University Lecturer in Physiology, 1896. 
• 1896 William Bate Hardy, M.A., Fellow of Caius. University Lecturer in 
Physiology, 1912. 
1908 Walter Morley Fletcher, M.A., M.B., Fellow of Trinity. M.D. 1908: 8c.D. 
1914. 

1906 Ivor Lloyd Tnckett, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.D. 1910. 

1907 Joseph Barcroft, M. A., Fellow of King's. 



UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATORS 141 



Junior Demonstrators 

1888 U'Arcy Wentwortli Thonipson', B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1893; LittD. 1912. 

1886 Huinplirv Davy Rolleston, H.A., St John's. Fellow of St John'a, 1889. 

M.A: 1890; M.D. 1892. 

1887 Hujtli Edward Wiiijrtield, B. A., Caius. M.I). 1908. 

1889 William Bate Hardy, B.A., faius. M.A. 1892. Fellow of Caius, 1892. 

Universitv Lecturer in Pliysiology, 1912. 
1896 Hugh Kerr Anderson, M.A., M.B., B.C., Fellow of Caius. M.D. 1898. 

University Lecturer in Physiology, 1903. Master of Caius, 1912. 
1904 Joseph Barcroft, M. A., Fellow of King's. 
1907 Sydney William Cole, M.A., Trinity. 



Additional Demonstrators 

1894 Hugh Kerr Anderson, M.A., M.B., B.C., Fellow of Caius. M.D. 1898. 

University Lecturer in Physiology, 1903. Master of Caius, 1912. 

1896 Alfred Eichholz, M.A., M.B., B.C., Fellow of Emmanuel. M.D. 1898. 

1899 Ivor Lloyd Tuckett, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. M.D. 1910. 

1904 Sydney William Cole, M.A. .Trinity. 

1905 Ivor Lloyd Tuckett, again. 
1905 Sydney SX'illiam Cole, again. 

1907-10 Victor James Woolley, M.A., Fellow of King's. M.D. 1912. 
1907 Keith Lucas, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. Sc.D. 1911. 
1909[-12] Vernon Heniy Mottram, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 



ANIMAL MORPHOLOGY 

Established by Grace of June 12, 1884, with a stipend of 
£150 a year. The Demonstrator was at first appointed by 
'the Senior Lecturer in Animal Morphology' with the consent of 
the Special Board for Biology and Geology, but by Graoe of 
March 7, 1908, his appointment was transferred to the Professor 
of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy acting with the consent 
of the Vice-Chancellor, and he was placed under the General 
Regulations for Demonstrators (see p. 135). 

1886 Walter Heape. Hon. M.A. 1886. Trinity. 

1886 Sidney Frederic Harmer2, B. A., Fellow of King's. M.A. 1887. Superintendent 
of the Museum of Zoology, 1892. Sc.D. 1898. 

1892 Joseph Jackson Lister, M. A., St John's. Fellow of St John's, 1899. 

1893 Ernest William MacBride^, B.A., Fellow.of St John's. M.A. 1895. 

1897 John Graham Kerr*, B. A., Christ's. Fellow of Christ's, 1898. M.A. 1899. 
1902 John Stanley (iardiner, M.A., Fellow of Caius. University Lecturer in 
Zoology, 1909. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, 1909. 

1908 Reginald Crundall Puimett, M. A., Fellow of Caius. Superintendent of the 

Museum of Zoology, 1909. Professor of Biology, 1910-12. Arthur Balfoui- 
Professor of fienetics, 1912. 

1909 Lancelot Alexander Borradaile, M.A. , Selwyn. University Lectui-er in Zoology, 

1910. Fellow of Selwyn, 1913. 
1910[-14] Clive Forster Cooper, M.A., Trinity. Superintendent of the Museum of 
Zoology, 1915. 

1 Professor of Natural History, University College, Dundee. 

2 See p. 137, note 3. 

3 Strathcona Professor of Zooloio', McGill University. Montreal, 1897—19(19: Professor of Zoology, 
Imperial College of Science, South Kensington, 1913. 

4 Regius Professor of Zoology at tlie University of Glasgow. 19(12. 



142 UNIVEESITY DEMONSTRATORS 



PATHOLOGY 

Established by Grace of June 9, 1887, with a stipend of £100 
a year. The appointment of the Demonstrator terminates with 
the tenure of office of the Professor of Pathology. 

1886 Joseph Griffitlis. M.A. King's, 1890. Reader in Surgery. 1898. M.C. 1905. 

1887 [Sir! Alniroth Edward VVriifht, M.D. (Dubl.X Trinity. B.A. 1888. Knighted, 

1906. 

1887 Huniphrv Davv RoUeston. B.A., M.B., B.C., St John's. Fellow of St John's, 

188*^ VI -V" 1890 M D 1892. 

1888 John George Adami'v m! A., airist's. Fellow of .Jesus, 1891. M.D. 1892. 
1890 Ernest Llovd Jones, B.A., M.B., B.C., Downing. M.D. 1892. 

1893 Louis Cobbett, M.A., M.B., Trinity. M.D. 1899. University Lecturer in 

Pathology, 1907. 

1894 James Lorrain Smith-. M.I). (Edin.), Caius. 

1895 Walter Svdnev Lazarus-Barlow^, M. D., Downing. 

1897 Thomas "Straniteways-Pigg. M.A., St John's, 1900. Poit Strangeways. 
Huddersfield Lecturer in Special Pathology, 1905. 



PALAEOBOTANY 

Established by Grace of May 14, 1891. The stipend of 
the present Demonstrator is £50. 

1892 Henry Womis, B.A., St John's. M.A. 1894. Tniversity Lecturer in Palaeo- 

zoology, 1899. 
1899 Edward Alexander N'ewell Arber, B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1902 ; ScD. 1912. 



PALAEOZOOLOGY 

Established by Grace of Feb. 2, 1893, without stipend from 
the University. Suppressed by Grace of Dec. 2, 1899, on the 
establishment of a University Lectureship in Palaeozoology 
(see p. 124). 

1894-9 Henrv Woods, B.A.,^ John's. M..\. 1894. University Lecturer in Palaeo- 
zoology, 1899. 



SURGERY 

Established by Grace of Dec. 5, 1901, without stipend from 
the University. The office terminated with the tenure of the 
Reader in Surgerv in 1903 (see p. 114), but was revived by 
Grace of June 2i, 1904. Stipend, £50. 

1901-3 Henry Buckley Ro<lerick, M.A., M.B., B.C., Emmanuel. M.D. 1902. 
1904 The same. , 

1 Strathcona Professor of Pathology and Bacteriok3Ky, McGill University, Montreal, VSl. 

2 Formerly Professor of Pathology at Queen's College, Belfast, and at the University of Manchester. 
Now Professor of Patholoin' a< the University of EdinburKh. 

3 Director of the Cancer Research Labonitories, Middlesex Hospital. 



UNIVERSITY demonstrators' 143 

EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 

Established by Grace of June 21, 1904, to assist the Professor 
of Mental Philosophy and Logic. The Demonstrator receives no 
stipend from the University, but is subject to the General 
Regulations for Demonstrators (see p. 135). 

1904 diaries Samuel Myers', M.A., M.D., (^aius. University Lecturer in Experi- 
mental Psychology, 1907. Sc.I). 1910. 
1909[-11] Edmund Oliver Lewis, B.A., St .John's. 



PETROLOGY 

Estabhshed by Grace of Dec. 5, 1907, without stipend from 
the University, the Demonstrator being subject, however, to 
the General Regulations for Demonstrators (p. 135). No 
appointment under this Grace was made until I9I0. 

1910f-14] William George Fearnsides^, M.A., Fellow of Sidney. 



* #* Lists of the holders of Demonstratorships since I9I0 will 
be found in the current issue of the University Calendar, where 
an account of Demonstratorships established after 1910 is ako 
given. 

1 I'rofessor of Psychology at Kind's College, London, 1906—9, 

2 Professor of Geology at the University of Sheffield. 



Assistants to Professors 

By Grace of June 7, 1894, the appointments of Assistants to 
Professors were brought under the Greneral Regulations for 
Demonstrators given on p. 135 above. 

CHEMISTRY 

The Assistant to the Professor of Chemistry was formerly- 
appointed by the Museums and Lecture Rooms Syndicate; 
but by Grace of Feb. 4, 1892, new Regulations for the office were 
approved, providing that he should be appointed by the Professor 
of Chemistry with the consent of the Vice-Chancellor and be 
removable in hke manner, and that his tenure of office should 
cease with the tenure of office of the Professor. His duty is to 
assist the Professor in the preparation of his lectures, in research, 
and in the management and care of the Chemical Laboratory, 
and he L« under the general direction of the Professor. Present 
stipend (1915), £100. 

1865 William James Sell, M. A., tlirist's. Tniversity Lecturer in Cliemistry, 1904. 
Sc.l>. 1906. 

1877 Hemy Robinson. B..\. M.A., Downing, 1885. 

1893 Harry Brownsword, M.A., Downiuft. 

1893 John f>iwar.l Purvis, B..\., 8t John's. M.A. 1896. Post Corpus. Univer- 
sity Lecturer in (liemistry and Physics in their Application to Hygiene 
and Preventive Medichie, 1909. 

1909 John Read, Ph.D. (Zurich). M.A., Emmanuel, 191.S. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 

A Demonstrator is appointed to assist the Jacksonian Professor 
of Natural Philosophy in giving catechetical or class instruction 
to students, and in superintending the practical work of students 
in the Laboratory; he is under the general direction of the 
Professor, and liis tenure of office ceases with that of the 
Jacksonian Professor. He was originally appointed by the 
Museums and Lecture Rooms Syndicate, but by Grace of 
Feb. 4, 1892, it was provided that he should be appointed by 
the Jacksonian Professor with the consent of the Vice-Chancellor, 
and be removable in like manner. Present stipend (1915), 
£100. 



ASSISTANTS TO PROFESSORS 145 

1876 Alexander Scott'. B. A., Trinity, 1879. M. A. 1882. Sc.D. 1907. 

1886 SiegfriedRuhemann.Pli.D. (Berlin). M.A., Caius, 1888. tTniversity Lecturer 

in Organic C'liemistry, 1891. 
1892 Alexander Scott i, again. 

1896 William Thomas Newton Spivey, M.A., Trinity. 
1901[-12] Humphrey Owen Jones, B.A., Fellow of Claie. M.A. 1903. 



GEOLOGY 

The office of Assistant to the Woodwardian Professor of 
Geology was estabUshed by Grace of March 7, 1878, with 
a stipend of £200 a year with the proviso that the Assistant 
appointed should not be permitted to take private pupils. He 
is appointed by the Woodwardian Professor with the consent of 
the Vice-Chancellor, and is removable by the same authority. 
His duty is to assist the Professor in the arrangement and care 
of the Geological Collections, to give such instruction and 
demonstrations as may be required, and to assist students 
making use of the Museum: he is under the general direction 
of the Professor, 

1878 Edward Bernard Tawney. M.A., Trinity, 1880. 

1883 Thomas Roberts, H.A., St John's. M.A. 1886. 

1892 Frederick Ricliard Cowper Reed, B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1895 ; Sc.U. 1914. 



SURGERY 

The office of Assistant to the Professor of Surgery was 
established by Grace of May 24, 1888, the stipend being provided 
by Professor Sir George Humphry. It came to an end when 
the Professorship was suspended in 1896 (see p. 106), but the 
duties of the Professorship were discharged by Dr Griffiths, on 
the authority of a Special- Grace, until the establishment of a 
Readership in Surgery in 1898. 

1888 Josepli Griffitlis. M. A., King's, 1890. Reader in Surgery, 1898. M.C. 1905. 



MEDICINE 

The office of Assistant to the Downing Professor of Medicine 
was established by Grace of May 24, 1894, without stipend 
from the University. The Assistant is appointed by the Pro- 
fessor with the consent of the Vice-Chancellor, and is removable 
by the same authority. The office terminates with the tenure 
of office of the present Downing Professor of Medicine. The 
duty of the holder is to assist the Professor in the preparation 
of his lectures on Pharmacology and Therapeutics, in carrying 
on pharmacological researches, and in the management and 

1 Superintendent of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory of the Royal Institution, 1896— IstU. 
H. R. 10 



146 ASSISTANTS TO PROFESSORS 

care of his Laboratory, and to give to students such practical 
instruction and demonstrations in Pharmacology as may be 
required: he is under the general direction of the Professor. 

1891 Charles Robertshaw Marshall, M.B., Ch.B. (Vict). M.A. 1897 ; poH Downing. 
1899 Ivor Lloyd Tuckett, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.l). 1910. 
1899 Walter Ernest Dixon \ M.D. (Lond.). M.A., Dowiiug, 1902. 



BIOLOGY 

The office of Assistant to the Quick Professor of Biology was 
established by Grace of Dec. 17, 1908, without stipend from the 
University. The Assistant is appointed hj the Professor, with 
the consent of the Vice- Chancellor, for a period not exceeding 
the tenure of the Professorship (see p. 108), but he is eligible for 
reappointment under similar conditions. He is at any time 
removable by the Professor, with the consent of the Vice- 
Chancellor; and the office terminates upon the appointment of 
a successor to the present Professor. His duty is to assist the 
Professor in the work of the Laboratory. 

1909 Harold Benjamin Fantham^, Christ's. B.A. 1910. M.A. 1915. 
1910[-12] Cyril Strickland, B.A., Caius. M.A,, B.C. 1911. 

*:j* Lists of the holders of these appointments after 1910 will 
be found in the current issue of the University Calendar. 

1 See p. 130, note 1. 

2 Professor of Zoology at the South African School of Mines and Techuelogy, Joluuinesborg, 1917; 
formerly Lecturer in Parasitolofty, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 



special Foundations^ 



SIR ROBERT REDE'S LECTURER 

The endowment was left to the University in 1524 by Sir 
Robert Rede, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 1506-19. 
He had been a member of Buckingham College, the predecessor 
of Magdalene, and afterwards a Fellow of King's Hall. 

Sir Robert Rede's executors purchased of the abbot and 
convent of Waltham Holy Cross an annuity of 20 marks, to be 
paid to the Master and Fellows of Jesus College, who bound 
themselves in their turn to pay £4 to each of three persons who 
should read lectures in the Schools on Humanity, Logic, and 
Philosophy. These were in all probability the ' ordinary lecturers ' 
already in existence to whom Sir Robert Rede was the first to 
give a fixed stipend. The lectures were to be called 'free» 
lect\ires,' and 'shalbe for euer read franck and free to all manner 
of schollers of the said Vniversitie hearing or bounde to hear the 
same.' The lecturers 'in the middest of euery terme, when the 
scholars shalbe assembled together most in number by their 
estimacion, shall say, and cause the same scholars to say, with an 
audible voyce openly, the Psalme of De profundis, with the 
orisons and collects belonging thereto, and after saye: Anima 
Roberti Rede militis defuncti nuper capitalis Jtisticiarii Domini 
regis de communi Banco fundatoris hujus Lecture, et anima 
Domine Margarete consortes sue, et anime omnium fidelium 
defunctorum per Dei misericordiam in pace requiescant. 
Amen.' There was also yearly to be kept 'a solempne Anni- 
versarie' on January 20 in Great St Mary's Church 'for the 
sowles of the said Sir Robert Rede, and dame Margarett his 
wyffe, and the sowles of their fathers and mothers, children, and 
all Christian sowles, in this manner following, that is to say, 
in the day before the said obite at afternoone a solempne Dirige 
by note, and on the morrow next following a solempne Masse of 
Requiem by note, with Ughts and other exequies and solempni- 
ties thereto accustomed.' The Vice-Chancellor, or in his absence 
'some other honorable Doctor in Divinity of the said Vniversitie,' 
was to 'minister and doe the observaunces,' and 'to have for his 

1 A fuller account of these Foundations is given in Undouiments, ed. J. W. Clark, 1904. 

10—2 



148 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 

labor therein sixteen pence.' One of the Proctors was to read 
the Statutes of the Foundation 'in the middle He of the said 
Church afore the congregation there present,' and ' he to have for 
his labor twelve pence of lawf uU money, and the other Proctor in 
like manner other twelve pence, and the three Bedells eighteen 
pence, that is to say, for euery of them six pence, and the 
beUringer for ringing to the Dirige and Masse four pence, and 
to the Master of Jhesus Colledge . . . twelve pence, whereof the 
said Master . . . shall oflfer at the Masse four pence, and for waxe 
sixpence.' All doctors and students were required to attend the 
anniversary, and there to 'sing or say for the sowle of the said 
Sir Robert Rede and other the sowles aforesaid. Placebo and 
Dirige with the Psalms, collects and orisons and other exequies 
thereto accustomed.' 

As the Lecturers on Sir Robert Rede's Foundation were usually 
appointed on St Barnabas Day (June 11) they were commonly 
known as 'the Barnaby Lecturers.' In 1857 the Council of the 
Senate reported that 'for many years past no duties whatever 
have been discharged ' by any of these Lecturers, and the outcome 
of this was a new Statute approved by the Queen in Council, 
April 6, 1858, directing that in future only one Reader should be 
appointed to deUver one lecture in term time every year, who 
should receive the stipends of all the three Readers or Lecturers 
heretofore appointed. The income of the Trust in 1914 was 
£9. 9s. Od. 

The Lecturer is appointed annually by the Vice-Chancellor 
before the end of the Michaelmas Term, and is required during 
his year of office to deliver one lecture in full Term at a time 
and place to be fixed by the Vice-ChanceUor. This is now usually 
in the Easter Term. 

1859 "On the Classification and (Teoj^raphical Distriliutiou i>f tlie Mammalia," by 'Sir] 

Hiclmrtl Owen, F.H.S., D.C'.L., Superintendent of the Natural History De- 
partment in the British Museum. First liunterian Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology, 183(>-5(i. K.C.K. 1884. v 

1860 "Life on the Fjiitli, its Origin and Succession," by John Phillips, M..\., LL.D., 

F.K.S., F.(;.S., Piofessor of tJeology in the University of Oxford. 

1861 " The Social and .Architectural History of Trinity t'ollege," l>y l{ol)ert Willis, M. A., 

F.R.S., Fellow of (:aius, .Jacksoniau Professor. 

1862 " The Cosmieal Featui-es of Terrestrial Magnetism," by Maj or-(ieneral [Sir] lidward 

Sabine, K.A., President of the Royal Society. K.C.J5. 1869. 

1863 " The Correlation of the Natural History Sciences," by David Thomas Ansted.M. A., 

F.K.S., Fellow of Jesus. 

1864 "The Late Observations of Total liclipses of the Sun, and the inferences from 

them," by [Sir] George Hiddell Airv, LL.D., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity, 
Astronomer-Royal. K.C.B. 1872. 

1865 "On Radiation," by John Tyndall, F.R.S. 

1866 "The Dissipation of Knergy," by [Su-1 William Thomson, M..4., Fellow of Peter- 

house. Knighted 1866. Baron Kelvin, 1892. 

1867 "The Relation of National Ethics to National .\rt," by John Ruskin, LL.D. 

1868 " The Stratification of Language," by Max Miiller, M..\. 

1869 " On the Results of Spectrum .\nalvsis of the Heavenly Bodies," by [Sir] William 

Hugghis, F.R.S. K.l'.B. 189". President of the Royal Society, 190U-6. 
O.M. 1902. 

1870 "On some Chemical Processes of forming (hganic Compounds, with Illustrations 

from the Coal Tar Colours," by William Allen Miller, M.D., F.R..S. 



SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 149 

1871 " Recent Solar Discoveries," by [Sir] Joseph Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. K.C.B. 1897. 

1872 "The Unity of History," by BVlward Augustus Freeman, D.C'.L. Regius P:-ofessor 

of Modern History in the University of Oxford, 1884-92. 

1873 " Thermo-Elcctricity," by Peter Guthrie Tail, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse, Pro- 

fessor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. 

1874 "Slavery," by Sir Samuel White Baker, Hon. M.A., F.R.S. 

1875 "The Effects of Observation of India upon Modern European Thouglit," by Sir 

Henry James Sumner Maine, LL.l). Master of Trinity Hall, 1877. 

1876 "The Monumental History of Ancient lilgypt," by Samuel Birch, LL.l)., Keeper of 

Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum. 

1877 "On some of the results of the Expedition of H.M.S. Challenger," by Sir Charles 

Wyville Thomson. 

1878 "On the Telephone," by James Clerk Maxwell, M.A., F.H.S., Fellow of Trinity, 

Professor of Experimental Physics. 

1879 "The Origin of Life, illustrated by tlie Life Histories of the least and lowest 

Organisms in Nature," by William Henry Dallinger, F.R.S. 

1880 "Man, prehistoric, present, future," by [Sir] George Murray Humphry, M.D., 

F.lt.S., Professor of Anatomy. Knighted, 1891. 

1881 "The I'^riy Caliphate," by Sir William Muir, K.(;.S.L, LL.l). 

1882 "Literature and Science," l)y Matthew Arnold, M.A. 

1883 " The Origin of the existing forms of Animal Life : Construction or Evolution ? " by 

Thomas Henry Huxlev, Hon. LL.l)., F.R.S. President of the Royal Society, 
1881-5. 

1884 "The Measurement of Human Faculty," by [SirJ Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S., 

Trinity. Knighted, 1909. 

1885 "Mind and Motion," by George John Romanes, M.A., F.R.S., Caius. 

1886 "On the Forms of Seedlings and the Causes to wliich they are due," by Sir John 

Lubbock, M.P., Hon. LL.D., F.R.S. Baron Avebury, litOO. 

1887 "Greater Britain in the Georgian and in the Victorian Era," by [Sir] Jolin Robert 

Seeley, M.A., Fellow of Caius, Regius Professor of Modern History. K.C.M.G. 
1894. 

1888 "Applications of Science to the protection of Human Life," by Sir Frederick 

Augustus Abel,C.B., Hon. Scl)., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1889 " On some Effects of the Action of Light on Ponderable Matter," by Sir George 

Gabriel Stokes, M.P., F.R.S., Fellow of Pembroke, Lucasian Professor of 
Mathematics. Master of Pembroke, 1902. 

1890 "Erasmus," by [Sir] Richard Claverhouse Jebb, Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity, Regius 

Professor of Greek. Knighted, 1900. O.M. 1905. 

1891 "Natural Religion in India," by Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, K.C.B., K.C.LE. 

1892 "The Microscope's Contributions to the Earth's Physical History," by Thomas 

George Bonney, ScD., B.D., F.R.S., Fellow of St John's. 

1893 "Weariness," by [Sir] Micliael Foster, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity, Professor 

of Physiology. K.O.B. 1899. 

1894 "The position, arrangement, and fittings of Libraries during the Middle Ages and 

the Renaissance (with special notes on the system of Chaining Books)," by 
John Willis Clark, M.A., formerly Fellow of Trinity, Registrary of the 
University. 

1895 "The early Renaissance in England," by Mandell Creighton, D.D., Fellow of 

Emmanuel, Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 

1896 "ROntgen Rays" by [Sir] .Joseph John Thomson, M.A., Fellow of Trinity, Pro- 

fessor of Experimentiil Physics. Knighted, 1908. O.M. 1912. 

1897 "Recent Researches on Terrestrial Magnetism,"by [Sir] Arthur William Riicker, 

M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Physics at the Royal College of Science. Knighted, 
1902. 

1898 "The Theatre in its Relation to the State," by Sir Henry Irving, Hon. Litt.l). 

1899 "La Theorie des Ondes Lumineuses: son influence sur la Physique Modeme," 

by Professor A. Cornu, Hon. Sc.I). 

1900 "Byzantine History in the Early Middle Age," by Frederic Harrison, M.A., 

Wadhara College, Oxford. 

1901 "The Renaissance and English Law," by Frederic William Maitland, LL.D., 

Downing Professor of the Laws of England. 

1902 "On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of tlie Universe," by Osborne 

Reynolds, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of Queens'. 

1903 "Napoleon III. and the Second Empire," by George Walter Prothero, Litt.D., 

Fellow of King's. 

1904 "The Structure of Metals," by [Sir] James Alfred Ewing, M.A., Fellow of King's, 

Director of Naval Education. K.C.B. 1911. 

1905 "Our True Relationsliip with India," by gir Francis Edward Younghusband, 

K.C.I.R, Hon. Litt.D. 

1906 "The Wars between Moslem and Cliristian for the possession of Asia Minor," by 

[Sir] William Mitchell Ramsay, P.B.A., Hon. Litt.D., Professor of Humanity 
at tiie University of Aberdeen. Knighted, 1906. 



150 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 

1907 "The Art of Architecture and the training required to practise it," by Sir Aston 

Webb, R. A. 

1908 "An Austrian Diplomatist in the Fifties," by Sir Ernest MasouSatow, G.C.M.6.> 

Hon. LL.D. 

1909 " Darwin as Geologist," by Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., Hon. Sc.D., President 

of the Hoyal Society. 

1910 "The Parallel between the English and American Civil Wars," by Charles 

Harding Firth, Hou. Litt.D., Oriel College, Oxford, Kegius Professor of 
Modern History in tlie University of O.xford. 



LECTURES IN PASTORAL THEOLOGY 

Thkough the liberality of the late Charles Anthony Swainson, 
D.D., Master of Christ's College and Lady Margaret's Professor 
of Divinity, a course of Lectures in Pastoral Theology was 
provided in the year 1883. In subsequent years the Financial 
Board has placed at the disposal of the Special Board for Divinity 
a sum of money for providing a similar course of lectures, though 
in the year 1893 the expense was defrayed by an anonymous 
private donor. The Lecturer is appointed by the Special Board. 

1888 William Walsliam How, D.D., Wadham College, Oxford, Bishop of BedfonL 

Bishop of Wakefield, 1888. 
1884 John Pilkiugton Xorris, D.D., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 

.\rcli(leac<>n of Bristol. 
1886 John Gott, D.D., Brasenose College, Oxford. Dean of Worcester, 1886; 

Bishop of Truro, 1S91. 

1886 George Frederick Maclear, D.D., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1887 R. F. L. Blunt, D.D., King's College, London. 

1888 William Dalryinple Maclagan, D.D., Peterhouse, Cambridge, Bishop of 

Lichtiehi. Archbishop of York, 1891. 

1889 Herbert James, M.A., King's College. Cambridge. 

1890 Edgar Jacob, M.A., New College, Oxford. Bishop of Newcastle, 1896 ; of 

St Albans, 1903. 

1891 Edwanl Tucker Leeke, M. A., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1892 Arthur James Mason, D.D., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Lady Margaret's Professor of Dinnity, 1895. Fellow of Jesus, 1896. 
Master of Pembroke, 1903. 

1893 Edgar Cliarles Sumner Gibson, M.A., Trinitv College, Oxford. Bishop of 

Gloucester, 1905. 

1894 William Boyd Carpenter, D.D., St Catharine's College, Bishop of Ripon. 

1895 Arthur Folev Winuinfrtou Ingram, M.A., Keble College, 0.«ord. Bishop of 

Stepney, 1897 ; of London, 1901. 

1896 George Body, M.A., St John's College, Cambridge. 

1897 Francis James Cliavasse, M.A., Corpus Cliristi College, Oxford. Bishop of 

Liverpool, 1900. 

1898 Charles Gore, M..\., formerly Fellow of Trinitv College. Oxford. Bishop of 

Worcester, 190'2; of Birmingham, ,1905 ; of Oxford, 1911. 

1899 George Wyudham Kennion, M.A., Oriel College, Oxford, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells. 

1900 WUliam Charles Edmund Newbolt, M.A., Pembroke College, Oxford. 

1901 Edmund Arbuthnott Knox, D.D., formerly Fellow of Mertou College, Oxford, 

Bishop of Coventry. Bishop of Manchester, 1903. 

1902 James Maurice Wilson, M.A., formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cam- 

bridge, Archdeacon of Manchester. 

1903 Cosmo Gonion Lang, D.D., Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, Bishop of 

Stepnev. Archbishop of York, 1908. 

1904 Vincent Stuckey Stratton Coles, M. A., Balliol College, Oxford. 

1905 Henry Edwin Savage, M.A., formerly Fellow of Corpus Cliristi College, 

Cambridge. Dean of Lichfield, 1909. 

1906 William Moore Ekle, M, A., St John's College, Cambridge. Dean of Worcester, 

1908. 

1907 William Cunningham, D.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Arch- 

deacon of Ely. 



SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 151 

1908 John William Diggle, D.D., Merton College, Oxford, 'bishop of Carlisle. 

1909 Henry Hutchinson Montgomery, D.D., Trinitv College, Cambridge. Bishop 

of Tasmania, 1889-1901. 

1910 Winfrid Oldtield Burrows, M.A., formerly Student of Christ Church, 

Oxford, Archdeacon of Birmingham. Bishop of Truro, 1912. 



SANDARS READERSHIP IN BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Samuel Sandars, M.A., of Trinity College, who died in 1894, 
left by his Will the sum of £2000 for the endowment of a Reader- 
ship in Bibliography. The bequest was accepted by Grace of the 
Senate, November 22, 1894. The duty of the Reader is to give 
one or more lectures annually (or, if the electors shall so determine, 
biennially) during term upon ' Bibliography, Palaeography, Typo- 
graphy, Bookbinding, Book Illustration, the science of Books 
and Manuscripts, and the Arts relating thereto.' The Reader is 
elected by the Vice- Chancellor, the Master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, when not holding the office of Vice-Chancellor, 
and the other persons for the time being composing the University 
Library Syndicate. The income of the Bequest in 1914 was 
about £50'. 

1895 Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., University College. Oxford, 

Director and Principal Lihvarian of the British Museum. 

1896 Charles Henry Middleton-W'ake, M.A., Clirist's College, Cambridge. 

1897 William Henry Stevenson, M.A., Fellow and Librarian of St John's College, 

Oxford. 

1898 Edward Gordon Duff, M.A., W^adham College, Oxford, Librarian of the 

.John Rylands Library, Manchester. 

1899 John Willis Clark, M.A., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 

Kegistrary of the University. 

1900 [Sir] Fi-ederic George Kenyon, formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 

Assistant Keeper of MSS. in the Biitish Museum. K.C.B. 1912. 

1901 Henry Yates Thompson, B.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1902 Montague Rhodes James,' Litt.D., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 

Provost of King's, 1905. 

1903 E. Gordon Duff, again. 

1904 H. Yates Thompson, again. 

1905 Sir E. Maunde Thompson, again. 

1906 Frederic William Maitland, LL.D., Trinity College,- Cambridge, Downing 

Professor of the Laws of England. 
1907) Fi-ancis John Henry .Jenkinson, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
1908/ University Librarian. 

1909 Falconer Madan, M.A., formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, Sub- 

Librarian of the Bddleian Library. 

1910 Wallace Martin Lindsay, M.A., formerly Fellow of .Jesus College, Oxford, 

Professor of Humanity at the ITniversity of St Andrews. 



GILBEY LECTURESHIP IN THE HISTORY AND 
ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE 

Sir Walter GiLBEY, President of the Royal Agricultural Society, 
offered in May, 1896, to place in the hands of Trustees a sufficient 
sum to give an honorarium of £25 per annum for a period of 
twenty-one years to a Lecturer on Agricultural History and 



152 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 

Economics. This offer was accepted by Grace of the Senate, 
June 18, 1896. The Lecturer is appointed by the Managing 
Syndicate for the Examinations in the Science and Practice 
of Agriculture, in consultation with the President for the time 
being of the Royal Agricultural Society, the appointment being 
for not more than three years at a time and subject to confirma- 
tion by Grace of the Senate. It is the duty of the Lecturer to 
lecture in each academical year on some subject connected with 
the History and Economics of Agriculture. 

The Gilbey Lectureship ceases at the end of twenty-one 
years from the appointment of the first Lecturer, unless in 
the meantime the Senate shall have otherwise determined. 

1897 [Sir] Ernest Clarke. Hon. M.A., St John's, Secretary of the Koyal Agricultural 

Society. Re-elected, 1900. Knighted, 1898. 
19(1 H. Herbert Smith. 

1904 Joseph Shield Nicholson >, Sc.D., Trinity. 
1907 Major Patrick George Craigie. C.B., St Catharine's. 
1910 Frank Rayner Salter, B.A., Magdalene. Fellow of Magdalene, 1910. MiA. 

1912. 

LECTURESHIP IN THE HAUSA LANGUAGE 

In May, 1896, the sum of £100 per annum for three years 
was offered by the Executive Committee of the Hausa Association 
for the endowment of a Lectureship in the Hausa Language. 
The offer was accepted, and Regulations were sanctioned by 
Grace of the Senate, June 18, 1896. The Lectureship was 
continued for three years by Grace of the Senate, Dec. 14, 1889, 
and Dec. 18, 1902, and again by Grace of the Senate, Jan. 30, 
1906, for one year. The Lectureship then lapsed. 

1897-1906 aiarles Henry Robinson, M.A., Trinity. 

CAYLEY AND STOKES LECTURESHIPS 
IN MATHE^LA.TICS2 

In 1903 a sum of £2000, in five equal annual instalments, was 
offered anonymously to the University for the augmentation of 
the stipends of two of the University Lectinrers in Mathematics, 
in order to enable them to devote their time more f uUy to study 
and research in Mathematical Science. The General Board of 
Studies was therefore authorised to appoint for five years from 
Michaelmas 1903 to Michaelmas 1908 a Cayley Lecturer in Mathe- 
matics and a Stokes Lecturer in Mathematics, the appointments 
being subject to confirmation by the Special Board for Mathe- 
matics. The Lectureships were to be connected with that 

1 Profesaor of Political Economy in the Univereity of Edinburxfa. 

2 Professor Cayley was the first Sadleirian Professor of Mathematics (see p. 96), and Sir George Stokes 
was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (see p. 83). 



SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 153 

Board, and to be tenable with a University Lectureship in 
Mathematics, or with a College Lectureship, or with both. The 
duty of the Lecturers was 'to apply themselves by study and 
research to the advancement of mathematical science,' and each 
Lecturer was required to deliver in all not less than two courses 
of lectures open to the University in each year. The stipend 
attached to each Lectureship was £200 a year. 

In 1905 Dr Ludwig Mond, F.R.S., added £1750 to the Fund 
for the maintenance of these Lectureships, and subsequently 
Professor Larmor and the representatives of the late Sir George 
Gabriel Stokes gave £100 towards the endowment of the Stokes 
Lectureship. This made it possible for the University to continue 
the Lectureships for a further period of five years from Michael- 
mas, 1908. [By Grace of 6 June 1913, the Cayley Lectureship 
was continued for another period of five years, the Stokes 
Lectureship being allowed to lapse.] 

Cayley Lecturer 

1903[-1-1] Henry Frederick liaker, ScD., Fellow of St John's. Lowiidean Professor 
of Astronomy, 1914. 

Stokes Lecturers 

1903 Ernest William Hobson, ScI)., Fellow of Christ's. Sadleirian Professor of 

Pure Mathematics, 1910. 
1910[-12] .James Hopwood .leans, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 



LESLIE STEPHEN LECTURESHIP 

The sum of £630, contributed by the friends of the late SiK 
Leslie Stephen, K.C.B., Hon. Litt.D., sometime Fellow of 
Trinity Hall, for the endowment of a Lectureship in Literature, 
was accepted by Grace, 27 April 1905, and the following Regula- 
tions were approved: — 

1. That a Lectureship be established in the University to be called 
the Leslie Stephen Lectureship. 

2. That the Lecturer be appointed in the Michaelmas Terai of 1906 
and in the Michaelmas Term of every second year thereafter by the Vice- 
Chancellor, the Master of Ti-inity Hall, the Knightbridge Professor of 
Moral Philosophy, and the Regius Professor of Modern History, save 
that when the Master of Trinity Hall shall happen to be Vice-Chancellor 
his place, as Master of Trinity Hall, shall be taken by the Master of 
Trinity College. 

3. That it be the duty- of the Lecturer to deliver one lecture on some 
day in full term in the Academic year in which he has been appointed, 
the place of delivery being the Senate House or some other University 
Building or Trinity Hall. 

4. That the lecture be on some literary subject, including therein 
Criticism, Biography, and Ethics. 

5. That, subject to regulation 3, the date of the lectm'e and the place 
of its delivery be fixed by the Vice-Chancellor. 



154 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS 

6. That tlie Lectarer receive as his stipend the net income of the 
endowment fund for the ci%-il year in which he was appointed and the next 
precetling civil year. [The income of the Fund is about £20.] 

7. These regulations shall be subject to alteration by Grace of the 
Senate at any time after 1 January 1935 prcrvided that the name of Leslie 
Stephen be always connected with the foundation and that the income 
arising therefrom be appropriated to some academical object of a Literary 
character. 

1907 [Sir] Walter Alexander Raleigh, M.A., formerly Fellow of King's, Professor 
of English Literature at the University of Oxford. Kniphted, 1911. 

11909 Andrew Cecil Bradley, Litt.D., formerly Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 

Professor of Poetry at Oxford, 1901-1906. 

11910 William Paton Ker, M.A., Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, Professor 

of Knglish literature at University College, Loudon. 



NORMAX MACCOLL LECTURESHIP 

A BEQUEST by the late Norman Maccoll, M.A., of Downing 
College, of the sum of £500, for the provision of lectures on the 
language or literature of Spain or Portugal, was accepted by 
the University by Grace of 2 Feb. 1905, and Regulations for the 
Lectureship, submitted by the General Board of Studies, were 
approved by Grace, 25 May 1905. These provided that in the 
year 1908 and every fourth year thereafter a Norman MjmjcoU 
Lecturer be appointed by the Senate on the nomination of the 
Special Board for IMedieval and Modern Languages, the appoint- 
ment being made in the Easter Term on each occasion ; and that 
it be the duty of the Lecturer to deliver in the University during 
the academical year following his appointment a course of not 
fewer than five public lectures on the language or literature 
of Spain or Portugal. The annual income of the Fund is about 
£15. 

1908 James Fitimaurice-Kelly, F.B.A..Gilmour Professor of the Spanish Language 
and Literature at the University of Liverpool. 



*0* Lists of the holders of these appointments since 1910 
will be found in the current issue of the University Calendar. 

1 In conse<iuence of the illiieas of I)r Bradley, the Leslie Stephen Lecture for 1909 w,»s not delivered, 
but an additional Lecture was given in iu place in 1910. 



University Preachers 

SERMONS IN THE UNIVERSITY CHURCH 

The custom of preaching in Great St Mary's before the Uni 
varsity is very ancient and is recognized in the earliest University 
Statutes of c. 1300. 

The number of public sermons preached before the University 
on stated occasions was at one time larger than it is now. At 
the beginning of the I9th century^ there were two sermons in 
St Mary's on Michaelmas Day; sermons ad Clerum^ preached by 
the Divinity Professors on the day before the beginning of each 
term; and a sermon ad Clerum on May 8 ad commendationem 
Regis Henrici Sept i mi (see p. 163). There was also a sermon 
on the day of the King's Accession, and the historic commemora- 
tions of Gunpowder Plot (November 5), the death of King 
Charles the Martyr (January 30), and the Restoration of King 
Charles the Second (May 29). These have since been discontinued, 
but a special sermon is still preached on Commencement Sunday 
(formerly the Sunday immediately preceding the first Tuesday in 
July, but now the Sunday before the last Congregation in June) ; 
at the Commemoration of Benefactors on the Sunday after 
All Saints' Day; and on Lady Day in King's College Chapel 
by a member of that Society. The Ramsden Sermon (see p. 162), 
founded in 1848, is now preached on Whitsunday. Further, 
although the Vice-Chancellor no longer 'presents each of the 
Judges with twelve pairs of gloves,' the customary Assize 
Sermons are still preached in the University Church. 

The Vice-Chancellor appoints the preacher of the Ramsden 
Sermon, the preacher for the afternoon of Commencement 
Sunday, the preachers for the Assizes, and for extraordinary 
Fasts and Thanksgivings. 

The Statutes now require that sermons shall be preached in the 
University Church every Sunday during Term ; also on Christmas 
Day, Good Friday, Easter Day, and Ascension Day, and on such 
other days as may be appointed by the Chancellor or by Grace 
of the Senate. The University may require members of the 
Senate who are in Holy Orders to preach according to regulations 

1 See Guniiiiic's edition (1828) of Adam Wall's Ceremoniet, published in 1798. 

2 A Grace of June S, 1686, provides tliat sermons ad Clerum in Great St Marv's should be preaclie<1 in 
Latin instead of English 'ad vitandum contagionis periculum, et ut togati Acadeniici cum oppidanis non 
misceantur' {Oracf Book H. p. 389). 



156 UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 

made from time to time for that purpose. Select Preachers 
are accordingly appointed yearly for the Sunday afternoons 
from the beginning of Michaelmas Term to the end of Easter 
Term, for the afternoons of Christmas Day, Grood Friday, and 
Ascension Day, and for such Sundays, if any, in the Long Vacation 
and such other days as may be appointed by the Vice-Chan- 
cellor, after consultation with the Select Preachers' Syndicate. 

The Select Preachers are appointed by a Syndicate consisting 
of the Vice-Chancellor, the Regius, the Lady Margaret's, the 
Norrisian, the Hulsean, and the Ely Professors of Divinity, 
the two Proctors, and four members of the Senate elected by 
<jrrace, who in every year before the end of the Easter Term 
assign the days for preaching the Hulsean Lectures, and appoint 
the Select Preachers, for the next academical year ; the days on 
which each Select Preacher is to preach being also determined 
by the Syndics. If any Select Preacher be prevented from 
preaching on the days assigned to him, the Syndics appoint 
another preacher in his place. 

Of the said four members of the Senate, one retires by rotation 
on the 3 1st of December in every year, and his place is supplied 
by another elected at a Congregation before the end of full term 
in the preceding Michaelmas Term, the retiring member not 
being re-ehgible at that election except by a Special Grace. 

For every sermon the Select Preacher is paid a fee of three 
guineas out of the Common Chest. 

The Order of Proceedings for University Sermons is as follows : 

The Vice-Chancellor's Pi-ocession forms in the Senate House at "2.10 p.m.i 
The Pi-eacher wears cassock, bands, black gown, and hood. If a Doctor, 
"he wears the scarlet gown instead of the black gown on Christmas Day, 
Easter Day, Ascension Day. Whitsunday, Trinity Sunday, All Saints' 
Day, and the Fii-st Sunday in November (Conunemoration of Benefactors). 
If a Bishop he weai-s Episcopal Robes. 

The Service begins with a Hymn, and this is followed by the Bidding 
Pi-ayer, which may be regarded as having fii-st reached what was substan- 
tially its present fonn on the occasion of the Sermon preached by Dr Penie 
before Queen Elizabeth on the occasion of the Royal visit to the University 
in August, 15642. 

Let us pray 

for Christ's holy Catholic Church, particularly that pure and 
reformed part of it established in this kingdom : 

for all Christian Sovereigns, Princes, and Governors, especially His 
most excellent Majesty otu" Sovereign Lord, GEORGE, by the grace of 
God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of 
the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, 
Emperor of India, over all persons and in all causes within his 
dominions supreme: 

1 From the besinning of the Michaelmas Term. 1913, the hoiir has been 2.25,— the Service now beginnlnK 
at 2.30 instead of 2.1.5. 

2 MulUnger, ii. 192. Cf. the Form of Prayer to be read before a Clerum, first in Greek ajid then In 
Latin, printed in Gunning, Ceremonies, p. 441. 



UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 157 

for our Gracious Queen Mary, Alexandra the Queen Mother, 
Edward Prince of Wales, and all the Royal Family : 

for the Lords of his Majesty's most honourable Privy Council : 

for the great Council of the Nation ^uoio assembled in Parliament ; 
for all the Nobility, Magistrates'^, and Gentry of the Realm : 

for the Ministers and Dispensers of God's Holy Word and Sacra- 
ments, whether they be the Archbishops, i)articnlarly Eandall, Lord 
Ai'clibishop of this Province, or Bishops, particularly Frederick Hewy, 
Lord Bishop of this Diocese, or the inferior Clergy, the Priests and 
Deacons; that all these in their several stations may serve truly 
and faithfully to the honour of God and the welfare of His people, 
always remembering that strict and solemn account which they must 
give before the judgement seat of Christ 3. 

And, that there never may be wanting a supi)ly of persons duly 
qualified to serve God both in Chui'ch and State, let us pray for a 
blessing on all Seminaries of sound Learning and Religious Edu- 
cation, especially tlie Universities of this Land; and herein for Tlie 
Right Honourable John William, Baron Ea>/leigh, '^oi'.r Chancellor; 
for the Right Worshipful the Yice-Chancellor; for the Reverend and 
Learned the Professors, Proctors, and all thai; bear office in this ^our 
Body; for all particular Colleges; and, as in private duty bound, 
^I desire your 2^ ray ers for the '^ ancient and religious foundation of 

College; for the ^liererend and Learned the Master, the 

Felloivs, Scholars, and all the Students in the same^. 

Pray we likewise for the Civil Incoii>oration of this Town ; for the 
Worshipful the Mayor, the Aldermen, and all that bear office in that 
Body. 

Lastly, let us pray for all the Commons of the Realm ; that they 
may live in the true faith and fear of God, in dutiful allegiance to the 
King, in sincere and conscientious communion with the Established 
Xlhurch, and in brotherlj- love and Christian charity one towards 
another. 

And, as we pray unto God for future mercies, so let us praise his 
most holy Name for those we have already received ; for our Creation, 
Preservation, and all the blessings of this life; but above all, for our 
redem])tion through Christ Jesus ; for the means of grace afiforded us 
here, and for the hojje of glory hereafter. 

These prayers and praises let us humbly offer up to the Throne of 
Heaven, in the words which Christ himself hath taught us : 

Our Father, which art in heaven. Hallowed be thy Name, Thy 
kuigdom come, Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven. Give 
us this day our daily bi'ead ; And forgive us our trespasses, As we 
forgive them that trespass against us ; And lead us not into tempta- 
tion. But deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom, The power, 
and the glory. For ever and ever. Amen. 
Then follows the Sermon, and this ended, the Preacher gives the 
Ascription, followed immediately by the Benediction. 

1 To be omitted duriiig proroKation. ^ 

2 When a Judge of Aisize attends the Service, add jmi'ticularly His Majesti/'s Judge of the present 
Assize. 

' 3 111 the version of the Bidding Prayer which will be within the recollection of older members of tlie 
University, this clause ran, more rhythmically: 'always rememijering that strict and solemn account 
which they must one day give before the judgement seat of Christ.' 

4 Or Chancellor of this Ifniversiiy. 

a Or omit our. 

6 Membersof Colleges in Oxford or Dublin bid prayer here for their own College in the accustomed style. 

7 Or roi/al in place otancieTtt; or, for Colleges founded after Henry VIII, omit ancietit and. 

8 Or omit Reverend and if the Master is a layman. 

9 On the outbreak of war in August 1914, the following words were added here : And especially for all 
those sons of tiiis University who have ijmie forth to serve their King and Country by sea and land in 
the present war. 



158 



UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 



The galleries at Great St Mary's Church, and a portion of the 
seats in the nave, are assigned to persons in statu pupillari at 
all University Services. 



THE LADY MARGARET'S PREACHER 

The Preachership was founded in 1504 by the Lady Makgaret, 
mother of King Henry VII, and is endowed with a stipend of 
about £8 charged on the land revenues of the Crown. A Statute 
approved by Queen Victoria in Council, April 6, 1858, directs 
that the Preacher be appointed by the Vice- Chancellor and hold 
office for one year; and that he preach one sermon in the 
University Church at the Commemoration of Benefactors [g.w.] 
in place of the six sermons a year prescribed by the deed of 
foundation. 

By Grace of the Senate, May 6, 1858, the appointment is 
to be made in the Easter Term, and the Preacher is to hold 
office till the first of May in the following year. Any member 
of the Senate who is in Holy Orders may be appointed. 



lAn asterisk prefixed to a College indicates that the preacher was a Fellow of that College.] 



1519 



1524 
1525 
1528 



1530 
1532 
1535 
1538 
1539 

1540 
1642 
1545 

1547 
1549 

1560 



1551 
1552 
1554 



John Fawiie, B.D., *Queens' (nomi- 
nated by the Foundress). Lady 
Margarefs Professor of Divinity, 
1515. 

Tliomas Ashley, D.D., *King's. La<ly 
Margaret's Professor of Divinjtv, 
1521. 

.John Kdmunds, D.D., *yt John's. 
-Master of Peterliouse, 152". 

Walter Preston, D.D., *Christ'8. 

William Harvey, B.l)., *(iueens'. 

William Buckmaster, D.D., *Peter- 
liouse. I.a<lv Margaret's Professor 
of Divinity, i532. 

Jolni W^yat, B.D. 

The same again. 

The same again. 

lidward Alenson, B.D., *Pembroke. 

Richard Wilkes, B.D., Queens'. 
Master of Oirist's, 1549. 

Henry Pauley, B.D. 

The same again. 

Bichard Atkinson, D.D., *King's. 
Provost of King's, 15.5.3. 

GiKlfrey Gilpin, B.D., *Trinity. 

Edmund Pierpoint, B.D., *C'hri8t's. 
Master of Jesus, 1551. 

Edmund (irindal, B.D., ^Pembroke. 
Master of Pembroke, 1559. Bishop 
of London, 1559; Archbisliop of 
York, 1570 ; of Canterbury, loi 6. 

Nicholas .\ssheton, B.D., *Ciirist's. 

.Joliu Tlionipson, B.D., St * John's. 

William Taylor, B.D., ^Christ's. 
Master of Christ's, 15.56. 

Thomas Parker, B.D., *Trinitv. 



1558 
1559 
1562 
1563 

1565 

1567 
1568 
1570 



1571 

1572 
1575 
1577 
1579 
1582 
1583 
158C 
1587 

1588 
1.595 
1596 
1597 

1598 

1601 
1607 
1610 
1613 
1620 



Tlie same again. 
Itoger Kelke, M.A., ^.-^t John's. 
Gregory Garth, B.D., ^Pembroke. 
Boger Kelke again, now B.D.,- and 

Master of Magdalene. 
William Hughes, B.D., *C'lirist'8. 

Bishop of St .\saph, 1573. 
lixlward Dervng, M..4., ^Christ's. 
William Talior, B.D., *Clmst's. 
John Still, B.D., *airist's. Lady 

Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 

1570. Master of St John's, 1674; 

of Trinity, 1577. Bishop of Bath 

and Wells, 1593. 
Laurence Barnwell, B.D., *.Jesii8. 
Boger Goad, B.D., Provost of King's. 
The same again. 
Robert Coonv, B.D., *King's. 
John Ireton, B.D., Oirist's. 
The same agam. 
.John Browning, B.D., *Trinity. 
-Martin Keye, B.D.. *C1irist'8. 
Simon Robson, B.D., *St John's. 

Dean of Bristol, 1598. 
Thomas Osborne, B.D., *Chri8t's. 
Robert Cliurch, D.D., *Caius. 
Richard Clarke, B.D., *t1irist's. 
Simon Robson again (see 1587), D.D. 

1594. 
Williatn Branthwaite, D.D., *Em- 

manuel. Master of Caius, 1607. 
Cuthbert Baynbridge, B.D., *C1iri8t's. 
The same again. 

Jacob Harrison, B.D., ^Clirist's. 
William Power, B.D., ^Christ's. 
The same again. 



UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 



159 



1646 James Uuport, B.D., *Trinity, Regius 
Professor of Greek. Dean of Peter- 
borough, 1664. Master of Magda- 
lene, 1668. 

1665 Halpli Widdrington, D.l)., *Cliri8t'8, 
Public Orator. Kegius Professor 
of (ireek, 1664. Lady Margaret's 
Professor of Divinity, 1673. 

1676 Thomas Stevens, D.D., Jesus. 

1680 John Covell, D.D., *Christ's. Master 
of Christ's, 1688. 

1722 Robert Lambert, D.D., ''St John's. 
Master of St John's, 1727. 

1734 Francis Avlmer, B.D., *Corpus. 

1744 John Garriett, B.l)., *Sidney. Bishop 
of Kerns, 1762; of Clogher, 1758. 

1752 Jlenry Hubbard, B.D., *Ii;mmanuel. 
Registrary, 1758. 

1774 Itichard Farmer, B.D., *Emmanuel. 
Master of Emmanuel, 1775. Pro- 
tobibliothecarius, 1778. 

1782 Thomas Kipling, B.D., *St John's. 

1786 .James Fawcett, B.I)., "*St John's. 

1819 Thomas Calvert, B.D., *St John's. 

1824 Arthur Judd Carrighan, B.D., *St 
John's. 

1833 William Jones, B.D., *St John's. 

1834 RichardNewtonAdams,D.D.,*Sidnev. 
1841 John Hymers, B.D., *St John's. 
1858 Harvey Goodwin, M.A., *Caius. 

Bishop of Carlisle, 1869. 
1869 James Atlay,B.D.,*St John's. Bishop 
of Hereford, 1868. 

1860 Arthur Wolfe, M.A., *Clare. 

1861 Joseph Barber Lightfoot, M.A., 

*Truiity. Bishop of Durham, 1879. 

1862 William Magan Campion, B.D., 

*(iueens'. President of Q,ueens',1892. 

1863 William Ravnes, IVI.A., *Clare. 

1864 John SaurHowson, D.D., Trinity. 

Dean of Chester, 1867. 

1865 Charles Anthony Swainson, D.D., 

'Clirist's. Non-isian Professor of 
Divinity, 1864; Laily Margai'et's 
Professor, 1879. Master of Christ's, 
1881. 

1866 Samuel Clieetham, M.A., *Christ's. 

Archdeacon of Southwark, 1879; of 
Itochester, 1882. 

1867 Arthur Holmes, M.A., *C'lare. 

1868 William George Clark, M. A., *Trinity, 

Public Orator. 

1869 Edward Josselyn Beck, M.A., *aare. 

1870 George Williams, B.D., *Kiug's. 

1871 Charles Edward Searle, M.A., *Pem- 

broke. Master of Pembroke, 1880. 

1872 William Haig Brown, LL.D., *Pem- 

broke. 

1873 Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D.D., *St 

John's, Regius Professor of Greek. 

1874 John James Stewart Perowne, D.D., 

*Corpus. Hulsean Professor of 
Divinity, 1876. Dean of Peter- 
borough, 1878 ; Bishop of Worcester, 
1891. 

1875 Fentou John Anthony Hort, B.D., 

*Emmanuel. Hulsean Professor of 
Divinity, 1878; Lady Margaret's 
Professor, 1887. 

1876 EdwardWhite Benson, D.D., *Trinity. 

Bishop of Truro, 1877; Archbishop 
of Canterbury, 1883. 



1877 Edward Henry Perowne, D.D., 

•Corpus. Master of Corpus, 1879. 

1878 George Forrest Browne, M.A., ♦St 

Catharine's. Disney Professor of 
Archaeology, 1887. Bishop of Step- 
ney, 1895 ; of Bristol, 1897. 

1879 Joseph Rawsnn Lumby, D.D., ♦St 

Catharine's. Norrisian Professor of 
Divinity, 1879; Ladv Margaret's 
Professor, 1892. 

1880 James TliouiasonLang,M. A.,*Corpus. 

1881 HenryRichards Luard, D.D.,*Trinity. 

Registrary, 1862. 

1882 Alexander Francis Kirkpatrick, M.A., 

'Trinity. Regius Professor of 
Hebrew, 1882. Master of Selwyn, 
1898. Lady Margaret's Professor of 
Divinity, 1903. Dean of Ely, 1906. 

1883 William Haig Brown, LL.D., again 

(see 1872). 

1884 John James Lias, M.A., Emmanuel. 

1885 Arthur Temple Lyttelton, M.A., 

Trinity, Master of Selwyn. Bishop 
of Southampton, 1898. 

1886 Samuel Cheetham, D.D., again (see 

1866). 

1887 J. Atlay, D.D., Bishop of Hereford, 

again (see 1859). 

1888 Joseph Bickersteth Mayor, M.A., *St 

John's. 

1889 Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., *King's, 

formerly Fellow of Trinity. Regius 
Professor of Divinitv, 1870. Bishon 
of Durham, 1890. " 

1890 Frederic William Farrar, D.D., 

♦Trinity. Dean of Canterbury, 1896! 

1891 E. W. Benson, D.D., Archbishop of 

Canterbury, again (see 1876). 

1892 Mandell Creighton, D.D., *Emmanuel, 

Bishop of Peterborough. Dixie 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 
1884. Bishop of London, 1897. 

1893 A. F. Kirkpatrick, D.D., again (see 

1882). 

1894 Frederic Watson, D.D., ♦St John's. 

1895 Joseph Annitage Robinson, B.D., 

♦Christ's, Norrisian Professor of 
Divinity, Dean of Westminster, 
1902 ; of Wells, 1911. 

1896 Charles William Stubbs,D.D., Sidney, 

Dean of Eij'. Bishop of Tniro.' 
1906. 

1897 Arthur Temple Lyttelton, M.A., 

again (see 1885). 

1898 Jolm William Edward Conybeare, 

M.A., Trinity. 

1899 James Maurice Wilson, M.A., *St 

John's, Archdeacon of Manchester. 

1900 John Llewelyn Da vies, M. A., ♦Trinity. 

1901 GeraklHenry Rendall,M.A., 'Trinity. 

1902 Henry Barclay Swete, D.D., ''Cains, 

Regius Professor of Divinity. 

1903 Henn- .Montagu Butler, D.D.," Master 

of Trinity. 

1904 William Cunningham, D.D., ♦Trinity. 

Archdeacon of Ely, 1907. 

1905 Frederick Henry Cliase, D.D., Clirist's, 

Bishop of Ely. Norrisian Professor 
of Divinity, 1901. President of 
Queens', 1901. 

1906 J, A. ■ Robinson, D.D, a«rain fsee 
1895). ^ 



160 UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 



1907 James Edward Cowell Welldon.D.D., 

*King's, Dean of Manchester. 
Bishop of Calcutta, 1898-1902. 

1908 Thomas Wortley Drury, D.D., 

Clirist's, Bishop "of Sodor and Man. 



1909 Vincent Henry Stanton,D.D.,*Trinity, 

Ely Professor of Divinity. 

1910 Ernest Stewart Roberts, M. A., Master 

of Caius. 



[For a contiiuiatioii of tliis list since 1910 see the I'niverMy ra?«irfar.] 



HULSEAN LECTURER OR CHRISTIAN PREACHER 

The original Will of John Hulse, B.A., of St John's College, 
dated July 21, 1777, provides for the appointment of some 
'learned and ingenious clergyman' to preach twenty sermons 
a year. The testator died in 1790, but the first Hulsean Lecturer 
was not appointed until 1819. In 1830 the Court of Chancery 
reduced the number of lectures to eight, and in 1860, by a new 
Statute approved by the Queen in Council, they were further 
reduced to four and other modifications were made in the condi- 
tions of the office. 

The election now takes place on some day in February, not 
later than the twentieth. Candidates must be thirty years of 
age or upwards, in Holy Orders, and Masters of Arts or of some 
higher degree in the University of Cambridge. The Lecturer 
. holds office for one year only, but is capable of re-election after 
an interval of five years. The duty of the Lecturer is to preach 
during his year of office not less than four sermons, in which 
he is to shew the evidence for Revealed ReUgion or to explain 
some of the most difficult texts or obscure parts of Holy Scripture 
— or both, but he is not required to print or publish them. The 
time of delivery is to be prescribed by the University ; and, if the 
duties be not discharged by the person appointed, his salary is to 
be divided amongst the six senior Fellows of St John's College. 
The electors are the Vice- Chancellor, the Master of Trinity, the 
Master of St John's, and the Lady Margaret's, Regius, Norrisian, 
and Hulsean Professors of Divinity, the Vice-Chancellor having a 
casting vote; and, if either the Master of Trinity or the Master 
of St John's be Vice-Chancellor, his place is to be supphed by 
the Regius Professor of Greek. Annual stipend, one- tenth of the 
net income from Mr Hulse's benefaction. [In 1914 this was £63.] 

fAn asterisk prefixed to a College Indicates that the lecturer was a Fellow of that College.] 

1819 C'hristoi)her Benson, M.A., Trinity. \ 1826 Temple Chevallier, M.A., *St Catlia- 

Fellow of Magdalene, 1820. Master ' riue's. 

of the Temple. i 1831 John James Blunt, B.D., *St John's. 

1821 The same again. ' Lady Margaret's Professor of Di- 

1821 James Clarke Franks, M.A., Trinity, . vinity. 1839. 



as deputy for Chr. Benson during 

illness. 
1821 Chr. Benson, M.A., again, 
1823 J. C. Franks, M.A., again. 



1833 Henry John Rose, B.D., *.St John's. 

Archdeacon of Bedford, 1866. 

1834 Henry Howartli, B.D., *St John's. 
18.36 Richard Parkinson, M.A., St John's. 



UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 



161 



1838 Theyre Townsend Smith, M.A., 

Queens'. 
1841 Henry Alford, M.A., *Trimty. Dean 

of Canterbury, 1857. 
1843 John Howard Marsflen, B.I)., *St 

John's. Uisney I'rofessor of Arch- 

aeolog}', 1851. 
1845 Richard Clienevix Trench, M.A., 

Trinity. Dean of Westminster, 

1856. Archbisliop of Dublin, 1864. 
184t) Christopher Wordswortli, D.D., 

♦Trinity. Public Orator, 1830. 

Bishop of Lincohi, 18(58. 
1848 William Gilson Humpiiry, M.A., 

^Trinity. 
1850 George Currey, B.D., *St John's. 
1852 Benjamin Morgan Cowie, M.A., 

*St John's. Dean of Manchester, 

1872 ; of Exeter, 1883. 
1855 Harvey Goodwin, M. A., *Caius. Dean 

of Kly, 1858. Bishop of Carlisle, 

1869. 
1857 Charles Anthony Swainson, M.A., 

"Christ's. Nonisian Professor of 

Divinity, 1864 ; Lady Margaret's 

Professor, 1879. Master of Christ's, 

1881. 

1859 Charles JohnEUicott, B.I).,*St John's. 

Dean of Exeter, 1861. Bishop of 
Gloucester, 1863. 

1860 John Lamb, M.A., *Caius. 

1861 Charles Merivale, B.D., *St John's. 

Dean of Ely, 1863. 

1862 John Saul Howson, D.D., Trinity. 

Dean of Cliester, 1867. 

1863 Francis Morse, M.A., St John's. 

1864 Daniel Moore, M.A., St Catharine's. 

1865 James Moorhouse, M.A., St John's. 

Bishop of Melbourne, 1876 ; of Man- 
chester, 1886. 

1866 Edward Henry Perowne, B.D., ♦Cor- 

pus. Master of Corpus, 1879. 

1867 Charles Pritchard, M.A., *St John's. ■ 

1868 John James Stewart Perowne, B.D., 

"Corpus. Fellow of Trinity, 1873. 
Hulsean Professor of Divinity, 
1876. Dean of Peterborougli, 1878; 
Bishop of Worcester, 1891. 

1869 John Venn, M.A., *Caius. 

1870 Frederic William Farrar, M.A., 

*Trinity. Dean of Canterbury, 1895. 

1871 Fenton John Anthony Hort, M.A., 

♦Trinity. Fellow of Emmanuel, 1871. 
Hulsean Professor of Divinity, 1878 ; 
I.ady Margaret's Professor, 1887. 

1872 Josiah Brown Pearson, M.A., 

♦St .John's. Bishop of Newcastle, 
N.S.W., 1880. 

1873 Stanley Leathes, M.A., Jesus. 

1874 George Martin Straffen, M. A., Christ's. 

1875 Edward Thomas Vaughan, M.A., 

♦Christ's. 

1876 Edwin Abbott Abbott, M.A., ♦St 

.John's. 

1877 George Smith Drew, M.A., St John's. 

1878 William Boyd Carpenter, M.A., 



St Catharine's. Bishop of Uipon, 
1884. 

1879 Vincent HenryStanton,M. A.,*Trinity. 

Ely Professor of Divinity, 1889. 

1880 Thomas Thomason Perowne, B.D., 

♦Corpus, Archdeacon of Norwich. 

1881 Joseph Foxley, M.A., ♦St John's. 

1882 Frederic Watson, M.A., *St John's. 

1883 John James Lias, M.A., Emmanuel. 

1884 Thomas George Bonney, Sc.D., 

♦St John's. 

1885 William Cunnhigl)am,B.D., *Trinity. 

Archdeacon of Ely, 1907. 

1886 .John deSoyres, M.A., Caius. 

1887 Joseph Hirst Lupton, M. A.,^StJohu's. 

1888 Henry Major Stephenson, M.A., 

♦Christ's. 

1889 Edward George King, D.D., Sidney. 

1890 John Llewelyn Davies,M. A., *Trinity. 

1891 Arthur Temple Lyttelton, M.A"., 

Trinity, Master of Selwyn. Bishoji 
of Southampton, 1898. 

1892 John Bickford Heard, M.A., Caius. - 

1893 Mandell Creighton, D.D., ♦Emmanuel, 

Bishop of Peterborough. Dixie Pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History, 1884. 
Bishop of London, 1897. 

1894 Alfred Barry, D.D., ♦Trinity. Bishop 

of Sydney, 1884. 

1895 William Moore Ede, M.A., St John's. 

Dean of Worcester, 1908. 

1896 Samuel Cheetham, D.D., ♦Christ's, 

Archdeacon of Itochester. 

1897 James Edward Cowell Wei Idon, M.A., 

♦King's. Bishop of Calcutta, 1898 ; 
Dean of Manchester, 1906. 

1898 James Maurice Wilson, M.A., 

*St John's, Archdeacon of Man- 
chester. 

1899 Arthur James Mason, D.D., *Jesus, 

Lady Margaret's Professor of 
Divinity. Master of Pembroke, 1903. 

1900 Frederick Henry Chase, D.D., Christ's. 

Norrisian Professor of Divinity, 
1901. President of Queens', 1901. 
Bishop of Ely, 1905. 

1901 Frederick Robert Tennant, M.A., 

Caius. Fellow of Trinity, 1913. 

1902 Frederick .John Foakes-.Jackson, 

M.A., * Jesus. 

1903 William Allen Whitworth, M..\., 

♦St .John's. 

1904 Cliarles William Stubbs, D.D., Sidney, 

Dean of Ely. Bishop of Trurl), 
1906. 

1905 Henry Joseph Corbett Knight, M.A., 

♦Corpus. Bishop of Gibraltar, 1911. 

1906 James Pounder Whitney, M.A., 

King's. 

1907 .John Howard Bertram Masterman, 

M.A., St John's. 

1908 John Neville Figgis, Litt.D., st Catlia- 

rin«'s. 

1909 William Edward Chadwick, D.D., 

1910 Ernest Arthur l-kighill, M.A., Kin.?'8. 



[For a continuation of this list since 1910 see the UniversUy CaJendar.] 



11 



162 



UNIVERSITY PREACHERS 



RAMSDEN SERMON 

Mrs Charlotte Ramsden, of Bath, having at the suggestion 
of James Hejrwood Markland, F.R.S., formerly Treasurer of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, proposed "to provide 
by an adequate endowment (viz. by an investment in the Con- 
sohdated Fund of a sum which shall produce Five Guineas per 
annum) for an Annual Sermon at St Mary's Church, before the 
University of Cambridge, to be deUvered on such Sunday of 
full Term and by such Preacher as the Vice-Chancellor for the 
time being shall appoint, upon the subject of 'Church Extension 
over the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Empire'," 
the proposal was accepted by the Senate on Feb. 9, 1848. The 
day appointed for the Ramsden Sermon is now Whitsunday. 



[An asterisk prefixed to a College indicates that the Preacher was s Fellow of that College.] 



1849 Henry Melvill, B.D., *Peterhouse. ISH' 

1850 Alfred Ollivant, D.D., *Trinity, Bisliop 

of I.laiidaflT. Uegius Professor of 
Divinity, 1843. 1868 

1851 Henry BaUey, B.D., *St John's. 

1852 John James Blunt, B.D., *St John's, 

Lady Margaret's Professor of 1869 
Divinity. 

1853 William ILxIge Mill, D.D., Trinity, 1870 

Regius Professor of Hebrew. 

1854 George Augustus Selwyn, D.D., *St 1871 

•lohn's, Bisliop of New Zealand, i 
Bishop of Lichfield, 1868. 1872 

1855 Charles Perry, D.D., *Trinity, Bisliop 

of Melbourne. 1873 

1856 James Cliapm:)ii, D.D.,*King"s,Bishop 

of Colombo. 

1857 William Selwyn, B.D., *St John's, 1874 

Lady Mai-garet's Professor of 
Divinity. 1875 

1858 George Edward Lynch Cotton, D.D., 

*Trinity, Bishop of Calcutta. 

1859 Benjamin Morgan Conie"; B.D., *St 

John's. Dean of Mancliester, 1872 ; 
of Exeter, 1883. 

1860 Cliarles Frederick Mackenzie, M.A., 

*Caius. Bisliop of Central Africa, 18' 
1861. 

1861 Haney Goodwin, D.D., *Caius, Dean 1878 

of Ely. Bishop of Carlisle, 1869. 

1862 Thomas Xettleship Staley, D.D., 1879 

*Queens' Bishop of Honolulu. i 1880 

1863 Edward "rwells, D.D., Peterhouse, 

Bisliop of the Orange River State. 1881 

1864 Edward ILirold Bromje, D.D., *Em- I 

inanuel, Bishop of Ely. Xorrisian [ 1882 

Professor of Divinity, 185* Bishop , 

of Winchester, 1873. 1883 

1865 RobertMachray,D.D.,*Sidney,Bishop 

of Rupert's Land. I 

1866 Cliarles Anthony Swainson, D.D., 

*tlirist's, Xorrisian Professor of I 1884 
Divinity. Lady Margaret's Professor i 
of Divinity, 1879. Master of Christ's, 1885 
188L 



ThomasRawsonBirks, M.A., *Trinity. 

Kuii;htbridge Professor of Moral 

Philosophy, 1872. 
William Saumarez Smith, M.A., 

*Trinity. Bishop of Sydney, 1890; 

first Archbishop, 1897. 
Charles John Abraliam, D.D., *King'8, 

Bishop of W'elliugton, X.Z. 
William Emery, B.D., *Corpus, Arch- 
deacon of Ely. 
James Russell Woodford, M.A., 

Pembroke. Bishop of Ely, 1873. 
Cliarles Edward Searle, M.A., *Pem- 

broke. Master of Pembroke, 1880. 
Josiali Brown Pearson, M.A., *St 

.John's. Bishop of Newcastle, N.S.W., 

1880. 
Thomas Valpy French, M.A. (Oxf.). 

Bishop of Lahore, 1877. 
Brooke Foss Westcott, D.I).,*Trinity, 

Regius Professor of Divinity. Fellow 

of King's, 1882. Bishop of Durham, 

1890. 
William Bonner Hopkins, B.D., *St 

Catharine's. Formerly Fellow of 

Caius. 
Edward Steere, LL.D. (Lond.), Bishop 

of Central Africa. 
Robert Henry Cobbold, M.A., Peter- 
house. 
Edmund Venablcs, M.A., Pembroke. 
Thomas Thomasou Perowne, B.D., 

*Corpus, Archdeacon of Norwiclu 
John Robert Laurie Emilius Bayley, 

B.D. (stat Eliz.), Trinity. 
Adam Storey Farrar, D.D. (Oxf.), 

Professor of Divinity at Durliau). 
John Mitchinsou, D.D. (Oxf.). Bishop 

of Barbados, 1873-81; Archdeacon 

of Leicester, 1886-99. Master of 

Pembroke College, Oxford, 1899. 
Louis George Mylue, D.D. (Oif.), 

Bishop of Bombay. 
Edward WhiteBenson, D.D., *Trinlty, 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 163 

188ti Lurd Alwyne Coiuptou, D.l)., Trinity, Lady Margaret's Professor of 

' "■ Diviuity. Master of Pembroke, 1903. 

1899 Edgar Jacob, D.D. (Oxf.), Bishop of 
Newcastle. IJishcp of St Albans, 
1903. 

1900 John Henry .Joshuii Ellison, M.A. 
(Oxf.). 

1901 (ieorge Wyndhani Kennion, M.A. 
(0.xf.), Bishop of Bath and Wells. 



Bishop of Ely. 

1887 Alfred Barry, D.D., 'Trinity, Bidiop 

of Sydney. 

1888 James Moorhouse, D.I)., St John's, 

Bishop of Manchester. 

1889 George Alfred Lefroy, M.A., Trinity. 

Bishop of Lahore, 1899. 

1890 George Frederick Maclear, D.D., 



Trinity. i 1902 Henry Hutchinson Montgomery, 

1891 William Boyd Carpenter, I).U., St, D.I)., Trinity. Bishop of Tasmania, 

Catharine's, Bishop of Uipon 1 1889-1901. 

1892 William Alexander, D.C.L. (Oxf.), ! 1903 Frederic Wallis, D. D., *Caiu8, Bishop 

Bishop of Derry and Raphoc. Arch- 1 of Welluigton, N.Z. 

I)ishop of Armagh, 1893. [ 1904 G. A. Lefroy, again (see 1889). 

1893 John Uichardson Selwyn, D.l)., \ 1905 Mwyn Hoskyns, D.l)., Jesus-, Bishop 

Trinity, Master of Selwyn. Bishop \ of Southwell. Bishop of Burnley, 

of Melanesia, 1877-90. , 1901-5. 

1894 .James l-MwardCowelIWeIldon,M.A., : 1906 .\rthur Mesac Knight, D.D., *Caius, 

*Kiiig's. Bishop of Calcutta, 1898 ; ! Bishop of Kaniroon. 

Dean of Manchester, 1906. i 1907 William Cunningham,'D.D., *Trinity, 

1895 Reginald Stephen Coplestone, D.D. i .\rchdeacon of VAy. 
(Oxf.), Bishop of Colombo. Bishop i 1908 Charles Owen Leaver Rilev, D.D., 



of Calcutta, 1902-13. 

1896 Samuel Thornton, D.D. (Oxf.), Bishop 

of Ballarat. 

1897 n. B. Whipple, D.D., Bishop of 



Caius, Bishop of Perth, Western 
Australia. 

1909 ArthurWilliamRobinson.D.D., .Tesus. 

1910 Arthur John Maclean, D.D., King's, 



Minnesota. ' Bishop of Moray, Ross, and Caith- 

1898 Arthur James Mason, D.D., *Jesus, ness. 

IFor a continuation of tliis list since 1910 see the Univertity Calendar.] 

COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

The earliest Commemorations were those of particular persons 
on whose behalf special endowments were provided. Thus, at least 
as early as 1276 the University held certain properties the rents 
of which were appUed to the maintenance of chaplains to 
pray for the soul of Roger de Heydon, the founder of the trust^. 
A similar and more durable foundation is that of the Thornton 
chaplaincy, established a little later to celebrate divine service 
for the soul of Nigel de Thornton-. A later instance of a some- 
what different kind is the indenture of Nov. 20, 1504, by which 
the University undertook, in consideration of a sum of £10 to 
be paid yearly at Michaelmas by the Abbot, Prior, and Convent 
of St Peter at Westminster, to 'hold and kepe a solempne anni- 
uersarie' on February IP in Great St Mary's Church, 'for the 
good and prosperous estate of the . . . kyng oure Souerayne lord 
duryng his lif , and for the prosperite of this his Realme ; And for 
the soule of the right excellent Pryhcesse Elizabeth late Quene 
of Englond his wif, and for the soules of their children and issue, 
and for the soules of the right excellent Prynce Edmond, late 
Erie of Richemond, fader to oure said Souerayne lord the kyng, 
and of all the other Progenitours and Auncestours of the same 
kyng our Soverayne Lord, and for the soule of the right excellent 
Pryncesse Margaret Countesse of Richmond and Derby, moder 

1 See Dr Stokes, The Chaplains and the Chajiel of the L'niversitij of Cambridge, 1256—1368, p. 3. 

•2 lb. p. .'5. 

3 Altered to May 8 by tlie Statutes of Elizabeth (1572). 

11—2 



164 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

to oure said Souerayne lord the kyng after hir decease; And 
after the decease of the said kyng oure Soverayne- lord, then 
and from thensforth as long as the World shall endure, to hold 
and kepe the said Anniuersarie yerely....'^ 

The effect of the Reformation was to abolish these various 
obits and exequies as superstitious and to substitute a more 
general Commemoration of Benefactors. Such a form had 
already been in use before the Reformation, in the Missa pro 
Befief actor ibus, copied into Stokes's Book at the Registry. This 
was mostly compiled in the reign of Henry VII, probably soon after 
1499, but some of the material is older. As would naturally be 
the case at this date, the medieval practice of praying for the souls 
of the dead is retained — Rogemus igitur ipsum qui omnium honorum 
est reiributor et remunerator pro omnibus benejactoribus istius uni- 
versitatis et promotoribus, specicUiter pro anima . . . item pro anima. . . . 
The long list of donors here given ^ includes many names 
which are not now commemorated, among them a predecessor 
of the Lady Margaret, Domina Maria Retforde, and ' Ricardus 
Mountfycher,' who may probably be identified with Richard de 
Montfichet, one of the twenty-five Barons elected to enforce the 
observance of Magna Carta. The list is also notable for the 
number of Bedells whose names it contains. These were for the 
most part rich men, and their benefactions are quite a feature of 
University history. The nature of these early benefactions is 
not as a rule specified, but many of them must have taken the 
form of the endowment of 'Chests' (see p. 16) from which loans 
could be made for the benefit of poor students. This form of 
benefaction was closely associated with the custom of prayers 
for the dead, as not only did the University celebrate a mass 
once a year for the soul of the pious founder, but every borrower 
from the Chest was required to say certain paters and awes for 
the repose of the donor's soul^. 

On February 11, 1640, when John Cosin, afterwards Bishop 
of Durham, was Vice- Chancellor, a Grace of the Senate was 
passed appointing a Syndicate to consult the archives and to 
draw up a scheme for a solemn Commemoration of Benefactors 
to be held on the Sunday next before the third of November in 
every year*. A revised Form of Service for this occasion was 
adopted by Grace of 3 July 1668^ 

The Statutes of 1882 require a Commemoration of Benefactors 
to be held in the University Chm-ch at such time and in such 
manner as the University may prescribe by Grace. The latest 
revision of the Service as a whole is that adopted by Grace of 
June 5, 1873, but since then the day of Commemoration has been 

1 Endownkent*, pp. :*., 5. 

2 An account of the Benefactors included in the M'ista pro Benefitcloribiis is given in a paper bjr 
Dr Stokes on 'Early University Property' (Cambridxe Antiquarian Society, Communieatioru, no. mi, 
1909). 

:t flra^e-Book A.p.xVu. 4 Cooper. /< imn/s, iiL 296. -I /». p. ."BS. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORiS 165 

altered to the first Sunday in November (Gr. I June 1882) and 
the time of the Service has been changed to the afternoon (Gr. 
14 October 1886). A revised List of Benefactors to be read at 
the Service was approved by Grace of June 4, 1891, [and a further 
revision of the List was approved by Grace of June 12, 1914. 
This restored certain names of Benefactors of ancient date, e.g. 
those of Stephen de Segrave, Chancellor of the University early 
in the fourteenth century, and Sir Richard de Whittington, who 
were commemorated in medieval times ; and removed the name 
of Sigebert, King of the East Angles, on the ground that the 
connexion of his School with the beginnings of the University 
was too dubious to justify the reference to him in the form 
hitherto adopted. In order to shorten the time taken in reading 
the List, it was provided that the titles of the Benefactors, 
their degrees, the Colleges to which they belonged, and other 
descriptions of them, should for the most part not be read, and 
this was indicated to the Preacher in the official form by the use 
of italics. The dates of the several Benefactions, and short 
descriptions of them, were added in the margin. In the form 
as printed below the italics are not used, as they are a 
direction to the Preacher only, and somewhat interfere with 
the literary effect of the Service; the marginal notes are also 
omitted, the necessary dates and descriptions being given more 
fully in footnotes.] 

In its present form the Service consists of versicles and 
responses. Psalms cxlviii, cxlix, and cl, the lesson from Eccle- 
siasticus, xliv to v. 16, 'Let us now praise fam'ous men,' and a 
sermon, ending with the Te Deum, the Salutation, a Collect, and 
the Benediction. Immediately after the Sermon the Preacher 
reads the 'Form of Commemoration,' as follows: 

And now, according to our bounden duty and in obedience to the 
Statutes of tlie University, let us thankfully commemorate before 
Almighty God all our pious Founders and Benefactors by whose 
noble liberality the glory of God hath been advanced, Christian 
Religion and good learning projiagated, and this our mother University 
endowed with special benefits and enlarged with manifold and singular 
privileges 

Among whom in the forefront stand the Kings and Princes of this 
i"ealm, through whose protection and encoui'agement the study of 
learning grew and prevailed i. Growing up from small beginnings 
whereof there is no clear record, our University was notably en- 
couraged by King Henry the Third, who by Letters Patent conferred 
upon us many privileges and immunities, which have I)een confirmed 
and increased by later Sovereigns and by Parliament. More especially, 
Queen Elizabeth, besides divers other provisions for our better 
maintenance and welfare, gav^ us the Statutes by which we were 

1 The reference to Kinpc Sieebert removed in 19H was inserted here as follows:— 'And here first we must 
record, as it hath been handed down l)y our early historians, the foundation of a School by SiGEBERT, Kin(c 
of the East Andes, in the seventh century.' 



166 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

governed until 1858, when new Statutes were confirmed by Queen 
Victoria. 

But. in addition to these public marks of favour and protection, 
we are bound most gratefully to commemorate those acts of personal 
munificence which we have received at the hands of divers Sovereigns 
of this realm : 

Queen Eleanor, wife of King Edward the First, gave us fifty 
marks for the use of poor Scholars. 

King BicHARD THE Third, and, after him. 

King Henry the Seventh, by their liberality greatly promoted the 
building of this sacred place wherein we are now met. 

King Henry the Eighth, Founder of Trinity College, established 
the five Regius Professorships of Divinity, Law, Physic, and the 
Greek and Hebrew Languages. 

King James the First grante<l the rectories of Somersham and 
Terriugton as an endowment to the Begins and Lady Margaret's 
Professorsliips of Divinity respectively. 

King George the First purchased and presented to the University 
the entire library of John Moore i, Bishop of Ely, formerly Fellow of 
Clare College, and further gave a sum of two thousar(fl pounds to 
provide for its suitable reception. He likewise instituted the Lord 
Almoner's Beadership in Arabic and a Professorship for the encourage- 
ment of the study of Modern History and Modern Languages. 

King George the Second, from a like affection to the well-being of 
the University, gave us a sum of two thousand pounds for i^ublic 
uses, and by the example of his munificence gave great assistance 
towards the buUding of the Senate-House. 

Next to these Royal Benefactors we must commemorate the names 
of those who have provided endowTaeut for the study and encourage- 
ment of the various branches of leai-niug. First among these stands 
the i-eligious Lady M.uigaret, mother of King Henry the Seventh, 
Countess of Bichmond and Derby, Foundi-ess of the two CoUeges of 
Christ's and St John's, who in 1502 established and endowed our 
earliest Professorship, the Lady Margaret's Beadership in Divinity, 
and also, two j'ears afterwwds, settled an aiumal stipend upon a 
public Preacher. For other Professorships and similar endowments 
we are indebted to the following primary Benefactors : 

Sir BoBERT Bede2, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, sometime 
FeUow of Kings Hall ; 

Sir Thomas Adams '^, Alderman of London ; 

Henry Lucas*, of St John's College, sometime one of the Represen- 
tatives in Parliament for this University ; 

John Knightbridge ^, Doctor of Divinity, Fellow of Peterbouse ; 

1 John Miwre (]6J6-in4', FeUow of Clare, B»ho|> of Norwich. 1691, and of By, 1707—14. collected a 
library which was famous throiigliout Europe. At his death he possessed nearly 29.000 books and 1,790 
manuscripts, and Dibdin calls tiim ' the father of black-letter collectors in this country.' The library was 
bouieht by the King for six thousand guineas and was given to the L'niversity by tlie advice of Lord 
Townshend iITISp. 

2 Sir Robert Hede took his degree from Buckingham College, afterw.irds Magdalene. He was made a 
Justice of the King's Bench In 1495, beinK soon afterwards knighted, and was promoted to be Cliief 
Justice of the Common Pleas in loO)5. He was one or the executors of Henry VII. At his death in 1519 be 
left bequests to Kiiig'.s and Jesus, as well as to the University, and also to the University of Oxford. The 
Rede Lectureships were establisheti by his executors in 1524. 

3 .Sir Thom.is .-Vdanis (1.586—16671, educated at Cambridge, was M-oiiter of the Drapers Company, 1639, and 
Lord Mayor of l.onilon, 1645. He was niaiie a knight and afterwards a baronet nt the Restoration. He 
founded in i6:J-2 the Professorship of Arabic which bears his name. 

4 Founder of the Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics (16631. He also gave a small collection of 
mathenkitical books to the Universiiv Library. He diJd in 166:5. 

5 Founder of the Knightbridge Professorship of Moral Philosophy (16S3). He took the B.A. Degree in 
1642 as a menilier of Wadham College, t>xford, Iwt migrated to Cambridge 3 May 1645, and five days later 
was a^lmitted to a Fellowship at Peterbouse. He dierl in 1677. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 167 

Dame Mary Sadleir i, of Kimpson, iu Hampshire ; 

Thomas Plume 2, Doctor of Divinity, Archdeacon of Rochester, 

formerly of Christ's College ; 
John Woodward ^, Doctor of Physic, of Pembroke College ; 
Thomas Lowndes*, of Overton, in Cheshire; 
John Norris*, of Witton, in Norfolk, formerly Fellow-Commoner 

of Trinity College ; 
Richard Jackson s, of Tarrington, in Herefordshire, sometime 

Fellow of Trinity College ; 
John Hulse'', of Elworth, in Cheshire, formerly of St John's 

College ; 
Charlotte Ramsden **, of Bath ; 
John Disney », of the Hyde, near Ingatestone, Fellow-Commoner of 

Peterhouse ; 
William Whewell^o, Doctor of Divinity, Master of Trinity College; 
Felix Slade h, of Halsteads, in Yorkshire ; 
Joseph BosworthI^, Doctor of Divinity, formerly Rawlinsonian 

Professor of Anglo- Saxon in the University of Oxford; 
Sir George Downing is, Baronet, of Gamlingay, in this County; 
Benjamin Hall KennedyI*, Doctor of Divinitj^ formerly Regius 

Professor of Greek, sometime Fellow of St John's College; 
Samuel Sandars 's, of Trinity College ; 
Norman Maccoll !<>, sometime Fellow of Downing College. 

To the bountiful provision thus made, and augmented in many 
cases by later Benefactions, this University stands indebted for the 
endowment of no fewer than twenty-five of the existing Professorships 
and Lectureships. These Founders, out of tlieir affection for the 
cause of liberal and Christian education, have supplied means for the 
instruction of our students. Others again have furnished encourage- 
ments to study and rewards of proficiency by the endowment of 

1 See p. 98. 

2 Thomas Plume (IttiO— 17WI was the founder of the Plumian Professorship of Astronomy (1701). He 
was educated at Chehnsford Grammar School, and afterw.irds entered at Christ's, taking the B.A. Decree in 
1650. Pepys and Evelyn, who attended his church at Greenwich on Sundays between 166.5 and 1669, 
commend his "excellent preaching' and 'very Kood sermons.' 

3 John Woodward (16&5— 1723) was Professor of Physic in Greshtim College, 1692, and F.R.S. 169;!. In 
1695 he was admitted to the Depi-ee of M.D. at Cambridge and became a member of Pembroke Hall. He 
bequeathed to the University (1727) land of the yejirly value of £150, £100 of which was to be used for tlie 
maintenance of a Lectureship, now the Woodw.irdi.in Professorship of Geology (founded 1728), and 
his collection of fossils which formed the nucleus of a Geological Museum. 

4 Thomas Lowndes (1692—1748) was Provost-Marslial of South Carolina. On his death he left property, 
mainly in Cheshire, to found the Lowndean Professorship of Astronomy (1749). 

5 John Norris (IZM— 1777) was educated at Eton and Cains. He left £120 a year for tlie foundation of a 
Professorship of Divinity, and £12 a year for a Prize in mone^ and books for an essay on a sacred subject, 
and to provide a sei-mon in Great St Mary's every Good Friday. It was largely owing to Norris's help 
that Richard Porson w,is sent to Eton. 

6 Richard Jackson (1700—1782?) bequeathed lands in Staffordshire to Trinity, for founding the Jack- 
sonlan Professorship of Natural Experimental Philosophy, and he also gave his library to Trinity. 

7 John Hulse (1708-1790) left to the University estates in Cheshire for the advancement and reward of 
religious learning (see p. 97). 

8 See the Ramsden Sermon, p. 162. 

9 John Disney (1779—1857), F.R.S., and l)arrister-,it-hiw of the Inner Temple, founded the Disney 
Professorship of .Archaeology (18.51), and left a valuable collection of marbles now in the Fitzwilliani 
Museum. 

10 Dr Whewell (1794—1866) established in the University (1867) by will the Whewell Professorship and 
Scholarships in Internationa] Liw, maintained from the rents of Wliew'ell's Court at 'Trinity, which 
was built at his expense. During his life he had also given (1832) his mineralogical books and collections. 

11 Felix Slade (1790—1868) left £;i5,000 by will for the endowment of Professorships for promoting the 
study of the Fine Arts at Oxford and Cambrid.:ie and at University Colteiie, London, witli an additional 
endowment to the last of six .4rt Scholarships. He also left valuable collections to the British Museum. 
The Cambridge Professorship was founded in 1869. 

12 See tile Elrington and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon (p. 104). Bosworth (1789—1876) was 
educated at Repton and the University of Aberdeen, but he afterwards became a member of Trinity. 

13 The founder of Downing College and the Downing Professorships of Law and Medicine connected 
with it (ISOll). 

14 See the Professorship of Latin (p. 101). 

1.5 See tlie Sandars Readership in Bibliography (p. 151). 

16 Norman Maccoll (184:1—1904) was editor of the Athenaeum, 1871—1900. He endowed the Norman 
Maccoll Lectureship in Spanish and Portuguese, and left his Spanish books to the University Library (19a5). 



168 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

numerous Studentships, Scholarships, and Prizes. At the head of 
these last, stands the name of John Lord Craven i, who in 1648 founded 
those Scholarships which have inseparably connected his name with 
the study of the Classical literature of Greece and Rome in this 
counti-y. Among those who have followed this notable example and 
have promoted the study of various branches of learning and science, 
we are particularly boimd here to commemorate the following 
fonndei-s of Benefactions which for the most part bear their names : 

William Worts 2, of Landbeach, in this County, formerly of 

St Catharine's College ; 
Thomas Seaton s, sometime Fellow of Clai"e College ; 
William Battie*, Doctor of Physic, sometime Fellow of King's 

CoUege ; 
Robert Smith 3, Doctor of Divinity, Master of Trinity CoUege; 
Sir William Browne "5, Doctor of Physic, formerly of Peterhouse ; 
John Norris and John Hulse, before mentioned; 
Jonathan Davies', Doctor of Divinity, Pi'ovost of Eton, sometime 

Fellow of King's CoUege; 
William Bell '^, Doctor of Divinity, sometime FeUow of Magdalene 

CoUege ; 
John Crosse '■*, Vicar of Bradford ; 
Robert Tyrwhitt i", sometime FeUow of Jesus CoUege ; 
Richard BurneyH, of Chi-isfs CoUege; 
John Barnes, in memory of his brother, Thomas Barnes 12^ of 

Pembroke CoUege; 
Willl\m Whewell, before mentioned; 
John Abbott i^, of Halifax ; 
James Amiraux JeremieI^, Dean of Lincoln, sometime Regius 

Professor of Di\inity and FeUow of Trinity CoUege ; ■ 

1 John Craven, the first Lord Craven, was the second son of Sir William Craven (1548 ?— 16181, one of the 
benefactors of St John's College, Oxford, who was Lord Mayor of London for 1610— U. He left large 
charitable bequests, including Scholarships at Oxford and Caxubrid;;e. and money for redeeming captives 
In .Ugiers. 

2 B.A. 1688. He left his estate in trust to pay £S0 yearly to Charity Schools in Cambridge: to build 
galleries in Great St Mary's for the use of Bachelors and Undergraduates ; to build a causeway firom 
Emniainiel to tlie Hills ; and to pay £100 a year to each of two Bachelors who are to travel in foreifm 
countries and send home reports of what they observe isee p. 262'. The residue »-as left to the University 
Librar)'- 

3 Tliomas Seaton 11684—1741 1 WM the founder of the Seatonian Prize (see p. 289i. 

4 William Battie 11704—17761. Craven Scholar, 172.5. establisiied the Scholarship which beats his name by 
deed of gift in 1747 and during his lifetime he nominated the .Scholars. 

5 Robert Sniitli (1689— 1768i was educated at Leicester Grammar School. He was Plumian Professor of 
Astronomy. 1716 ; F. R.S. 1718 ; and succe«i»l Bentley a.« Master of Trinity, 17-12. Besides large benefactions 
to Trinity, he left £3-500 to the University to augment the salary of the Plumian Professor and to establish 
the Smith's Prizes. 

6 Sir William Browne (1650—177-1), F.R.S. 1739. knighted 1748, President of the College of Ph.vsi<:ians 
176.5 and 1766, founded a classical scholarship and the Browne Medals for Greek and Latin Composition. 

i Jomtthan Davies (1736—1809) was edurated at Eton, and was at first an assistant master and afterwards 
Headmaster. He was a Canon of Windsor, 17S1 -91, .ind Provost of Eton, 1791—1809. Besides benefactions 
to Eton and King's, he left £1000 to the Un jversitv to found the classical scliolarsliip which bears his name. 

8 William Bell (17:il— I8I61, 8th Wrangler, 17.53, Prebendary of Westminster and Treasurer of t>t Paul's 
Cathedral, transferred to the University in 1810 £15,300 to found Scholarships for the sons or orphans of 
cler^ of the Church of England. 

9 John CYosseil(;)9— 18161, Vicar of Bradford, graduated in 1768 from St Edmund's Hall. Oxford, and 
ijicorporated B..A. as a member of King's in 1776. He bequeathed £2000 to the University to found the 
Cr<Bse Theological Scholai^hips. 

10 Robert Tyrwhitt (]r3.5— 18171 was the brother of Thomas T>rwhitt, Clerk of the House of Commons, 
the critic who exposed the forgeries of Cliatterton. He left £4000 to the University to foimd Hebrew 
Scholarships. 

11 In 1845 Richard Burney, a nephew of Madame D'.\rblay, gave the University £?.500 to establish an 
annual Prize for an Englisli essay. He was born in India and hved for some time there : and had .ilready 
given in 1842 the jncKiel of the Taj Mahal, now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

12 Thom.-\s Barnes (178.5—18411, a member of the Uterary circle to which Hunt, Lamb, and Hazlitt 
belonged, was Editor of the Times from 1817 mitil his death. His brother's gift of £-2000 did not become 
operative until 1967, when the first Barnes Scholar was elected. 

13 John Abbott, a retired merchant at Halifax, who died in 18(0, bequeatlie<I £10,000 to trustees for the 
foundation of Scholarships at Oxford and Camhridj4e. 

14 In 1S70 James Arainuix Jereniie (1802— 18721 gave £1000 for the establishment of the Septuagint Priies 
which bear his name. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 169 

Edmund YorkeI, formerly Fellow of St Catharine's College; 

John Stewart 2, of Eaiiuoch ; 

Joseph Barber LightfootB, Doctor of Divinity, Bishop of 

Durham, sometime Fellow of Trinity College; 
John Lucas Walker^, of Trinity College; 
John Noble s, of Henley on Thames ; 
Augustus Arthur VanSittart", sometime Fellow of Trinity 

College ; 
Joseph Gedge 7, of Gonville and Caius College ; 
Ashley William Graham Allen «, of Trinity Col'ege, in memory 

of his gi-andfather, Joseph Allen, D.D., Bishop 01 Ely ; 
Henry Tvson-', of Kendal; 
Margaret Pearson, of Penrith, in memory of her brother Robert 

Harkness 1", of St John's College ; 
Eebecca Flower Squire ", of Stoke Newnigton ; - 
Thomas Wiltshire 12, Honorary Doctor of Science, of Trinity 

College ; 
Frank McClean i», of Trinity College ; 
Gordon Taylor Bentinck WiganI^, of Trinity College; 
Frederick James Quick 1^, of Trinity Hall; 
lloBERT Pearson BreretonK', of Jesus College; 
Charles James Oldham i^, of Brighton; 
Constance Emily Warr, of Kensington, in memory of lier husband, 

George Charles Winter WarrI", of Trinity College. 

Besides these we would gratefully record the Scholarships, Prizes, 
and other Endowments for the advancement of learning which have 
been established from time to time, since the year 1800, to preserve 
among us the memory of those who have left us examples of excellence 
in their several kinds, namely : 

] Ediiiuiid Yorke, who died in 1871, left about fitSOO to tlie Masters of Trinity and Magdalene in trust 
for the estiiblisliment of I'rizes for an Essay on tlie Law of Priinogeniture ; l)Ut the terms of the bequest 
were modified with tlie consent iif tlie Court of Chancery, and the Yorke Prize was established in 187n. 

•2 See p. -.'80. 

3 The Lightfoot Scholarships in Ecclesiastical Historj; were established and the resulations for them 
drawn up by Dr Liglitfoot in 1870. He also devised by will iiart of his library to the Uivinity School. 

4 John Lucas Walker, LL.B. 18B7, left £10,000 to his friend Sir Richard Webster, then Attorney- 
General, and afterwards Lord Alverstoiie and Lord Chief Justice of England, in trust for the promotion 
of scientific and literary research. Sir Richard Webster decided to use it to establish in 1^ a Fund and 
Studentship for the furtherance of original research in Pathology. 

.') Founded the Winchester Reading Prizes anonvmously in IStJ?. His name was not made public until 
1888. . 

(i B.A. IBV. Founded in 1865 a Prize in honour of Adam Sedgwick ; gave in ISM and in ]87ti oil- 
paintings to the Fitzwilliani Museum ; and presented in 1878 to the Museum of Geology the collection of 
fossils formed by Dr King. 

7 M.B. ISK). He was niedicitl officer to Sir Samuel Bilker's Egyptian Expedition, and died at Khartoum, 
1870, bequeathing £1000 to the University for tlie establishment of the Gedge Prize for Physiology (18.-I7). 

8 B.A. 18()0, Died July 1, 1893. He bequeathed £10,000 to the University, and the Allen Scholai-ships 
were established in 1898. Dr Joseph Allen was Bishop of Bristol. 18:M— «, and Bishop of Ely, lS:i6-^5. 

il Died'March 27, 18.52. He left £300 for a gold medal for distinction in Mathematics and Astronomy, 
founded in 189:J. 

10 Robert Harkness (1816—1878) was Professor of Geology at Queen's College, Cork, 1853-78 : F.R.S. 1886. 
The Harkness Scholarships were established in 1885. 

11 Miss Rebecca Flower Squire, who died 26 November 1898, left her estate in tnist for the erection of a 
Law Library (see p. 255) and for the endowment of Law Scholjirships (see p. 283). 

12 B.A. 1850. Presented to the University in 1900 £200to foundaPrize for the encouragement of Geology 
and Mineralogy. He iiad already given in 1895 a collection of fossils to the Museum of Geology, and in 
If07 a collection of minerals to the Mineralogical Museum. 

13 B.A. 18.59. Gave £12,000 to the University in 1890 for the endowment of Studentships in memory 
of Sir l9a.ac Newton (see p. '279). In 1904 bequeathed manuscripts, early printed books, and objects of 
art to the Fitzwilliani Museum (see p. 227). 

14 B. A. 1873. Bequeatlied 900W. for promoting srientiflc education or research. This was transferred to 
the University in 19M and the Gordon Wigan Fund (see p. 284) was established in 1905. 

15 B.A. 18.59. He bequeathed his residuary estate to the University to form the Frederick James Quick 
Fund, for the promotion of study and research in vegetable and animal biology, from which the Quick 
Professorship of Biology was established in 1906. 

16 B.A. 1871. He bequeat 

(see p. 115) was established. 

17 Bequeathed £-5000 to the University from which the Olrlham Scholarships (see p. 285) were founded in 
1<K)7. 

18 See the (ieoree Charles Winter Wiirr Scholarship (p. 286). 



170 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

Sir Isaac Newton i, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, Represen- 
tative in Parliament for this University, Fellow of Trinity 

College ; 
William Pitt 2, for many years Prime Minister of the Crown, and 

Representative in • Parliament for this University, formerly of 

Pembroke College ; 
Richard Porson^, Regius Professor of Greek, sometime Fellow of 

Trinity College ; 
George Waddington *, Dean of Durham, and his brother Horatio 

Waddington^, both formerly Fellows of Trinity College and 

University Scholars; 
Sir Peregrine Maitland^, sometime Commander-in-Chief of the 

British Forces in Southern India; 
Charles Webb Le Bas", sometime Fellow of Trinity College; 
William, Carus 7, sometime Fellow of Trinity College; 
James Scholefields, Regius Professor of Greek, sometime Fellow 

of Trinity College ; 
Julius Charles Hare 9, Archdeacon of Lewes, sometime Fellow of 

Trinity College ; 
Adam Sedgw'ickIO, Woodwardian Professor of Geology, Fellow of 

Trinity College; 
Robert Wilson Evans 11, Archdeacon of Westmorland, sometime 

Fellow of Trinity College; 
W^illiam Harness 12, formerly of Christ's College; 

1 See the Isaac Newton Studentshii>s (p. 2791. Sir Isaac Newton himself gave £XI to the Fund for 
Ijuildinj! the s^enate House (1719— ;J4), and In 18R8 the Earl of Portsmouth presented to the University a 
collection of his manuscripts. 

2 In 1806 a committee of resident members of tiie Senate was appointed to collect subscriptions for the 
statue of William Pitt by NoUekens now in the Senate House, and as the amount subscribed was 
considerably in excess of that required, it was decided to found the Pitt Scholarsliip (see p. 2W) with the 
remainder, wliich was au^^mented by a gift of £5(X) from the London Pitt Club. In 1824 the surplus of 
anotiier subscription for a statue to be placed in Hanover Stjuare was assigned by the subscribers to * the 
erection of a liandsome and appropriate building at Cambridge connected with tjie University Press ; such 
building to bear the name of Mr Pitt.' The sum contributed was £90(X). 

3 In 1792. when Person's Fellowship at Trinity expired, nearly £2000 was collected to purchase an 
annuity for him, but he declined to accept more than the interest on tliissum. and at bis death in 18C>8 part 
of it was appUed to the engraving t)y William J^harp of the portrait of Porson by Hoppner, now in the 
University Library : to tlie monument of Porson in Trinity Chapel ; and to the foundation of the Porson 
Prize in 1816 (see p. 316J. The residue was allowed to accumulate and was eventually employed to found 
the Porson .Scholarsliip in 18.55 (see p. 271). 

4 In 1870 Miss Anne Wmldington and Miss Clara Waddington rave £.3000 to found a Classical Scholar- 
ship in memor^• of tlieir brothers, George WaddiJigton, B.A. 1815, Dean of Duriiam, 1840—69, and Horatio 
Waddington, B.A. 1820 ,Under*Secret:iry of State for the Home Department. i 

B Sir Peregrine Maitland (1777— 18-W) connnanded the first Brigade of Guards at Waterloo. He was 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, 1818—28 : and of Nova Scotia, 1828— M ; commander-iil-chief of the 
Madras army, 18:16 — 8 ; and Governor at the Cape, 1843—6. The Prize bearing his name was founded in 
1844 ijy subscribers to commemorate his action in resigning his Indian command 'ratlierthancomitenance 
the paiticipation of the troops in idolatrous ceremonies.' 

6 Charles Webb Le Bas (1779—1861) was Mathematical Professor and Dean of the East India College, 
Haileybury, 1813 — iU, and Principal, 18:W— 4;i. The Le Bas Prize was establislied in 1848 by members of 
the Indian Civil Service who had been students under him. 

7 In 1852 several frienils of the Rev. William Carus, M.A. (B.A. 1827), Canon of Winchester, desirous of 
testifying their regard for him, raised a Fund of STM to found Prizes for the encouragement of the 
accurate study of the Greek Testament. In IS'Si Mr Carus liimself oftered a further £500 in augmentation 
of the Fund, and in 1894 an anonymous donor gave £100 'as a tliank-oifering for the instniction received 
by him, while an undergraduate, from the late Canon Carus, especially in his Sunday evening addresses in 
the room over Trinity Gate.' 

8 .lames Scholefield was Regius Professor of Greek from 1825 till his death in'1853. In the following year 
it wa.s decided to establish a memorial to him, and the Greek Testament and Septuagint Prize which liears 
his name was fo\mded in 18t6. 

9 The Hare Prize was founded in 1861 by some friends of Archdeacon Hare (179.5—1856) ' to testify their 
admiration for liis character, and tlie high sense they entertain of his services to learning and religion.' His 
collection of Italian oil-paintings was offered to the University by his widow in 1855, and is now in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum. 

10 Professor Adam Sedgwick (1785—1873) is now commemorated in Cambridge by the Sedgwick Prize 
(p. 327), founded in 1865 by the late Mr VanSittart ; by the Sedgwick Museum of Geology (p. 24;!), com- 
pleted in 1903 ; and by a bronze statue by Onslow Foi\l, R. A., to tlie cost of which the late Professor Selwyn 
gave £.500. 

11 The Evans Prize was founded in 1869 by some friends of Archdeacon Evans (1789—1866). He was 
ap|>ointed Classical Tutor of Trinity in 1814 and resided until 1836. 

12 The Harness Prize for an e.ssay upon some subject connected with Shakespearean literature was 
founded by subscriljers in 1871 as a memorial to the Rev. William Harness (1790— ISiiS), the editor of 
Shakespeare, Massinger, and Ford. He was a friend and correspondent of Lord Byron. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 171 

John KayeI, Doctor of Divinity, Bishop of Liucolu, sometime 

Master of Christ's College; 
George Long 2, sometime Fellow of Trinity College ; 
Geobge Williams^, sometime Fellow of King's College ; 
CoNNOP Thirl WALL*, Bishop of St David's, sometime Fellow of 

Trinity College ; 
Ai^BERT^, Prince Consort, Chancellor of the University ; 
James Clerk Maxwell 6, Professor of Experimental Physics, some- 
time Fellow of Trinity College ; 
Francis Maitland Balfour'', Professor of Animal Morphology, 

Fellow of Trinity College; 
Guy Lushington Prendergast^, formerly of Trinity College ; 
John Couch Adams 9, Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and 

Geometry, sometime Fellow of St John's College, and afterwards 

Fellow of Pembroke College ; 
Fenton John Anthony HortIO, Lady Margaret's Professor of 

Divinity, sometime FeUow of Trinity College, and afterwards 

Fellow of Emmanuel College ; 
Sir John Robert SeeleyH, Regius Professor of Modern History, 

sometime Fellow of Christ's College, and afterwards Fellow of 
.Gonville and Caius College; 



1 John Kaye (1783— 1&53I, Master of Clirist's, 1814—30 ; Regiiis Professor of Divinitj-. 1816-27 : Bishop of 
Bristol, IB-JO— 7 ; Blshoi) of Lincoln, 1827-5:! ; is commemorated in the University by a Prize bearing his 
name (see p. :i27) founded in 18(il from tl>e surplus of a Fund originally raised tj erect a monument to liim 
in Lincoln Cathedral. 

2 George Long (1800—1879) was bracketed Craven Scholar in 1821 with Lord Macaulay and Henry 
Maiden, Professor of Greek at University College, London, 1831—76, and gained a Trinity Fellowship over 
their heads. He. was one of the founders in 18:i0 of the Royal Geographical Society, and both as a teacher 
and writer exercised much influence upon English classical scholarship ; and his two ' Discourses on Roman 
Law,' published in 1817, greatly contributed to the revival of the study of that subject. After his death 
some of his pupils and friends raised a fund of £")00 to establish in 1881 a Prize for Roman Law and Juris- 
prudence as a memorial of him. 

3 George Williams H811— 1878), B.D. ]M,f». was Dean of King's, 1846— 50, and Vice-Provost, 1854-7 ; he 
was Vicar of Ringwood from 1869 until his (leatli. His friends collected jKXiO to found the George William.<t 
Prize .(see p. 334) in his memory : a bronze tal)let, with a portrait bust in relief, designed by W. Burgess, 
R.A., was also placed in one of the side-chapels at King's. 

4 ConnoD Thirlwall (17SI7— 1875) was Junior Dean and Junior Bursar of Trinity between 1827 and 183"J, 
and in 1832 he was appointed Assistant Tutor on Wliewell's side, but aft«r holding that office for two years 
he was required to resign in consequence of his ' Letter on the Admission of Dissenters Jo Academical 
Degrees,' published in reply to Dr Thomas Turton's 'Thoughts on the admission of Pei-sons, without 
regard to their Religious Opinions, to certain Degrees in the Universities of England.' Not long after 
Lord Brougham offered him the living of Kirby Underdale, and it was tliere that he completed his Hititory 
of Greece, the first volume of which had been written in Cambridge. He wjis appointed to the Bishopric 
of St David's by Lord Melbourne in 1840, and held it until 1874. He died at Bath in 1875 and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey in the same grave with Grote. In 1884 the Tbirlwall Prize (see p. 336) was instituted 
in his memory. 

5 The Prince Consort Prize (see p. 3:i5) was founded in 188:! from the suri>lus of the Cambridge 
Memorial Fund, amountin;^ to nearly £1800 left after providin.g for the statue by Foley now in tlie 
Entrance Hall of the FitzwiUiam Museum. In 1819 the Prince Consort presented to the University a 
portrait of himself by Saye, and in 1854 he established the Chancellor's Medal for Legal .Studies 
(see p. ;!25). 

6 See p. 103, note 4. In 1890 the Clerk M.ixwell Scholarship (see p. 279) was founded in'a<'cordance with 
the will of .^Irs Clerk Maxwell, who also bequeathed to the Cavendish Liiboratory all her husband's 
scientific books. 

7 The Balfour Fund and Studentship (see p. 276) were establishetl in 188:i in recognition of the value of the 
scientific work and teaching done by Francis MaiUand Balfour (B.A. 1874), who lost his life in the Alps. 
19 July 1882 (see p. 105, note 2). His family gave his scientific Ubrary to the University for the use of 
the Morphological Laboratory, and presented a number of works on general science to tlie Philosophical 
Library. 

8 The Prenderga-st Greek Studentship (see p. 278) was founded in 1888 by Mrs Prendergast to commem- 
orate her husband. Colonel Prendergast, who had kept ten terms at Trinity and ha^l * there acquired his 
great love for literature in general and for Greek literature in particular.' Colonel Prendergast matricu- 
lated 13 November 1824, but did not proceed to a degree. 

9 See p. 92, note 4. Tlie Adams Prize was foimded in 1848 by meml>ers of St John's College 'in 
testimony of their sense of the honour he has conferretl on his College and the University by liaving been 
the first among the Mathematicians of Europe to determine from the jjerturbations the unknown place of 
a disturbing Planet exterior to Uranus.' 

10 See p. 74, note 2. The Hort Memorial Fund for the promotion of Biblical and Patristic research 
was established by subscription in 1894. 

11 Sir John Seeley died 13 January 189.5, and in the following June a meeting was held in the Senate 
House to promote a memorial of him. This took the form of a bronze medal for History (see p. 3391, the 

fift to the University of a replica of a portrait by Frau Ewald of Berlin, and an endowment for the Seeley 
lemorial Library (see p. '2561. 



172 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

William Ewart Gladstone \ Honorary Doctor of Law, for many 
years Prime Minister of the Crown; 

Henry SIDG\^^CK2, Doctor of Letters. Fellow of Trinity College, 
sometime Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy; 

Raymond John Horton- Smiths, of St John's College; 

John Hopkinson *, sometime Fellow of Trinity College ; • 

John Emebich Edward Baron Acton ^, Honorary Doctor of Law, 
Regius Professor of Modem History, Honorary Fellow of 
Trinity College ; 

John Stedby Winbolt ^, of Trinity College ; 

Sir Leslie Stephen^, Honorary Doctor of Letters, sometime 
Fellow of Trinity Hall; 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb ^, Doctor of Lettera, Regius Pro- 
fessor of Greek, Representative in Parliament for this Univer- 
sity, Fellow of Trinity College. 

Furthermore, John Crane ", Master of Arts, an Apothecary in this 
town, besides bequeathing his dwelling house for the use of the Regius 
Professor of Physic, left a considerable estate for the relief of sick 
and poor Scholars. 

A pension fund for the benefit of Members of the UniveKsity and 
their families was foundetl by Henry Latham lo, Master of Trinity 
Hall. 

The Benefactors to the various institutions of the University, the 
Librai-y, the Press, the Museums, the Botanic Garden, and the 
Observatory, are far too numerous to be all recited here. Theii- 
names and benefactions are recorded in the registers of the several 
institutions, as a lasting memorial of their liberaUty and a testimony 
of our gratitude. We ai-e bound nevertheless on this occasion to 
comjnemorate severally the principal Founders and most notable 
Benefactors. 

The Library had its first beginning in a collection of books 
beiiueathed by Richard Home, Licentiate of Laws, Master of King's 
Hall, in 1424. Large additions were made by gift and bequest from 
various sources in later years, ijre-eminently by the mmiiticence of 

1 The Committee of the Liberal Memorial to Mr Gladstone established Gladstone Memorial Prizes, to be 
jdven in books, at certain Universities for proficiency in History, Political Science, and Economics. The 
Cambridge Prize was founded in 1901. 

- See p. 84, note 10. In 1901 some of Professor r^id^wick's friends and colleajjues sui)«cribed £^50 for a 
memorial of him. and this took the form of a University Lectureship in Moral Science (see p. 126i. Professor 
Sid^ick was durine bis lifetime a generous i>enefactor to the University. In addition to gifts which were 
anonymous, in 1SS9 ne gave £1.tOO towards a new Physiological Laboratory, and in 1896 he undertook to 
contribute £200 a year towards the stipend att.Tched to the proposed Professorship of Mental Philosophy 
and Logic. 

3 In 1900 a Prize for the encouragement of Medicine and Pathology (see p. ;J:19i was founded b)' Mr 
Richard Horton-Smith, M.A., K.C., lat« Fellow of St John's, in memori- of his third son, who after a dis- 
tinguished career in the University and at St Thomas's Hospital, died 8 October, 1899, in the twenty-seventli 
year of his age. 

4 In 1S98 Mrs Hopkinson and her surviving son and daughter— the former now Professor of Mechanism 
in the University— gave £5000 towards an extension of the Engineering Laboratory, as a memorial to her 
husband, John Hopkinson, and her son, John Gustave Hopkinson, who were killed in the Alps in August 
189a 

5 Iinme<Iiately after Lord .Acton's death in 1902, his valuable historical library at Aldenham, containing 
over 59,000 volumes, was bought In- .Mr .Andrew Carnegie, and was presented by him to .Mr John Morley 
(now Viscount Morley). In 19aj Lord Morley gave it to the University. 

« B.A. 1864; M.A. 1867. Founder of the winbolt Prize (see p. 'HI). He was engineer to the Great 
Eastern Railway. 

7 The sum of £630. contributed by the friends of the late Sir Leslie Stephen, was accepted by the 
University in 1905 for the endowment of a Lectureship in Literature (see p. 153(. 

8 See p. -50, note 2. 

9 Seep. •2B1. In addition to these bequests, John Crane (1572— 16521 left to the University and Town £100 
* to be lent freely to two honest men. .to buy provision of seafish or fowle the l>etter to serve the Vniversitie 
and Towne ' ; Fuller adds that Crane had ' dMerved much sickness occasioned by unwholesome food in tliat 
kind.' llie house in Market Street is now leased to Messrs W. Eaden Lil'ey & Co. In accordance with his 
will Crane is "decently buried in Great St Maryes Chauncell in C-mibridg.' 

10 See p. V>. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORy 173 

Thomas Hotherham i, Archbishop of York, and Master of Pembroke 
College, sometime Fellow of King's College, and Chancellor both 
of England and of this Universitj' ; 

William Worts'^, of Landbeach, foi-merly of St Catharine's College, 
who, after certain specified benefactions to the University, 
bequeathed the residue of his jiroperty for the use of the Library ; 
and 

King George tlie First •', before mentioned. 

Of other chief Benefactors, we ai'e bound more particularly here to 
mention the following : 

Walter Crome ^ Doctor of Divinity, formerly Fellow of (ronville 

College ; 
Andrew Perne •'', Doctor of Divinity, Dean of Ely and Master of 

Peterhouse, sometime Fellow of Queens' CoUege; 
Thomas Lorkin'', Eegius Professor of Physic, sometime Fellow 

of Queens' CoUege, and afterwards Fellow of Peterhouse; 
John Selden'?, Kepresentative in Parliament for the University of 

Oxford ; 
Richard Holdsworth **, Ladj' Margaret's Reader in Divinity, Dean 

of Worcester and Master of Emmanuel College, sometime Fellow 

of St John's College ; 
Henry Lucas •', before mentioned ; 
Tobias Rustat lo, formerly of Jesus College ; 
John Hacket", Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, sometime P'ellow 

of Trinity College ; 
John Louis Burckhardt ^\ of Lausanne, who, before his travels in 

the East, was for some time resident in this University ; 
John Manistre i3, sometime Fellow of King's College ; 

1 See p. 18. Thomas Rotherham (1423—1500) built the east side of tlie Schools quadran^ile ami save two 
liundrecl volumes to the Library on its first floor. He was also a benefactor to Oxford, and especially to 
Lincoln College. 

2 See p. I(j8, note -2. ;i See p. 166. 

4 On the Feast of St Husli, November 17, 1444, Dr Waiter Crome presented to the University a 
collection of books for the recently founded Library. 

a .See p. 23. Andrew Perue (1.519 »— 1589) was for many years engaged In strenuous and successful 
endeavours to obtain donations to the University Library, and on his death he left to it a number of 
books, with 40«. yearly to augment the stipsnd of a learned scholar for the safe keeping of the books there 
(Cooiier, Atheii. Cautabr. ii. 47). 

fi See u. 79, note 14. Thomas Lorkin (1528?— 1.5911 gave to the University 'all his physic books, or that 
appertauied to phvsic, to !» kept in the University Library in a great cupboard locKed ' (i6. ii. 102). lie 
also directed that a sermon should be preached for him yearly in Cambridge and that B«. 8d. should be paid 
to the preacher. He is buried at Great St Mary's. 

7 The greater part of the library of John Selden (1584—16.54), the famous jurist, went to the Bodleian, 
but in 1648 the House of Commons voted £.500 to purchase for the Univereity a collection of Hebrew books 
which had formerly belonged to an Italian Rabbi, Isaac Pragi, and Selden was one of the members 
engaged in the transaction. This collection was the foundation of our Hebrew library. 

8 See p. 73. note 7. Richard Holdsworth (1590—1649) left a large and valuable library of more than 
10,000 volumes. Tliere was for a time a dispute between the University and Ennnanuel with regard to it, 
but eventually the University paid the t'ollege £220 and acquired it. 

9 See p. 166, note 4. He gave to the University a small collection of mathematical books. 

10 Tobias Rustat (1606?— 16iM), in addition to a gift to the Library of St John's, a benefaction to St 
John's, Oxford, for the encouragement of ' the most indigent Fellows or Scholars,' and the benefaction to 
Jesus College which bears his name, gave in 1667 £1000 16 be spent in buying ' the choicest and most useful 
books for the public library ' of the University. In the deed of gift he indicates his motive in tlie foUowing 
terms :— ' I, Tobias Rustatt, Yeoman of the Robes to his most Sacreil Majestic Kin^ Charles the Second, 
being really sensible of the infinite goodnes of God by whose especiall favour and blessing upiwii niee (in his 
Majesties my most gi'acious Masters miraculous restauracion) I have obteined a comfortame estate, and 
calling to nunde that an obligacloii'lyes uupoii me, to be therefore truely thankefuU to the divine inajestle I 
have resolved to expresse the same in freely giveiiig some part of what I have received towanis the advance- 
ment of the true Religion now established in this Realme, good learning and the honour of God.' 

11 John Hacket (1592—16701, who restored Lichfield Cathedral after the Interregnum, gave £1200 to 
Trinity for the benefit of the College Library, and bequeathed all his books to the University Library. 

12 ,IoViii Louis Burckhardt (1784-18171, the famous traveller, spent six weeks in Cambridge in 1809. 
attending lectures on Cliemistry, Astronomy, and Medicine, studying Arabic, and ' inuring himself to hard- 
ship by making long w.ilks bareheaded, sleeping on the ground, and living on vegetables' (/>..V.A). He 
bequeathed to the University his valuable collection of Oriental manuscripts, becjiuse he there received his 
earliest lessons In Arabic. He succeesfully accomplished the pilgrinLige to Mecca in disguise. 

13 Joliii Manistre (B. A. 1789), who died in 1829, be<iueathed £■'5000 ou tniat for the purchase of books, ' in 
aid and augmentation of the (Jniversity Library. 



174 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

Henry Bhadshaw i, Librarian of the University, Fellow of King's 

College ; 
Sir Thomas Fhaxcis Wade 2, Honorary Doctor of Letters, fii'st 

Professor of Chinese, Fellow of King's College; 
CflABEEs Taylor*, Doctor of Divinity, Master of St John's College. 

The bailding of the Schools and Libraky has been carried on 
through more than five hundred years partly at the cost of the Uni- 
versity, and also by aid of the contributions of a long series of 
Benefactors, whose names, so far as they have come down to us, are 
recorded on tables preserved in the Library. Foremost among them 
we must ever gratefully remember these following, each more especi- 
ally in connexion with one portion of the Building : 

Sir WiLLL\M Thorpe *, Chief Justice of the King's Bench ; 

Sir John Fastolf^, Knight of the Garter; 

Thomas Rotherham^, Archbishop of York, before mentioned; 

Thomas Halford', of Jesus College ; 

Edward Grey Hancock*, sometime Fellow of St John's College. 

The Divinity School, which was completed in 1879, is due to the 
munificence of William Selwyn '\ Doctor of Divinity, during twenty 
years Lady Margaret's Reader in Divinity, sometime Fellow of St John's 
College. The Library of this School has been largely increased by the 
bequest of Joseph Barber Lightfoot i", Bishop of Durham, before 
mentioned. 

Rebecca Flower Squire h, before mentioned, left money for the 
erection of a Law Library, the purchase of books, and other kindred 
purposes. This Library was enriohed by a Fund, for the purchase 
and binding of foreign books, established in memory of Charles 
Henry Monro, Fellow of Gouville and Caius College. 

The Press stands indebted both to the munificence and to the 
exertions, on its behalf, of Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset^^, 
upwards of sixty years Chancellor of the University, who was greatly 
instrumental in re-establishing and restoring it in 1696. 



1 See p. 55, note 9. The surplus of the Henry Bradshaw Memorial Fund was applied in 18S6 to the 
purchase of books for the Libran', and the bust by Thom^'croft was placed there in 18S<. 

2 See p. 107. note 1, Sir Tliomas Wade ffive his collection of Chinese books to the Libraiy in 18^, 

3 See p. 2&. 

4 Sir William Tliorpe was appointe<l Chief Justice of the King's Bench, l:U6, but in ISSO he was sentenced 
to imprisonment and forfeiture for bribery. He was pardoned in l:t51, and was made second Baron of the 
Exchequer in the following year. He was the brother and heir of Sir Robert Thori>e (see p. 210K His 
executors built the old Dirinity School, now part of the Library, ' with a Chapel for the souls of the afore- 
said William and Grace hii wife,' .-md in l.'fSB they made an agreement with the Iniversity for a Service of 
t'ommemoratiou for them on May 6 and Nov. 19 in each year. 

5 Sir John Fastolf 11378 ?— 145B| contribute<l towards the building of the Philosophy Schools ; he was also 
one of the early benefactors of .Magdalen College, Oxford. John Paston, the author of the (neater part of 
the Paston Letters, was his neighbour and intimate friend, and FastolTs life in Norfolk is fully described 
in the Letters. 

<! See p. 173, note 1. 

7 In 1842 Thomas Halford iB.A. 1810! invested £2000 in the names of three trustees, to be applied to 
the completion of the Libniry. Tliis was transferred to the University in 1S51 ; it then amounted 
to £2W7. Mr Halford also gave, in IStSS. some pictures to the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

8 Edward Grey Hancock (B.A. 1855' bequeathed to the University his residuary estate, amounting to 
nearly £12,000, with no special restrictions as to the way in which it should be employetl. In 1^ it was 
decided to apply it to the erection of the Hancock Bailding of the University Library, 1867—90. 

9 Soon after his election to the Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity in 185-5, Professor Selwyn 
announced his intention of paying £700 a year to the University to augment the salary of the then 
Norrisian Professor, the Rev. Harold Browne. In 1864, Professor Browne having been made Bishop of 
Ely, the annual benefaction was devoted to a fund for the building of a Divinity School. This was begun 
in 1S77 and completed in 187^, when it was found that Professor Selwyn's benefaction had been sufficient 
to defray nearly the whole cost of the building exclusive of the Literary Lecture Rooms. He also gave £500 
towards the cost of the bronze statue of Professor Sedgwick bv Onslow Ford, R. A, (see p. 170, note 10). 

10 See p. ~3, note K. 11 See p. lt», uole 11. 

12 The Duke of .Somerset 1 1(362— 174?i also gave £50(5 to the fund for building the Senate House, 1719—31. 
A statue of him by Rysbrack was presented to the University in 17-56 by his daughters, Frances, Marchioness 
of Granby, and Charlotte, Lady Guernsey. 



COMMExMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 175 

The Museums in which our various collections of scientific objects 
are preserved, though some of them commenced at the cost of the 
University itself, yet in several instances owe their origin and fuller 
development to the devotedness and generosity of those whose names 
we specially recite on this occasion. 

Our earliest Museum, that of Geology, took its rise with the 
collection of English fossil remains bequeathed by John Woodwaed i, 
before mentioned, Founder of the Geological Professorship, in 1728. 
It was developed and largely increased by the untiring and devoted 
labours of Adam Sedgwick '■*, Fellow of Trinity College, and for fifty- 
five years Woodwardian Professor. 

The Botanical Library and Herbarium were founded by the 
liberality of John Mart yn •^, of Emmanuel College, Professor of Botany 
from 1732 to 1761 ; and were largely augmented by Charles Cardale 
Babington^, sometime Fellow of St John's College, Professor of 
Botany from 1861 to 1895. 

The Botanical Museum was founded by John Stevens Henslow^, 
of St John's CoUege, Professor of Botany from 1825 to 1861. 

The Anatomical Museum had its beginning in a collection pre- 
sented to the University in 1804 by Sir Isaac Pennington", Eegius 
Professor of Physic, formerly Fellow of St John's College. 

The Museums of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy were in 
great measure formed by the exertions and the gifts of William 
Clark', Doctor of Physic, sometime Fellow of Trinity College, and 
Professor of Anatomy from 1817 to 1866. 

Among other Benefactors who have enriched these Museums we 
would mention Robert MacAndrewS, who gave a collection of Shells, 
and an illustrative Library; Henry Bowman Brady 'J, who gave a 
collection of Foraminifera ; George Robert Crotch w, of St John's 
College, who gave a collection of Insects, and establislied a fund for the 
purchase of books ; Catharine Strickland, who gave an Ornithological 
collection, and Frances Strickland, who founded a Curatorship for 
the same 11; and Alfred Newton 12, Professor of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy, Master of Arts, Fellow of Magdalene College, whose 
benefactions included his Natural History Collections and Library. 

I See p. 167, note 3. He bequeatlied to the University two cabinets of English fossils, and two other 
cal^nets of his containing English and foreign fossils were purchased in 17^. 

2 See p. 91, note 5. 

3 See p. 90,, note 5. In 176.5 he presente<l to the University some 21X) botanical works, his hortus siccus 
of 2000 foreign specimens, drawings of fungi, and his collections of seeds and materia niedica. 

4 See p. 90, note 8. Professor Babington, who died in 1895, bequeiithed his collections and part of his 
library to the University. 

5 See p. 90, note 7. 

6 See p. 86. Sir Isaac Pennington ■ (1745— 1817) gave to the University a small but choice anatomical 
collection formed by Thomas Lawrence (1711—1783), Reader in Anatomy in the University of Oxford. He 
was also a generous benefiictor to his own College. 

7 See p. 68, note 2. 

8 The uequest was accepted by the University in 1873. 

9 Henry Bowman Brady (1835—1891) was the leading authority of his time on the Foraminifera, and his 
licport on the Foraminifera collected b^ H.M.S. Chtdlenutr ^Lol\don, 1884) is still a principal authority on 
them. In-1891 he be<iueathed to the University a collection of weapons, implements, and ornaments from 
the South Sea Islands. 

10 George Robert Crotch (B. A. 1864), by will dated 22 Jur.e 1872, bequeathed his collections of insects and 
books to the Museum of Zoology, and made provision for the eventual establishment out of his residuary 
estate of a fund for the purchase of books or specimens. 

II In 18ff7 the collection of bird skins, made by Hugh Edwin Strickland (1811— 18!53), Deputy Reader 
in Geology in the University of Oxford, was presented to the University by his widow ; and in 1874 the 
Curatorship was endowed by his sister. Mr Strickland was a grandson of Eilmund Cartwright, D.D., the 
inventor of the power-loom. He graduated in 1832 from Oriel College, Oxford, after attending Buckland's 
lectures on Geology. In 1853 he was killed by a train while examining a railway cutting at Clarborough. 

12 See p. W, note 4. 



176 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

The MiNERALOGiCAL MusEUM is specially indebted to the gifts of 
John Hume Ccst, Viscount AlfordI, of Trinity College, Charles 
Brooke"-, of St John's College, and Thomas Wiltshire*, of Trinity 
College. 

The Cavendish Laboratory was given to the University and 
provided with the necessary equipment for physical research by 
William, seventh Duke of Devonshire <, for thirty years Chancellor 
of the University. 

For the Botanic Garden the University was indebted in tlie fir^t 
instance, in 1762, to the liberality of Richard W.vlker^, Doctor of 
Divinity, Professor of Casuistiy, and Fellow of Trinity College: and 
among the many contributions to its improvement, we are lioflnd to 
commemorate the endowments it has received from 
Charles, Viscount Maynard", of Christ's College, and 
Edwaijd Betham', sometime Fellow of King's College. 

For the Fitzwilliam Museu.m we are indebted to the princely 
bequest of Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam'', formerly of Trinity 
Hall, who, in 1816, gave by will to the University his magnificent 
collection of Pictures, Engravings, and Books, together with a sum of 
one hundred thousand pounds, the interest to be employed primarily in 
the erection of a building to contain the Collection and m defraying the 
expenses of its maintenance. 

The collections have been increased from time to time by various 
donors, among whom may be specially mentioned Daniel Mesman^, 
John Ruskix i"^ Elizabeth Ellison ", Augustus Arthur 
VanSittart 1-, before mentioned, Richard Edward KerkichI^, of 
Christ's College, Richard PendleburyI^, Fellow of St Johns 
College, and Frank McCleanI^, before mentioned, and Francis 
Gray Smart i'', of Gonville and Caius College. 

1 In I'M! Lord Alfonl offered to the University throni;!! Dr Wliewell the mineralosical collection niade bf 
liis grandfather. Sir Abraham Hume (1749— 1S8', one of the founders of the Geological Society, and its Vice- 
President, 1808—13. 

2 The collection of shells and minerals fonned by Henry James Brooke (1771— 1857i, was presented to 
the University in 1857 by his son, Charles Brooke, M.A. 

3 TboDkis Wiltshire (B. A. l&jUl, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in King's College, London, 1881— 96, 
gave £2110 in 1900 to found the Wiltshire Prize (see p. :!40l. He liad already given in ISS a collection of 
fossils and in 18S>7 a collection of minerals and some scientific books. 

4 See p. 19. 

5 Richard Walker iltJTS— 17(Mi, Vice-Miuter of Trinity, conveye<l to the University in 17(iJ certain lands 
and garden grounds '.is a public Botjinic Garden for tlie use and benefit of the said University,' and dre»' 
up rules 'for the better regulating, ordering, and governing of the said Botanic Garden,' and in 1764 he 
secure*! to the L^niverslty an annuity of £-10 to be spent on the further improvement of the Garden (see 
p. 2141. He was also a .benefactor to Trinity. • 

6 Lord MaynanI, who died in 177.o, bequeathed £.500 ' for or towards erecting or beautifying any publick 
building or buildings for the University of Cambridge but sliall not be begun at the time of my decease, or 
for the use of tlie Public Pl)ysic Garden there.' "This was eventually applied in 1807 to the last namol 
purpose, when the bequest with accumulations amounted to £216:i. 

7 Edwi\rci Betliam 11707— 17Sii gave £2000 in 17S! for the "Ijetter support and maintenance' of the 
Botanic Garden, but he specially apprupriated the income of the benefaction 'towards defraying the 
expence of Laborers to be employed in the said Botanic Garden.' He was also a benefactor to Eton. 

8 Richard FiUwiliiam, seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam of Meryon (1745—18161, M.A. 1764; F.RS. 

9 In 18;t4 the University receiveil under the will of Daniel Mesman 2?1 pictures and drawings, the 
testator's brother, the Rev. Charles Mesman, having surrendered his life interest in the collection. Five 
ailditional pictures were subsequently bequeathed by Charles Mesman to the University. 

10 He gave in lail twenty-five water-colour drawings by Turner to the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

11 In 186:! .Mrs Ellison gave to the .Museum :!0 oil-|jaint!ngs bv English artists. 

12 See p. 169. note 6. 

13 Richard Edward Kerrich(B..A.1823), who died in 1872, bequeathed his collections to the University, 'to 
form an addition to the Fitzwilliam Collection,' together with £1000 for the purpose of ' keeping them in 
proper repair and condition.' .4s it was impossible to provide for the whole collection in the .Museum the 
bequest was renounced by the University, on the understanding that a selection should be made of the 
pictures, books, and prints. 

14 In 1880 Mr Pendlebuty presented 100 volumes of printed music to the Museum, and in each of the 
nine years following continued to present the same number. After that period he made yearly gifts of 
varying numl>ers of volimies until his death in 1902. 

la See p. 169. note 13. 

]« B.A. 18h7. The founder of the Frank Smart Studentship (p. 283) and Prizes (p. 34»|. 



COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 177 

The Museum of Akchaeology and of Ethnology, established m 1883 
by the gift of the collections belonging to the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, has been notably increased by many later gifts, among which 
may be mentioned the collection presented in 1884 by Sir Arthur 
Hamilton Gordon (Barou Stanmore), of Trinity College, and that 
bequeathed in 1891 by Walter K. Foster. 

Of the Benefactors to the Observatory, the following especially 
deserve a place in this public commemoration : 

Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland!, High Stewai'd and 
afterwards Chancellor of the University ; 

Richard Sheepshanks'^, sometime Fellow of Trinity College, and 
his sister 

Anne Sheepshanks; 

Robert Stirling Newall'^, of Ferndeiie, Gateshead; 

Frank McLean^, before mentioned; 
by whose gifts the usefulness of the Observatory has been largely- 
increased, and the interests of astronomical science promoted 
amongst us. 

To the names already recited must be added those of 

Hugh de Balsham^, Bishop of Ely, Founder of Peterhouse, the 
most ancient of our present Colleges ; 

Simon de MontacuteS, Bishop of Ely ; 

Andrew de Giselham ', 

Gilbert de Segrave s, 

Stephen de Segrave ", 

Richard de BadewIO, Founder of University Ha^l, now Clai'e College, 

Richard de Lyng 'i, 
all five Chancellors of the University ; 

Sir Richard Whittington '2, thrice Lord Mayor of London ; 

John Fisher ^^, Bishop of Rochester, adviser of the Lady Margaret, 
and for thirty years Chancellor of the University ; 

Nigel de Thornton i^ Doctor of Physic ; 

John Mere is, Fellow of King's College, one of the Esquire Bedells 
and Registrary of the University ; 

1 The third Duke of Northumberland (1785—1847) presented to the University in 1835 'a large teleseoijc 
of 11} inch aperture constructed hy M. Cauchein of Paris,' and defrayed the cost of mountiuK, and of 
erectiuff a building to contain it. He also gave, in 184a, the bronze copy of the Warwick vase now in the 
centre of Senate House Yard. 

2 Richard Slieepshanks (1794—1855) was born at Leeds and educated at Riclimond School, Yorkshire, 
and at Cambridge formed with Whewell, Seditwick, Thirlwall, and others, the brilliant group known as-- 
the ' Northern Lights.' He was elected to a fellowship at Trinity in 1817, which he retained until his death.. 
His life was devoted to scientific pursuits, chiefly astronomicjil, and especially to the active promotion 
of the building of the Cambridge Observatory. In 1888 his sister and sole heiress, out of regard to Ills, 
memory, gave ilO,(XIO to be held by Trinity on trust for the establisinnent of an astronomical Exhibition in 
tlie College and to benefit the Observatory. In 1863 Miss Sheepshanks gave a further £20(X) to tile 
Observatory ' with special preference for its employment in the ijurchase of one or more large instruments." 

3 Robert Stirling Newall (1812—1889), gave to the Uiuversity in 1889, shortly before his death, the larg» 
refracting telescope which he had erected in his grounds at Gateshead, with its dome and other appliances,, 
for employment in the study of Stellar Physics. 4 See p. 169, note 13, and p. 176. 

5 Bisnop of Ely, ri57— 86. "It isin the servicesrendered b);this prelate to the Universityof Cambiidge. .. 
where lie lai<l the foundations of a system of acatlemical life which hiis, in substance, endured for six. 
centuries, that his title to fame consists' ib.S.B.). 

6 Bishop of Ely, 1337 — 46. He gave statutes to Peterhouse in or about 1338. 

7 See p. 15. 8 See p. 19. 9 See p. 15. 

10 See p. 16. As Chancellor (i;i26) Richard de Badew was noted for his zeal in tlie promotion of learning.. 
It was during his term of office that he purclia-sed two tenements in Milne Street, the property of Nigel de- 
Thornton, a Cambridge physician, and built there 'a small College, by the name of Univereity HalL' Six- 
teen years after the Hall was accidentally burnt down, but it was rebuilt and endowed by Elizabetlt 
de Clare and re-named Clare Hall. 

11 Or Richard de Harling : see p. 16. 

12 Sir Richard Whittington ^d. 1423) was Lord Mayor of London in 1397—8, 1406-7, and 1419—20. The 
legend associated with his name ' is not known to have been narrated before 1605 ' (fl .V.a). 

13 See p. 18. 

14 A portion of the site of what is now the University Lilrary was given by him to the University befar» 
1278. 

1.5 See Mere's Commemoration, p. 179. 

H. R. • 12. 



178 COMMEMORATION OF BENEFACTORS 

Matthew Pabker i, Archbishop of Canterbury, sometime Master 

of Corpus Christi College ; 
Robert Hare '>; formerly of Gouville and Caius College ; 
Henry SidgwicK'^, before mentioned; 

Spencer Compton Cavendish^, Duke of Devonshire, Master of 
Arts, Honorary Doctor of Law, of Trinity College, for sixteen 
years Chancellor of the University. 
Among the Benefactions received by us in recent years, we further 
commemorate the following, namely : 

The Professorship of English Literature founded'^ in memory of His 

late Majesty King Edward the Seventh, of Trinity College. 
The Lectureship in Physical Chemistry founded in memory of 

Humphrey Owen Jones", Fellow of Clare College; 

The Studentships in Physiology, and in Ethnology, founded in 

memory of Sii' Michael Foster', of Trinity College, Professor of 

Physiology, and of Anthony Wilkin **, of King's College, and that 

in Botany founded by Francis Gray Smart '■", before mentioned ; 

The gifts 10 of Mary Hichens Foster and E. Bird Foster made 

in memory of Walter K. Foster for the building of the New 

Museum of Archaeology and of Ethnology 

and the bequest ^i of £5000 for the same purpose made by James 

Bruyn Andrews. 
The bequest made to the Library by John Willis Clark i^, 
Registrary of the University, sometime Fellow of Trinity College, 
of his collection of books and pamphlets illustrating the history of 
the University. 
The Fund for Historical Research established in memory of 
Frederic William Maitland^s, Doctor of Law, Downing Pro- 
fessor of the Laws of England, formerly of Trinity College ; 
The Exhibition in Sanskrit founded by Cecil Bendall", Professor 

of S.inskrit, sometime Fellow of Gonville and Caius College ; 
The bequest of Charles Brinsley MarlayI^, of Trinity College, to 
the Fitzwilliam Museum, including the whole of his art collections 
; and tlie sum of £80,000. 

The gift made by John Robinson M<=Clean 'g, of Trinity College, to 

the Fitzwilliam Museum of his entire collection of ancient Greek 

coins. 

These are our Founders and principal Benefactors whose names 

we have thus publicly recited, to the seiwice and glory of God, to 

the peiiietuating of their memory, and to the testifying of our own 

thankfulness. It now remains that we bless and praise Almighty 

God for them all. 

1 .Matthew Parker (13<k4— 1575), the princely benefactor of Corpus, gave land to the University in 1.574 to 
i»rovide a new street leattlng directly from the Schools to Great St Maiy's Church. He called it ' University 
Street,' but 'the iisu;il iierversity of the pubiic ctiaiised tlie name to Regent Wjillt.' He also presented to 
the Library 25 manuscripts and 25 volumes printctl on parclnnent, all provided with chains, together witli 
50 volumes of commentators on the OI'l ami New Testament. His portrait was presented to the University 
by bis eldest son. John Parker, in 1.580, and bangs in the Library. 

•i Robert Hare (d. 1611), the antiquary, gave to the University ni 1.t90 three sets of volumes into which lie 
liadcau-sed to be transcril)ed from the public arcliives and other sources a long series of documents relating 
to the history, rights, and privileges of the University and Town of Cambridge. ' Hare's noble collections 
afford historical materials of the Highest value ' ( D.X.B.). He also gave two volumes of similar collections 
to the University of Oxford, presented manuscripts and books to Caius and Trinity Hall, and gave Trinity 
Hall £600 in auxmeiitatinn of a fund for repairing highways in or near Cambridge. It is supposed that he 
was also a benefactor to Great St Mary's, as his arms are over the south door. 

a See p. 172, note '1. 4 See p. 19. 

5 Founded bv Sir Harold Harmsworth, Bart, in 1910. 

6 Founded in 191'!. 

, 7 See p. 106, note :!. Founded in 1912 by Jamiesoii r>oyd Hurry, M.D., of St John's College. 

8 Founded in 1*X5. See p. 2»1. 9 See p. 176. Founded 1901. 

10 1908. 111909. 12 1910. See p. 51, note 9. 

1 13 See p. 9S, note .5. Founded 1909. 14 Founded liil2. See p. 100, note 2. 

15 1911 See p. 227. Iti IflOfi— 13. See p. 'Sfi. 



MERE'S COMMEMORATION 179 



MERE'S COMMEMORATION 

Founded in 1559 by the Executors of John Mere, M.A., 
Eellow of King's. He was one of the Esquire Bedells, and 
Registrary of the University from 1543 until his death in 1558. 
He was the author of three curious Diaries, which have been 
printed in Lamb's Corpus Documents and Grace-Book A. 

By the original deed of foundation the Vice-ChanceUor is 
required to 'preach or cause to be preched one engUshe sermon 
yerelye with in the churche of S. Benettes ever vpon the Wedens- 
daye in the weeke of Easter, to be ronge ther vnto at ix of the 
■cJocke bye the bellman of th' vniuersitie, which shall the daye 
before also signifye the same with his bell thoroughe the town 
as the manner ys.' The preacher, who was to have 'iijs iiij*!' 
'for his paynes,' was 'in parte or in the hoole' to 'spend his 
matter' either 'in exciting the auditorye to the dihggnt and 
reverent hearing and reding of the scripture,' or in inculcating 
the duty of obedience, including that ' of pupilles to their tutours,' 
■with 'some Lesson for magistrates maisters and tutours for the 
"well ordering of their subjectes servantes and pupilles, either 
to exhort them to the releaving of the poore, in teaching agayn 
the poore their dutye in their behaviour, either shall exhorte 
them to the daylye preparation of deathe and not to fear death 
otherwise then scripture doth allow.' 'At which sermon the 
vice chancellour not making the sermon to haue vj'^, the ij 
proctours either of them iiij'', the ij taxers either of them iiij'^, 
the orator iiij^i, the ij scrutators either of them iiij'i, the curate of 
the churche iiij'^, the iiij bedilles etche of them iiij*!, the bell 
ringer iiij'', the parishe clarkeij'', the Castell Tolbothe and spittle 
bowse iij^ at the discretion of the vicechancellour,' and 'ij« 
yerelye' to 'the chapleyn of the vniversitie.' 

The sermon is now preached in St Bene't's Church on Wednes- 
day in Easter week by the Vice-Chancellor or a preacher 
appointed by him. 



12—2 



University Ceremonies 

Scattered throughout the Statutes of the University of 
Cambridge are numerous allusions to the old academical cere- 
monies. These may be seen in 'Documents relating to the 
University and Colleges of Cambridge,' printed in 1852 by the 
Royal Commissioners from the Proctors' Books written in the 
fom-teenth and fifteenth centuries. In the first volume may 
be read the Statutes issued by Queen Ehzabeth in 1570. The 
late Dean Peacock pubhshed in 1841 elaborate 'Observations 
on the Statutes,' with learned and detailed notes on the old 
ceremonies of the University. To these he added in two 
Appendices the Bedell's Books of Matthew Stokes and of John 
Buck, taken from Cole's MSS in the British Museum. The first 
gives a most interesting picture of the customs and ceremonies 
of the University before the Reformation, when the ancient 
statutes above referred to were in force; the second furnishes 
a very minute account of them immediately after the Reforma- 
tion. The Ceremonies of Adam Wall, originally published in 
1789 and re-edited by Gunning in 1828, contain full directions 
for a number of proceedings which are now obsolete. Some of the 
early Calendars also, especially that of the year 1802, contain 
many cvirious details as to University ceremonies. Some of 
these descriptions are taken from Jebb's Works (1772-87), n. 
284-300. Christopher Wordsworth, M.A., has given a fund of 
information in his volume on 'University Life and Studies in 
England during the 18th centiu-y,' and his book entitled 'Scholae 
Academicae.' To the "Fasciculus Joanni Willis Clark dicatus," 
the present PubUc Orator contributed a commentary on an 
annotated reprint of the celebrated Latin oration, in which the 
significance of certain ancient ceremonies connected with 
admission to the degree of doctor was expounded by Bentley at 
the Cambridge Commencement of 1725. 

An account of the Acts, Opponencies, and other ceremonies 
which are associated with the history of the Tripos, is given 
below (p. 348), but there are other formal University proceedings 
which were in full vigoiu" at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century and have since disappeared. 



UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 181 

The election of Scrutators took place at the same time as that of 
the Proctors, at ten in the morning on October 10^ ; and the Taxors 
were chosen in the afternoon of the same day^. In accord- 
ance with the decree which established the cycle of Proctors, the 
Colleges presented two persons to be Taxors in the year following 
that in which they presented to the Proctorship, and the Regents 
were bound to elect those presented by the Colleges unless for 
sufficient cause to be proved before the Vice-Chancellor and a 
majority of the Heads. They might be chosen either from the 
Regents or the Non-Regents, but by their office they were 
Regents during the year. If the office of Taxor became vacant 
during the year, the appointment, as in the case of the Proctors, 
fell to Trinity Hall. Immediately after their election, the Taxors 
appointed 'each of them a person to be Warden, whose business 
it is to ascertain the price of wheat in the Cambridge market.'* 
The Taxors were officials of some dignity, for their place in pro- 
cessions was next to that of the Proctors, they had special seats 
in Great St Mary's 'at the upper end of the south side of the pit, 
opposite to the Proctors' seats,' and 'in strictness they should 
wear their white hoods squared at Church.'* The election of 
the Caput took place on October 12^, when the Vice-Chancellor, 
the Heads of Colleges, the Proctors and Scrutators, and the 
Doctors of Divinity, Law, and Physic, met in the Senate House 
at one in the afternoon. The Vice-Chancellor wrote the names 
of five persons — a Doctor of Divinity, a Doctor of Laws, a Doctor 
of Physic, a Non-Regent Master, and a Regent Master — on a 
paper prepared by the Registrary; and both the Proctors did 
the same. Out of the persons so nominated five were selected 
(one of each degree) by the votes of all those present except 
the Proctors, who were not entitled to vote. 

Magna Congregatio, 'commonly called the Black Assembly,'* 
was held in the Chancel of Great St Mary's at ten in the morning 
upon the Friday immediately preceding the Feast of St Simon 
and St Jude. It was attended by the Mayor, two Aldermen, 
four Burgesses, and two inhabitants of every parish, to whom the 
Senior Proctor proceeded to administer a series of oaths — the 
Aldermen swearing that they would 'dihgently assist and 
faithfully counsel ' the Mayor and Bailiffs, ' for peace both of the 
University and the Town to be" kept, and to search evil doers, 
and troublers of peace, and vagabonds of the night, and receivers 
of thieves and evil doers ' ; the four Burgesses taking a similarly 
worded oath with the addition of ' fidelity towards our Sovereign 
Lord the King's Majesty'; and the 'two of every parish' under- 
taking 'every fortnight to make diligent and faithful search for 
all suspected persons Ijang within ' the parish,^ and ' to present 

1 RunniiiE, Ceremonies, p. 10. 2 /6. p. 21. See al.so Mere's Diary, Grace Book A, P. 22!. 

3 /ft, p. 2!. 4 /h. .') lb. p. 2S. 

.6 /*, p, :®. See also Mere's Pary, Oricec-K'.nl- A, p. 22."). 



182 UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 

every such, so tarrying for three nights, to the Vice-Chancellor 
and the Mayor.' The Mayor and BaiUffs themselves had abeady 
taken the oath of office before the Vice-Chancellor on Michaelmas- 
Day at the Town Hall, immediately after the morning sermon in 
Great St Mary's, swearing to 'observe and keep' the 'Uberties 
and customs ' of the University, ' as concerning the keeping of the- 
peace, and also the assize of bread, and -ale, and other victuals,' 
and that they would not 'unduly, nor of maUce, impugn the other 
Uberties and due customs' of the University^. There are two 
curious pictures illtistrating these ceremonies in the collection 
of charters and documents relating to the University presented 
by Robert Hare (1590) and preserved at the Registry. 

On the second Saturday after October 10 came the proclama- 
tion of the markets. 'The Proctors give notice of it, a few daj'B; 
before the day of proclaiming, to the Vice-Chancellor, the Heads 
of Colleges, the Doctors, the Commissary, the Taxors, and the- 
Registrary. The whole company meet at the Senate-House, at 
eleven o'clock. The Proctors come with their hoods squared,^ 
attended by their servants. The School-Keeper provides wine 
and cakes, by order of the Proctors. After staying a short time,, 
they go to the two Markets (first Peas Hill) where the Proclama- 
tion is read by the Registrary, and repeated by the Yeoman 
Bedell. During the reading of the Pioclamation, the company 
sit in one of the adjacent houses.'^ 

The date of the sealing of weights and measures^ was fixed by 
the Taxors and the Registrary, but it appears to have been soon 
after Easter. The sealing was usually held in the Law Schools, 
notice of it being given by a proclamation, prepared by the- 
Registrary, signed by the Vice-Chancellor, and read by the 
Yeoman Bedell 'in the several parts of the Town' and also in 
Barnwell and Chesterton. On the first day weights, wine 
measures, and yard-wands were tried, the good ones being sealed 
with a stamp provided by the Senior Taxor bearing the initial 
letter of each Taxor's surname, and those which were found 
deficient being broken with 'a hammer, a wedge, and adze.' On 
the second day the 'ale and milk measures, bushels, pecks, half- 
pecks, and quarterns' were similarly tried, the Taxor's servants 
measuring 'the wet measures' and the 'University Gager' the 
dry. The Registrary attended on both days to record the weights 
and measures of each person, 'distinguishing the large from the 
small ones, and noting the sums due.' The Y'eoman Bedell 
received 5s. for each day's attendance, each of the Taxor's 
servants Is. 6rf., and the Gager 2s. 6d. Soon after the sealing^ 
the University also held a Court Leet under the presidency of the 
Deputy High Steward to assess fines and receive presentments,, 
but Gunning remarks 'the jwesentnients have of late years been 

1 Gunuing, Ceremonies, p. %. 2 7t. p. 41. i lb. p. J02. 



UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 183 

confined to unsealed wine measures and gaming places.' After 
the Court the Deputy High Steward was entertained at dinner by 
the Taxors and he was also entitled to a fee of £4 from the Vice- 
Chancellor. The fines were always paid 'at a Tavern,' and 'each 
person is usually offered a glass of wine.' 

The nomination of the Barnaby Lecturers^ (see p. 148).' 
appointed under Sir Robert Rede's will, took place on June 10 
at nine in the morning, the Senior Proctor nominating 'two for 
the Mathematical Lecture, the Junior Proctor two for the 
Philosophical, the Senior Scrutator two for the Rhetorical, and 
the Junior Scrutator two for the Logical,' each placing that 
person's name first whom he desired to have appointed. The 
Heads of .Colleges then 'prick according to Juniority,' accepting 
as a rule all the nominees of the Proctors and Scrutators. The 
persons thus duly nominati et punctis notati were then submitted 
to a Congregation held at ten in the morning of June 11 or 12, 
and one of each pair was chosen by vote. The Mathematical 
Lecturer was paid by the Vice-Chancellor and the other three by 
the Bursar of Jesus. 

Some interesting details survive in Gunning's Ceremonies^ 
concerning the proclamation of fairs by the University. On 
June 23 the Vice-Chancellor, with 'Noblemen and Doctors, if 
any of them choose to attend,' Proctors, Commissary, Taxors and 
Registrary met in the Senate House at eleven in the morning, a 
provision of cakes and wine being made by the School-Keeper 
, ' by desire of the Proctors.' The Doctors were in scarlet. ' When 
they have stayed a little time, they go in coaches ordered by the 
Proctors, to proclaim the Fair.' The proclamation was read by 
the Registrary and repeated by the Yeoman Bedell, first in the 
middle of Barnwell, and a second time on Midsummer Green, in 
the Fair. The proclamation of Sturbridge Fair on September 18, 
was similai'ly made, the University proclaiming before the Town' 
when the date of the year was an uneven number, and after it in 
the even years; but after the proclamation 'the Proctors treat 
the Company with oysters at the tiled booth,' the Taxors finding 
'the bread, beer, and butter for the oysters.' These fairs are still 
proclaimed by the Mayor and Corporation but proclamation by 
the University is now discontinued. The Proctors' entertain- 
ments were abolished in 1842. 

Of University Ceremonies which have survived, the most 
important are those connected with admission to Degrees. The 
simpler modern procedure for admission to the B.A. Degree 
differs widely in detail from the more elaborate procedure of 
Gunning's day, but the underlying principles are the same and the 
variations are easily intelligible. A Book is subscribed, the 
supplicats come before the Senate, presentation is by the Father 

1 Guiiniiiir, Ceremonlef, p. 109. 2 Pp. llSaiui 129. 



184 UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 

of the College, and admission is by the Vice-Chancellor; but in 
Gunning's day the approval of two Hoases had to be obtained, 
certain oaths were taken, and some of the privileges of the 
Nobility were still retained. 

The Order of Procedure at the Admission of the Questiomsts 
(see p. 349), as it was in 1828, is thus described by Gunning^ : — 

On the Saturday in the Examination week there is a Congregation at ten 
o'clock. A Bedell calls up the Houses, and the Senior Modei-ator makes 
his speech, standing on the left-hand of the Vice-Chancellor, who sits in 
the lower chair. The Junior Proctor deUvers the paper of Seniority to the 
Vice-Chancellor, subscrihed thus: Examinati et approbati a nobis. This 
paper is signed by the Proctors, the Moderators, and the other Examiners. 

The Caput is called, for passing the Supplicats of the Questionists^. The 
name of each College is to be written on every SuppUcat, which must be 
signed by the Lecturer s. A Certificate is also given to the Caput, signed 
and sealed by the Master of each College or his Bepresentative, shewing 
that each Questiouist in his College has kept his full number of Terms*: 
but if any one have not kept the requisite number, the deficiency must be 
mentioned in the Supplicat, and a Cei-tificate explaining the cause is 
delivered to the Caput by the Lecturer. He also delivers a Certificate of 
his having passed the Previous Examination*.... 

'...The Registrary brings the Subscription-book to the Caput, and shews 
that each Questionist has subscribed the proper form. The Vice-Chancellor 
then reads the Supplicats to the Caput, and on those that are admitted he 
writes AeJ. He then gives the Supplicats to one of the Bedells, who takes 
them into the Non-Regent House to be read by the Scrutators. The Senior 
Scrutator reads one quite through, and then says Idetn Supplicat A.B.C.D. 
A'c. If no one be objected to, he walks and says omnes placent : but if an 
objection be taken to any one, the votes must be regularly taken with 
respect to him ; and unless there be a majority in his favor, the Scrutator 
says A.B. non placet; reJiqni placent. ...The Bedell then takes the 
Supplicats to the Regent House, where the Senior Proctor reads them in 
the same manner as the Senior Scrutator has done in the Non-Regent 
House. If they be approved, the Proctors walk, and the Senior says, 
Placeat oiines; placeat rohiii ut intrent. If anj- one be objected to, the 
Senior Proctor must take the votes in the Regent House in the same 
niamier as the Senior Scrutator has done in the Non-Regent House, and 
if the Xon-placets be equal to or greater than the Placets, he says, ^.Z?. non 
placet; reliqni placent. The Supplicats are then delivered to the 
Registi-ary, who writes on them, Lect. et Conces.i. die Jan. — 

In the mean time the Questiouists put on their hoods over their Under- 
graduates' gowns ; and the School-keeper gives to each of them a printed 
Copy of the Oath he is to take at his Admission. 

The Vice-Chancellor takes the chair, and a BedeU having desired the 
respective Fathers to be in readiness witli their Sons, precedes the Father 
of the Senior Wrangler (the rest of the Fatliers following with their Sons) 
to the Vice-Chancellor. The Father of the Senior Wrangler, taking his 
right hand, presents him in these words : 

Dignissime Domine, Domine Pro-Cancellane, et tota Uniretsitas ; prae- 

1 Ctn-eniouics^ p. 7:1 

2 Gunning notes that in consequence of Uie increased number of candidates the practice had already 
be^n of the Caput and the Registrar^' meeting on tlte previous day to examine the Certificates of Terms. 

3 Now bv the Praelector. 

4 'The major p.irt of twelve Terms' had to be kept, with the exception ofthe-Temi in which the candi- 
date was ailmitte<i and that in which he took his Decree. 

."> Tlie Previous Examination was established in VSH, and was first held in IKi 



UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 185 

•jsento vobis hunc Juvenem, quern scio, tarn monbns quam doctrind, esse 
ddoneum ad respondendimi qitaestioni : idque tibi fide med i)raesto, totique 
Academiae. 

The Senior Wrangler then takes the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy i ; 
and the Senior Proctor (with his Brother standing by him) reads to him the 
following Oath : 

Jnrabis, quod nihil ex iis omnibus sciens volens praetermisisti, quae per 
■ler/es aut probatas consuetudines hujus Academiae ad hunc Gradum quern 
lambis adipiscendum, aut perageiida aut persolvenda requii-untur ; nisi 
qtiateniis per Gratiam ab Academid conccssam tecum dispensatum fuerit . 

Jurabis etiavi, quod Cancellario et Procancellano nostro comiter ob- 
iemperabis: et quod Staftita nostra, Ordinationes, et Consuetudines 
'Upprobatas obseniabis. 

Denique jurabis, quod compositionem infer Academiam et Coller/ium 
Heyale factam sciens volens non violabis: in haec autem verba jurabis, 
■secundum tenorem Senatusconsulti in cautelam jtirantium facti. 

Ita te Deus adjunct, et Sancta Dei Evangelia. 

He then kneels down before the Vice-Chancellor, who, taking his hands 
Ibetween his own, admits him in the following words : — 

Authovitate mihi commissd, admitto te ad respondendum quaestioni: in 
nomine Patns, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. 

The Father of King's College next presents his Sons: then the Question- 
ists of Trinity and St John's are presented ; and after them the Questionists 
of tlie other Colleges, according to the Seniority of their respective Fathers. 
Four or tive are usually presented at a time. As they are presented, they 
are directed by one of the Bedells to the South side of the Senate-House. 

When all have been presented, the Senior Proctor administers to them 
(four or five at a time) the same Oaths which have been taken by the 
Senior Wrangler, in the following words: — 

Eadem Juramenta quae praestitit A.B. in sua Persona, vos quoqiie prae- 
stabitis in vestris Personis: 

Ita vos Beits adjuvet, et Sancta Dei Evanr/elia. 

When all have been sworn, they are admitted by the Vice-Chancellor in 
the same manner as the Senior Wrangler has been admitted. They are 
sworn and admitted in the order hi which their names are placed in the 
Lists signed by the Proctor and Examiners. 

When the Admissions are concluded, the Vice-Chancellor dissolves the 
•Congregation. 

The admission by the Vice-Chancellor ad respojidendum 
■quaestioni, instead of, as now, ad titulum Baccalaurei in Artibus 
desicjnati, was a reUc of the old Quadragesimal exercises (see 
p. 349) which took place after the Degree had been conferred. 
By the 18th century these had become merely formal. The 
Proctor usually asked some question such as Quid est nomen ? to 
which the answer usually expected was Nescio. Sometimes puns 
were made upon the names of the candidates, as when Joshua 
King, of Queens', Senior Wrangler in 1819, was asked. Quid est 
Sex? to which he promptly replied, Socius Reginalis. This 
"witty reply passed muster, but another candidate who, when 
asked in the Senate House Examination itself to give a definition 

1 Before admi&ilon to tlie Examination lie Imd already subscribed a Declaration that he was a member 
of the Church of EiiKlaud as by Law established. 



186 UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 

of Happiness, replied, 'an exemption from Payne^ that being 
the name of an examiner, was plucked 'for want of discrimination 
in time and place.'^ In Gunning's time the questions were asked 
in the Sophs' School by the respective Fathers of the Colleges, 
immediately after admission to the Degree. 

A Fellow of King's was not required to present a certificate of 
terms or of having been examined, and the Grace admitting him 
was not presented to the Caput, but was merely shewn to the 
Vice-Chancellor, and read in the Regent House only^. Noblemen 
were not exempted from examination, but they had the privilege 
of being examined after they had kept nine terms from admission 
to the University, the first and last excepted, instead of twelve 
terras, the first and last excepted, as was required in the case of 
Commoners. The Nobleman was then entitled to the Degree of 
Master of Arts. He had the privilege of being presented by the 
Public Orator, and the Vice-ChanceUor admitted him standing 
instead of kneefing^. 

The separate presentation and admission of the Senior 
Wrangler continued until the aboUtion of the Order of Merit 
after the Tripos of 1909*, the Wranglers, and those whose names 
had appeared in the First Class of any Tripos being admitted at 
the morning Congregation by Triposes in the order of the List, 
and the rest in the afternoon in alphabetical order by Colleges. 
[The present system, by which candidates from King's, Trinity, 
St John's, Peterhouse, Clare, and Pembroke are admitted in 
the morning, and all other candidates in the afternoon, was 
adopted in 1911.] 

The ceremonies of the 'creation' of Masters and Doctors on 
Commencement Day, by which the Degree was 'made perfect,' 
now a mere reading of names, was in Gunning's time* a proceeding 
of considerable solemnity*. The creation of Masters was by the 
Senior Proctor. The creation of Doctors in each faculty was 
effected by the Regius Professors of Divinity, Law, and Physic 
respectively, who made speeches and presented their 'sons' with 
a book — that delivered by the Professor of Divinity being the 
Greek Testament, by the Professor of Law the Institutes of 
Justinian, and by the Professor of Physic the Aphorisms of 
Hippocrates. This was a survival from the time when the 
conferring of the insignia doctoralia — the cap, the book, the ring, 
the chair, and the kiss — were regarded as essential to the validity 
of the Doctor's Degree'. These all occur in the record of the 
Cambridge ceremony to be found in the manuscript book drawn 

1 Wonlsworth, Srholaf Arndemimf.\>. S!. 2 Gunning. frrttHoniet, l>. 74. 3 lb. pp. 211— W. 

4 The comparatively nioleri) unofficial ceremony of presenting the Wootien Spoon to the last of the 
Junior Uptiniet perished at the same time. 
.5 Ceremonies, p 120. 

6 The Vice-chancellor was ilethrone<l for the time bein?, an<l the creating functionary occupied his chair 
of state. 

7 See Sir John Sandys's contribution on 'Ancient L'niversity Ceremonies* to FtucicitlitJt Jonnni iViffi» 
Cliirk dicnlns (pp. 217— :«!(. 



UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 187 

up by Matthew Stokes, Fellow of King's, and successively Esquiie 
Bedell and Registrary, in 1574, and are again referred to in the 
' Book relating to the Ceremonials of the University ' compiled in 
1665 by John Buck, Esquire Bedell^. In 1702 it appears from 
the Diary of Franz Burman that the cap, book, and ring had 
survived^, and the present Public Orator records^ the fact 
that in 1858 he saw the gold ring actually used at the conferring 
of a Degree. This must have been the last occasion on which it 
was used, for from 1859 commencing Doctors and Masters were 
excused attendance at Creation and without personal attendance 
the ancient ceremony of, the ring Was impossible. Among the 
insignia of the Vice-Chancellor's office there are two signet rings. 
The larger one bears the arms of the University ; the smaller, — - 
which may have been the ring used in Creation — represent* 
Minerva with helmet, shield, and spear, with the motto Si 
perdam pereo, and on the inner side My only rest^. 

In the Universities of Scotland the cap is still used in con- 
ferring degrees, and at Oxford it is the custom for the Vice- 
Chancellor to touch the recipient of a degree on the head with a 
copy of the New Testament*. 

As in the requirement of attendance at Creation, so in other 
parts of the older ceremonial, personal obligations are much more 
definitely laid upon the individual than is the case in modern 
procedure. For instance Inceptors in Arts, after the Congrega- 
tion at which their Supplieats were passed, were at one time 
required to follow the Vice-Chancellor to his Lodge in Bachelors' 
gowns and hoods and ask leave to proceed; they also, at some 
time before the Congregation at which they were to be admitted, 
called upon the Caput 'and all Doctors and Regents.'® In the 
same way, between the two meetings of the Congregation on the 
eleventh of June at which the Barnaby Lecturers were chosen, 
candidates for the Degree of B.D. called on the Vice-Chancellor 
'in the habit of a Non-Regent,' and afterwards on the Caput, the 
Heads of Colleges, and all the Doctors in Divinity''. Anyone 
applying for a Mandate Degree^ was also expected to wait upon 
the Vice-Chancellor in person^ On Commencement Sunday^* 
the incepting Doctors dined with the Vice-Chancellor to meet the 

1 See Sir John Sandys'8 contribution oil 'Ancient University Ceremonies ' to FatcicuJut Joanni IVillU 
Cl-iirk dicafut (pp. 231—2). 

2 Jb. p. 2:«. 3 /b. p. 235. 

4 /*. p. 237. • 5 Wells. The Oxford Degree Ceremoiiu (IflOti), p. 15. 

'6 Gunnins. Ceremoniet, p. 93. 7 lb. p. 1)4. 

8 A Mandate Dexree was granted at this time on the initiative of the University, whicli petitioned the 
Chancellor to address the Crown throUKli the Home Secretary for a .Mandate dispensing with the Statutes 
on behalf of an applicant who was not of sufficient standinK to be admitte<l to the desired Degree. 

9 GunniuK. Ceremonies, p. 254- 

10 The late Registrary in his Reminiscences recalls the earlier social importance of Commencement : 
' On Commencement Sunday the whole academic world used to walk up and down ' on Clare Hall Piece, 
the green si)ace immediately to the west of the College, ' for half an liour after the University Sermon, 
and a very pretty sight it was, Mr Vice-Chancelior an(rall the Heads and Doctors in scarlet, and the ladies 
in their best frocks. In the days to which I allude personal attendance was ret|uirttd at " creation.". . .It" 
was a time of festivity in a fiuiet way, an<l much looked forward to as the last occasion when all the men 
of a given ye,ir hiwl the chance of meeting each other' \.\Iemolrof John. Willis Clark, by Dr A. E. Shipley,, 
p. -M). 



188 UNIVERSITY CEREMONIES 

three Regius Professors of Divinity, Law, and Physic, the Public 
Orator, and ' all Noblemen resident in the University ' ; and to the 
same dinner were invited the High Steward, the Commissary, the 
Representatives of the University, and 'all strangers of distinction 
who may happen to visit the University at this time.'^ 

Another ceremony which emphasized the strong corporate 
feeUng of the University was the practice of declaring 'Xon- 
Term' on accoimt of. the death of a resident member of the 
Senate. . The cessation from Lectures and Disputations was 
originally from the death of a Regent or Non- Regent to the 
burial, but by a decree of 1619 the Non-Term was to continue for 
three days only. The Vice-Chancellor was 'waited upon by one 
of the College to which the deceased belonged, for the purpose of 
Appointing the time for ringing St Mary's bell.'^ The bell was 
usually rung for an hour on the night before the funeral. It was 
sometimes the case that Non-Term had to be deferred on account 
of University business, but this was done by Grace. Gunning 
notes^ that 'on accoimt of the extreme inconvenience to pubUc 
business' the practice 'seems faUing into disuse.' 

A ceremony which has not thus fallen into disuse is the reading 
of the Litany on Ash Wednesday, which stiU continues in the 
form described by Gunning. 'The Vice-Chancellor, Doctors in 
Divinity in copes, and the Proctors in Congregation habit, meet 
in the vestry. ... In this case the Proctors (or their Deputies) go 
into the Reader's desk; the Senior Proctor reads part of the 
Litany Service (viz. to the Lord's Prayer) and the Vice-ChanceUor 
reads the rest of the Service.'* 

The fees payable to the University for various degrees were at 
one time distributed according to a scale among various officials. 
Thus an ordinary Bachelor of Arts paid £3. 7s. M., which was 
assigned as follows^ : — Pro-CanceUario, 4d. ; Oratori, Is. 6d. ; 
Registrario, Is. ; Praesentatori, 4rf. ; Bibliothecario, 4«?. ; Pulsa- 
tori^, 3d. ; Apparitori, (id. ; Ecclesiae B. Mariae, id. ; pro Copia 
Juramenti, 2d. ; Scrutatoribus, Sd. ; Bedellis, 10s. lOd. ; Modera- 
toribus, 9s. ; Procurator! bus, 14s. ; eorum servis, 4s. ; Pro- 
Procuratoribus, 7s. ; eorum servis, 2s. ; Cistae Communi, 15s. M. 

1 Gunnins. Ceremoitiet. pp. 119—1-20. 2 lb. p. 428. 3 lb. p. 430. 

4 76. p. yi. .■> /?>. p. 461. 

6 The Keeper of the Sthools was also the Bell-ringer {eampanarum puffotor) ; see Gunning. Cfn 
monies, p. *230. 



University Costume 

There are many i-eferences to University Costume in the Old 
Statutes^ and in the Grace Books^, in College records^, in Royal 
<jirants*, etc. Dr E. C. Clark has written an elaborate and 
learned treatise^ on "EngUsh Academical Costume." In the 
Registry hangs a curious painting by John Cobbould, dated 1590, 
which illustrates the University dress of that period. In Loggan's 
Cantabrigia lllustrata, of a century later, is a large plate entitled 
"Habitus Academici," shewing over thirty beautifully drawn 
figures in University costumes 'to be worn in respect of rank,, 
degree, or office, whether in private life or in public assemblies.'" 

In the early days of the University the question of academical 
dress was closely allied with that of clerical costume, and later 
with the problem of extravagance in ordinary dress. In the year 
1343 great complaint was made against the clergy and the 
students in the Universities on account of their extravagance in 
dress and 'the gay and unclerical appearance of their garments.' 
'Disdaining the tonsure, the distinctive mark of their order, they 
wore their hair either hanging down on their shoulders in an 
effeminate manner, or curled and powdered . . . they were attired in 
cloaks with fm-red edges, long hanging sleeves not covering their 
elbows, shoes chequered with red and green, and tippets of an 
unusual length.'^ It was in order to deal with this that Arch- 
bishop Stratford issued a constitution, De habitu et honestaie 
clericorum^, making every offender incapable of a degree until he 
had reformed his person and apparel, and a statute of Peterhouse 
required the Master and Scholars to adopt 'the clerical dress 
and tonsure.'^ 

But in addition to the clerical dress, it appears from the 
language of the Statutes that there was a distinctive academical 
dress^", and the condemnations of extravagance in dress issued 

1 Statuta Antiqua. iios. 75, W?, 148, 175, etc 

1! (ircu-i-Book A. pp. 105, 118, 146, 174. eta ; B I, pp. 17, 67, 70, 112, 160, etc. ; and so on. 

3 Masters, Histori) ofC'.C.C, p. ■%; Venn, Biographical Jlittorn ofCaiug, iii. p. a05; etc. 

4 Calendar of Patent Rolls, 24 Feb. 1337—8, etc. 5 Arcluieoloi/ical Journal, L. ixr. 

6 Plates of University costume are also to be found in Ackernian's History of the Univertity and Citu 
(if Cambridge, and in ilarratten's Costuinc of the various Orders in the Univer&ity of Cambridge (1805} : 
cf. also The Costumes of the Members of the University of Cambridge: London, Published for the 
Proprietor by Sherwoocf, Gilbert, and Piper, Paternoster Row : Cambridge, Grant and all Book and 
Print Sellers. 

7 Cooper, Annals, i, 94. 8 Lyndwood's Provinciale, App., p. 44. 

9 Documents, ii. 72, iiuoted in J[ullinj!er, i. 233 : see also Document; ii. 28, c. SH. 

10 Muliinger, i. 348. The difficult problem of the character of this dress Is discussed by Professor E. V, 
Clark in the ArchaeologiealJonrnal, L, I.XI. 



190 UNIVERSITY COSTUME 

from time to time by those in authority apply to this as well aa 
to the ordinary attire out of which it originally grew. Thus in 
1414 the University itself forbade 'every bachelor in any faculty 
to use in the schools, processions, or acts, a cloak, or fur, or facings 
of silk, satin, or other material of similar price or value, in his 
tabard, hood, or other scholastic habit, except lamb's wool or 
budge fur on his hood.'^ They were also prohibited from using 
a ' bonnet, cap, coif, or other hke ornament for the head, at their 
lectures or scholastic acts.'^ 

The same kind of sumptuary prohibition appears 150 years 
later, for about 1560 we find the University adopting minute 
regulations concerning the apparel of students : — 'That no schoUer 
doe weare any long lockes of Hayre uppon his heade, but that he 
be polled, notted, or rounded after the accustomed manner of 
the gravest Schollers of the Universitie under payne of 6s. 8d.' ; 
'gownes, first not to be of any Stuffe but cloth, secondly not to be 
faced with silke of playne Taffitoy untuflfed, Sarcenet, Silke 
Grogram further than the coUer and halfe yarde downe the brest, 
only M.A.'s, LL.B.'s, M.B.'s and upward, and no hoodes to be 
worne abroade in the towne to be lyned with sylke excepte for 
Doctors and S.T.B.'s being heads of houses and the orators, 
thirdly gownes not be to made of any other fashion but that 
commonly called the Priest's gowne, or else of the fashion of 
the playne Turkey gowne with the round falUng"cope and the 
Trunke gowne sieves &c., not of any colour but black or London 
russet'; 'hatts no colour but black'; 'item. That no schoUer 
shall weare any Barilled Hosen, any great Ruffs, and clocks with 
wings &c.'^ 

The Elizabethan Statutes of 1570 also contain definite regula- 
tions upon the subject of academical dress. 'No one who has 
been advanced to any degree in the University shall go forth 
from his College, except he be clad in a gown reaching down to 
his ankles and a hood befitting his degree, or at least having a 
sacerdotal distinction about his neck — ^a fine of six shillings and 
eightpence shall be imposed on any one who disobeys in this 
respect'* ; and all graduates were required to wear 'the superior 
scholastic and squared cap,' and to avoid linen shirts and ruffles. 
The University Statutes are concerned almost entirely with 
graduates, the general discipline of the undergraduates being 
left to the Colleges, but there seems to be no doubt that in 1570 
the undergraduate also wore a gown reaching to his ankles; 
but as the square cap was reserved for graduates and scholars 
he wore on his head a round cloth cap^. These regulations were 

1 Dooumentt, i. 40^ ; Coo|>er, A imnit, i. 15S. ' Bud|^ fur ' is fur consisting of lamb's akin witli tlie wooi 
dresseil outwards. 

2 Cooper, Annah i. 157. 

3 fb. li. IRii, quoting MS Cole, xlii. 2(X). Cole probably had his information from Hartslionie, Hoole 
.Jtaritiet in the Cnioerritu »/ Cambridge, (see p. 446 ».). 

4 nviimrnrii. i. 4S2— :i. quoted in MuTlinjer. ii. :HI. .•> Mulliiiser. ii. :«••.'. 



UNIVERSITY COSTUME 191 

not, however, always enforced, and in connexion with the 
■opposition to the Statutes of 1570 we find the Masters of Colleges 
complaining in 1572 that 'none in all the University do more 
offend . . . than the two proctors, who should give best ensample.' 
These 'doe not only go verye disorderlie in Cambridge, waring 
for the most part their hates and continually verye unsemly 
rulf es at their hands, and greate Galligaskens ' and Barreld hooese 
stuffed with horse Tayles, with skabilonions^ and knitt nether- 
stockes too fine for schollers ; but also most disguysedUe theie goo 
abroade wearinge such Apparell . . . in London ... that a great 
sort of godly men and such as bear good will to the universitie 
are greatlie offended to se such unsemlie goinge of schollers, and 
-especially of Proctors and ministers (through whose lewde 
^nsample and behaviour the universitie is evill spokenn of and 
poor schollers lesse respected).'^ In 1578 a decree made by 
Lord Burghley as Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, and Heads, 
forbade 'hoses of unsemely greatnes or disguised fashion,' 
*excessyve ruffs,' and 'apparrell of velvet or silk,' and incidentally 
alluded to the cause which really explains the difficulties of the 
University in these matters. ' It is found at this tyme very 
necessary that some spedy remedy be provyded for the restoryng 
to the Univereity the ancient modesty of the students, scoUars, 
«nd all other that shall be accounted members of the same, which 
of late yeers hath greatly bene decayed and deminished by 
fiegligense and remissnes of the heads and governors in the 
privat coUedges ; but specially by suffryng of sondry yong men, 
being the children of gentilmen and men of welth, at ther 
-comming to the same university to use very costly and disguised 
manner of Apparrell and other attyres, unsemly for students in 
any kynd of human lerning, and therby not only to be more 
•chargeable to thier frends then is convenient, but by ther example 
to induce others of les habilite to change and cast awey ther 
modesty and honest frugallitie, to overcharging of ther frends. . . . 
So as if remedy be not speedely provyded, the Universety, which 
hath bene from the begyning a collection and society of a 
multitude of all sorts of ages, and professyng to godlines, modesty, 
vertew, and lerning, and a necesary storehouse to the realme of 
the same, shall become rather a storehouse for a staple of 
protligall, wastfuU, ryotous, unlerned, and insufficient persons . . . '^ 
Four years later it was reported to Burghley that the excess in 
apparel 'doth not diminish but dayly increase,'* and in 1585 we 
find fresh regulations being made of a still more minute character^, 
while in 1587 Burghley complained of 'the great stipendes of 

1 'Galligaskins' were a kiiiii of wide hose or breeches worn in tlie 16th and 17th centuries. 'Scavilones' 
were long drawers worn under the hose temp. Q. Eliz. ; thus 'scabilonian,' a contemptuous terra for a 
garment. 

'2 Cooper, A nniiU, ii. :«6. 3 /*. p. 360. 4 Mullinger, ii. 394. 

.'5 Cooper, AnnaU, ii. 410. 



192 UNIVERSITY COSTUME 

Tutors,' through which came 'the greate excesse of apparell in 
fellowes of Colledges of late,' 'in wearinge of Satten Dublettes, 
silke and velvett overstockes, and facynge of gownes with- 
velvett and satten to the grownde ; and in great fine ruffs, con- 
trarye to law and order.'^ That the law was not left entirely 
a dead letter appears from the fact that in 1600 Dominus Hemy 
Pepper of Corpus, having incautiously appeared at a play or 
interlude performed at the Black Bear Inn 'with an improper 
habit, having deformed long locks of unseemly sight, and great 
breaches, undecent for a graduate or scholar of orderly carriage, ' 
was ordered to 'procure his hair to be cut or powled' and was 
then suspended from his Degree^. 

The difficulties which had to be faced by the EUzabethan 
authorities in connexion with the dress of students at the 
Universities reappear in the 1 7th century in somewhat the same 
form. Orders of 1636 provide 'that no scholar or student do 
wear any long or excessive hair hanging over theii- foreheads or 
ears, nor any unseemly bands, nor use any other apparel but such 
as is conformable to their clerical or scholastical habit according 
to their several degrees, orders, and quaUties'^; but a paper of 
complaints sent to Archbishop Laud in the same year and 
endorsed by him ' Certain Disorders in Cambridge to be considered 
of in my visitation' states that 'the Clericall Habit appointed 
for Students' is 'generally neglected unles it be in King's CoUege 
only,' undergraduates wearing 'the new fashioned gowns of any 
colour whatsoever, blew or green, or red or mixt,' and their 
other garments 'light and gay,' with 'round rusti Caps... 
if they weare any at all,' while graduates and even priests 
emulated the younger students with 'fair Roses upon the Shoe, 
long frizled haire upon the head, broad spred Bands upon the 
Shoulders, and long large Merchants Ruffs about the neck, with 
fayre feminine Cuffs at the wrist' in defiance of the Statutes 
of the University*. 

Besides the problem of extravagance in dress, the University 
in the 16th and 17th centuries was involved in another question 
of costume which was an aspect of the rehgious controversy. The 
Puritans objected to the use of the surplice in College chapels as 
'the white linen garment that the mass-priest wears in popish 
rehgion'' and therefore a note of Antichrist; and they also 
denounced the square cap as Romish in origin, and an invention 
which contravened the natural shape of the head, and was 
borrowed from the priests of Baal. In 1565, under the influence 
of Thomas Cartwright, afterwards Lady Margaret's Professor of 
Divinity, there were demonstrations at Trinity and St John's, 
and it was not until 1580 that Gabriel Harvey, writing from 

•2 /b. p. 598. 

5 MuIUnger, ii. 19S. 



UNIVERSITY COSTUME 193 

Pembroke College to his friend Edmund Spenser the poet, reported 
that 'the ado about caps and surplices is at an end.'^ 

At the outbreak of the Civil War, however, the House of 
Commons passed a resolution 'That the statute made in the 
University of Cambridge which imposeth the Wearing of Surplices 
upon all Graduates and Students, under several Pains . . . ought 
not to be pressed,'- but this poUcy was reversed at the Restora- 
tion^. 

Although after 1660 the sumptuary control of costume was 
less in evidence, the duty of authority in the matter was not 
entirely lost sight of, for in 1674 Charles II was scandalized by 
the length of the perukes worn by persons in Holy Orders, and 
commanded the Chancellor to cause the statutes concerning 
decency in apparel to be put in execution*. In the 18th century 
the regulation of academical costume brings it much nearer the 
practice of the present day. Orders passed by the Senate in 1750 
provide that every person in statu pupillari 'shall wear cloaths 
of a grave colour' 'without lace, fringe or embroidery,' Bachelors 
of Arts being required to 'provide themselves with gowns made 
of prunello or princes stuff,' and the penalty for each offence 
against these ordinances was 'six shillings and eightpence.'^ Noble- 
men were at the same time informed that their privilege of wearing 
hats in the University 'does not extend to wearing of them 
laced.' In 1769 a change was made with regard to the wearing 
of caps. The ordinary undergraduates had hitherto worn round 
caps or bonnets of black cloth lined with black silk or canvas, 
with a brini of black velvet for pensioners and of prunella or silk 
for sizars. They now petitioned the Duke of Grafton, who was 
about to be installed as Chancellor, for permission to adopt the 
square caps hitherto reserved for scholars and graduates, on the 
ground that they wished to attend the installation 'in a dress 
more decent and becoming.'^ The Duke acceded to the request, 
and thus a change was quietly made ' which if it had happened in 
the days of Whitgift and Cartwright would have set the whole 
Univei'sity in an uproar.' 

That the control of costume from above lasted on into the 
19th century appears from orders made by Trinity and St John's 
Colleges in 1812 'that students appearing in Hall or Chapel in 
pantaloons or trousers should be considered as absent.' '^ 

1 MulliiiKer, ii. 280. 2 Feb. 17, IMi: Cooper, AiinaU. iii. 33fi. :< lit. p. 48.5, 

4 lb. iii. 564. .5 76. iv. 278. 

6 Cooper, Annalt, Iv. 355. Cooper prints (p. 3-5t)) an extract from the Cambridffe Chronicle for July 1. 
1709:— 

Mutuntqne Rotunda f^uadratis 
Ye learn'd of every age and climate yield. 
And to illustrious CanibridRe quit the Weld. 
Wliat sase Professors never yet could teach. 
Nor Archiniede.s, nor our Newton reach ; 
What ancients and what moderns vainly souglit, 
Cambridtie with ease has both attain'd and taught : 
This truth e'en en\'j" must herself allow. 
For nil her Scholars Hquare the Circle now. 

7 Cooper, Annals, iv. 503. But cf. Gunning;, Reminitcences, ii. 7, which suggests that as early as 1795 
the Vice-Chancellor mi^ht wa'k abroad in the mornin« wearing: pantaloons. 

H. E. 13 



194 UNIVERSITY COSTUME 

The present regulations with regard to the academical dress of 
graduates were adopted by Grace of the Senate, 13 June 1889, 
but they rest upon older custom. Doctors of Divinity, Law, and 
Physic had formerly three academic robes — a robe for University 
business, worn at Congregations, Disputations, etc. ; a scarlet 
gown for festal occasions; and a black gown. The robe for 
University business is represented by the cope now worn by the 
Vice-Chancellor and by those who present candidates for a 
Doctor's Degree in any faculty. 'If the' antiquary,' says Dr 
RashdalP, 'wants to see a true medieval cappa he must go to 
Cambridge upon a degree-day. There he will find the presiding 
Vice-ChanceUor and the Professors who present for degrees in 
the Superior Faculties arrayed in a garment which exactly 
resembles a fourteenth-century miniature of the Chancellor 
contained in the precious "Chancellor's book" of Oxford. It is 
a sleeveless scarlet cloak Uned with minever, with a tippet and 
hood of the same material fastened thereto.' Its medieval 
counterpart may be seen in the marble monuments of the 
Doctors of Bologna^. The earliest reference to the scarlet gown 
contained in Cooper's Annals^ is to a Grace of 1578 'for the 
better observance of the ancient custom of the University that 
doctors should on certain festival days appear in public in scarlet 
gowns.' This Grace imposes a penalty of 10s. on all Doctors 
who do not observe the custom on Christmas Day, Easter Day, 
Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Trinity Sunday, the Feasts of St 
Michael and AU Saints, the Commencement, Alidsummer Fair, 
Sturbridge Fair, and the day of the Queen's Accession. These 
are still the days observed*, with the exception of the two Fairs, 
Accession Day, and Michaelmas Day, and with the addition of the 
day appointed for the Commemoration of Benefactors. The 
same gown was in aU probabihty common to all the Faculties 
except Music, the differences of Faculty being shewn by differences 
in the lining of the gown, with a further difference in the case of 
Divinity that the loops on the sleeves and back are of black cord 
instead of red. The black gowns for ordinary occasions are also 
distinguished, partly by cut and partly by the arrangement of 
the lace trimming. The M.A. hood is black, but in the days 
of two Houses the Non-Regents' hoods were lined with black 
and the Regents' with white silk. The Non-Regent's hood has 
now disappeared, although it was worn in College Chapel by 
Professor J. E. B. Mayor until his death. 

The Doctor's velvet bonnet^ was originally the ordinary head- 

1 The Univertitiet of Europe in the Middle Age> 11895), ii. 643: see also Sir John Sandj's in FatcicuXut 
Joarni Willis Clark dicatxu, p. 238. 
•_> Rashdall. i. 196 m. 3 ii. 359, 

4 Besides the .Scarlet Days prescribed by Ordinance, there are cert.iln other days, more especially the first 
da)' of General Admission in the Easter Term, and such days as may be fixed for the conferring of Honorar)" 
Degrees, on which scarlet is worn bv order of tiie Vice-Chancellor. 

5 A print of Harraden's shews a ti. D. wearing a square cap. This was the usual practice until about 30 
years ago, when there was substituted for this what is technically known as the ' Bishop Andrewes cap." 



UNIVERSITY COSTUME 195 

gear of a gentleman, and its use did not therefore arouse 
the violent controversy which raged round the square cap» 
Academic mourning is indicated by wide bands of mourning 
ribbon across the square cap from corner to corner, with a, 
rosette of the same material at the point of intersection. In 
the case of mourning for the Chancellor or any Royal person- 
age, bows of black ribbon, technically known as ' butterflies,' are 
worn upon the 'skull' of the cap, three in the middle, with two 
and one in the narrowing space on either side. 

For the purposes of identification the costumes peculiar to the 
various Degrees may be described thus: 

D.D. Eobes and hood of scarlet cloth, both lined with silk shot with 
pink and violet ; or black full-sleeved gown with scarf (or M.A. 
gown with scarf). 

LL.D. Robes and hood of scarlet cloth, both lined with silk of a light 
cherry colour ; oi- black gown with the sleeve sewn across below 
the arm-hole, 'wings' on the shoulders, and a 'flap collar' at the 
back. 

M.D. Robes and hood of scarlet cloth, both lined with silk of a darker 
cherry colour; or black gown as for LL.D., but trimmed with 
'Doctors' lace.' 

Sc.D. Robes and hood of scarlet cloth, both lined with silk shot with 
pink and light blue ; or M.A. gown with a single row of Doctors' 
lace placed horizontally above the arm-hole on the sleeve. 

Litt.D. Robes and hood of scarlet cloth, both lined with scarlet silk 
the same colour as the gown ; or M.A. gown with a single row 
of Doctor's lace placed vertically above the arm-hole on the sleeve. 

Mus.D. Robes and hood of damasked cream- white silk, lined with 
satin of a dark cherry colour; or black gown as for M.D. but with 
a double row of Doctors' lace on the lower part of the collar. 

M.A. and LL.M. Black silk or stuff gown, and black silk hood linecl 
with white silk. The M.A. gown is also worn by Masters of 
Surgery (M.C.) and Masters of Music (Mus.M.). 

B.D. Gown as for M.A., and black silk hood lined with black silk. 

M.B. Black silk or stuff gown of the same shape as the scarlet M.D. 
gown, and hood of black silk lined with pmk silk of the colour 
approved for the lining of the scarlet M.D. gown. There appears- 
to be no authority for the pink loops and buttons sometimes worn 
on the sleeves of the M.B. gown. 

Mus.B. Black gown, and hood of satin of the same colour as that 
used for lining the Mus.D. hood and lined in the same manner as 
the B.A. hood. 

B.A., LL.B. Black gown, and black stuff hood lined with white rabbit 
furl. The B.A. gown is also worn by Bachelors of Surgery (B.C.).. 

The gowns mentioned above all have strings; the under- 
graduate's gown is shorter and has no strings. Research Students 
wear the B.A. gown without strings. 

In Cambridge, unhke Oxford, there are slight variations ta 

1 A hundred years ago lamb's wool was used. Cf. Fuller's description of the patJium : 'The breadth 
exceeded not three flngers, (one of our bachelor's lamb-skin hoods in Cnmbridge would make three of 
them,) bavins two labels hanging down before and behind' [Church Ilixtory of Britain, i. Ki7). Lamb's 
wool survived longer at Jesus than at any other College— certainly until about fifty years ago. 

13—2 



196 UNIVERSITY COSTUME 

distinguish members of different Colleges. These are of com- 
paratively recent origin, dating from the first half of the last 
century^. Before that time all undergraduates wore a short 
plain black gown, as at Oxford. The variations now adopted 
are as follows: 

Petebhouse. Plain black gown. 

Claee. Black gown with three broad velvet stripes on the sleeves, 
in imitation of the three cheverons gules upon the College arms. 

Pembroke. Black gown, looped up at the forearm with button 
and edging. 

GoNvn-LE AND Caius. Bluc gown, with black velvet yoke and 
velvet on the foreparts of the sleeves. 

Trinity Hall. Plain black gown, with slit up the forearm seam, 
with button and loop inside. 

Corpus Christi. Black gown with velvet facings. 

King's. . Black cloth gown. 

Queens'. Plain black gown, as at Peterhouse. 

St Catharine's. Black gown with eight pleats in the front. 

Jesus. Black gown with six pleats on the forearm, and velvet up 
the forearm. The Rustat Scholars wear a black cloth gown, similar to 
that worn by undergraduates of King's. 

Christ's. Black gown with pleated robings on the fronts and across 
arm-holes. 

St John's. Black gown with four velvet narrow stripes on the 
sleeves, arranged ' cheveron-wise.' 

Magdalene. Black gown, similar to Pembroke, but with a longer 
loop. 

Trinity. Blue gown, rather darker than at Caius, with black 
facings on the foreparts and sleeves. 

Emmanuel. Black gown with pleated robings as at Christ's, but 
on the fronts only. 

Sidney Sussex. Black gown with pleated robings as at Christ's, 
but on the sleeves only and differently arranged. The Sidney robing 
is on either side of the sleeve opening and is pointed ; the robing on 
the Christ's gown goes straight across. 

Downing. Black gown with six pleats on the forearm and three 
buttons and edging. 

Selwyn College, on its foundation as a Public Hostel in 1882, 
adopted a black gown with blue facings down the foreparts — the 
reverse of Trinity. 

Non-Collegiate Students wear a black gown with a band of velvet 
1 J inches wide on either side of the sleeve opening. 

A special gown (black, with a violet button and loop on the 
forearm seam) was formerly worn by the Westminster Scholars 
at Trinity, and 'gowns of cloth with open sleeves, like the 
students of Christ Church Oxon' and square caps without tassels, 
to be supplied by the College, were prescribed by the Foundress 
for the Duchess of Somerset's Exhibitioners at St John's. 
Fellow-Commoners also wore an imposing garment with a 
large velvet collar and velvet robings, and decorated with lace — 
at Trinity silver and at other Colleges, gold — the Colleges being 

1 Venn, Early CoIleirMe /,i.fi;l}7 II. 



UNIVERSITY COSTUME 197 

distinguished by variations in the arrangement of the lace. 
With this was worn a velvet cap with a tassel of gold or silver, 
according to the lace. A Nobleman Fellow-Commoner wore a 
tall hat instead of the velvet cap, but was also entitled to wear 
a special Nobleman's gown on state occasions. This was of 
bright blue material richly trimmed with gold lace, and with 
it was worn the Fellow-Commoner's velvet cap with a tassel 
of gold. At King's Noblemen and Fellow-Commoners wore a 
bishop's sleeved gown. 

Some University officers still wear special official costumes. 
The voluminous blue robe of the Chancellor, with its elaborate 
decorations of gold lace, and its long train borne by a page of 
honour, is a familiar sight in the University ; much more so the 
Vice-Chancellor's cope described above (p. 194). The Proctors 
had two costumes, the 'Congregation habit'^ — ^the ordinary hood 
worn over the cape of black silk known as the 'ruff'; and the 
'ad clerum habit' — the squared hood without ruff. The Public 
Orator, when presenting for Degrees, if a Doctor in any 
Faculty, wears at his option either a cope, or on Scarlet Days 
the scarlet gown and hood and on other days the black gown 
and hood. The Registrary wears in the Senate House the gown 
and hood of his Degree, as also the Esquire Bedells, ^ and the 
Praelectors of Colleges when presenting for Degrees. At Con- 
gregations all officials who take part in the ceremony keep their 
heads covered^. 

In Gunning's time the University Marshal, who was then 
appointed by letters patent 'under the hand and seal of the 
Vice-Chancellor,'^ wore on state occasions 'a purple coat, with 
a very large silver plate' on the left arm 'which was stamped 
with the University arms.'* The Proctors' men still wear 
heavy cloaks of ' blue beaver ' with the collars decorated with 
gilt buttons and gold thread. 

Persons presented to Degrees other than Honorary Degrees wear 
in the Senate House dark clothes, lawn white evening ties, and 
bands. Undergraduates being admitted to the Title of a 
Bachelor's Degree wear the undergraduate's gown and a Bachelor's 
hood ; Bachelors being admitted to incept in any Faculty wear 
the Bachelor's gown and hood; Graduates of the University 
being admitted to the Title of a Degree (other than Honorary) 
wear the gown and hood of the Degree or one of the Degrees to 

1 A Grace of 149:5 allowed the Bedells to use in summer ' camlet ' hoods of light woollen stuff, instead of 
those wit!) fur lining at that time required during the rest of the year (Grace-Book B II, xxi and 67). 

2 A print in Harraden's Costume of 18Q5 shews an Esquire Bedell wearing a tall hat instead of a cap. 

3 Ceremonief, p. 300. 

4 Reminltcences, ii, 175, Of. also a much earlier entry in the University accounts, referring to the 
Marshal of that day. 

1889—90 
For JluUiner's blew coat and making, £S. 0*. (kl. 

To Mr Urlin for «doz. of silver buttons to it, £3. 15s. Od. 

For shoes and stockings, 7«. ; more extraordinary, 4s. lis. Od. 



198 UNIVERSITY COSTUME 

which they have previously been admitted; all persons being 
admitted to Degrees or Titles of Degrees honoris causd wear the 
gown of such Degree without a hood; and aU persons being 
admitted to a full Degree (other than Honorary) wear the gown 
and hood of such Degree, with the exception of persons being 
admitted to the Degree of Doctor of Divinity, or Doctor of 
Divinity Designate, who wear the cope. 

Members of the Senate presenting candidates for Degrees 
wear by custom 'dress of a dark hue.' 



University Discipline 

In 1595 Dr Roger Goad, on entering upon the office of Vice- 
Chancellor, issued a 'brief or abridgement of the statutes and 
orders which then regulated the conduct of students^. From this 
it appears that the 'hurtfull and unscholerUke exercise of Foot- 
ball' was prohibited, 'except within places severall to the 
CoUedges, and that for them only that be of the same CoUedges ' ; 
that 'Batchelors of Arts and Inferior Students' were to 'give 
place to their betters,' and 'that they do not presume to cover 
their Heads at Sermons or other pubhck meetings whatsoever, 
except such only as are priviledged by the Statutes, viz. Sonns of 
Noblemen and Heirs^ apparent of Knights ' ; that no ' Fellow or 
Scholer of any Degree being of any Colledge' was allowed to 
'keep any Doggs either within CoUedges or without'; that 
students were not allowed to ' walke upon the Market Hill or sitt 
upon the Stalls or other places thereabout, or make any stay at 
all in the said Market place or elsewhere within the Town longer 
then they shall have necessary cause, being appointed by their 
Tutors to dispatch some necessary business ' ; that they were not 
allowed to 'resort unto victualling Houses and Taverns, and 
especially upon Fryday or other fasting nights ' without a Tutor's 
permission ; and that they were not to carry guns or crossbows or 
to 'use or resort to BuU-bayting, Bear-bayting, Common bowling- 
places, Nine-hoals, or such like unlawfull games.' Fencing and 
dice had been prohibited by the Injunctions of 1549, as also 
cards, except at Christmas time^; and in 1571, when Whitgift 
was Vice-Chancellor, a curious decree, which Dr Peacock after- 
wards characterised as ' of savage and indecent severity,' had 
provided^ that if any scholar 'should go into any river, pool, or 
other water in the county of Cambridge by day or night to swim 
or wash,' he should, if under the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, ' be 
sharply and severely whipped publicly in the Common HaU of 
the College in which he dwelt,' in the presence of all the Fellows 
and undergraduates, and again on the following day in the 
Pubhc Schools by one of the Proctors on behalf of the University ; 
with expulsion to follow on a second offence. If he was a B.A. 

1 Cooper, AnnnU, ii. fl:;?. 2 lb. ii. '.VI. 3 lb. p. 277. 



200 UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 

he was to be fined 10s. and placed in the stocks for a whole day 
in the C!ollege HaU, with expulsion for the second offence; and 
if of a higher Degree he was to be 'severely punished at the 
judgment and discretion of the Master of his College, or in his 
absence of the President and one of the Deans.' 

It should be noted that almost all the College Histories record 
instances of punishments in their several societies, as well as of 
more pubUc University discipline. See, for instance, Dr Peile's 
investigation of the rumour, afterwards magnified by Samuel 
Johnson, of the treatment of John Milton, and his conclusion 
that 'the evidence is insufficient; though in itself there is 
nothing antecedently improbable in the flogging of an under- 
graduate, who was not yet adtdtus.' ^ The College Order Book of 
Corpus Christi College, under May 22nd, 1648, records: "Benton 
per Tutorem suum M"""- Johnson virgis castigandus." This date, 
it will be noticed, is nearly a quarter of a century later than 
Dr Samuel Johnson's "last instance." 

In connexion with the prohibition of games, one of the 
difficulties with which the authorities had to contend was the 
setting up by certain 'Ught and decaied persons' of 'showes of 
unlawfull, hurtfull, pernicious, and unhonest games'* in the 
neighbourhood of the University and more especially ' at Gog- 
Magog HUls ' ' ; and in 1574 a special decree was directed against 
students frequenting such places*. The penalty provided was a 
fine of six-and-eightpence to be paid by the Tutor of the student 
so offending, 'and if the said Tutors shall refuse to pay the same, 
the goods of the said Tutors shall immediately be distressed and 
taken for the payment of the said mulcts.' The privileges of the 
University in this matter went beyond the control of its own 
members and extended to the total prohibition of certain unlawful 
pursuits within five miles of Cambridge. On Sunday, 22 April 
1581*, the Vice-Chancellor sent a Proctor and one of the Bedells 
to inhibit a bear-baiting at Chesterton, and 'finding the beare at 
stake where he had been bayted in the sermon time,' commanded 
the 'Bereward' to 'cease from that disordered pastime' and 
accompany the Bedell into the presence of the Vice-Chancellor. 
The crowd, resenting this interference, 'violently shoved and 
thrust the Bedell upon the Beare' and the bearward refused to 
put in an appearance. The University thereupon complained to 
the Chancellor, Lord Burghley, who vindicated its privileges by 
committing the offenders to the Gatehouse in Westminster, 
where they remained until they made submission, expressing 

1 Peile, HMory ofChritt't College, p. 1-ia 

i ("oiper, AiinnU, ii. :ffl8. 

;{ Dr Venn explains that until the middle of the 18th (%ntary there was no enclosure or plantntion on 
the top of the hill, and the old British caunp of Vatidlebury. now hidden by the trees, stoixl out on the 
hare down [Early Collngiate IJ/e. p. 119). Thus the camp aifonled cover for the sjiort while the oiien 
approaches to it gave none for an advancing Pn>ctor. 

4 Cooper, Aniialt, ii. SI. h lb. p. 383. 



UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 201 

themselves as 'in hart verie sorie for the same our lewde 
demeanor and wilful! contempt.' 

The privilege of inhibiting 'all manner of unprofitable or idle 
games ' within five miles of the University was confirmed by 
James I by letter in 1604^ and in a charter of 1605,^ bull- 
baiting and bear-baiting being specialty mentioned. Acting no 
doubt on this authority, when in 1620 'a famous Bull' arrived in 
Cambridge, and it was intended that it should be baited at 
Gogmtigog Hills, 'where bowling, running, jumping, shooting, 
and wrestling were to be practised for a month or six weeks, 
under the designation of the Olympic games,' the Vice-Chancellor 
'prevented the expected pastime.'^ Later, in 1727, scholars were 
forbidden to join the disorderly assemblies upon Market Hill, 
drawn thither on Shrove Tuesday by the prospect of cock- 
fighting*. 

Other things also were from time to time prohibited to students 
by the University. In 1607 a decree was issued against the 
keeping by students of greyhounds for coursing, ' to the destroying 
of the game and misspending their time' ^ ; and in the same year a 
crusade began against 'excessive drinkings, foul drunkenness, and 
taking tobacco in taverns and shops,' 'to the dishonour of God, 
great scandal of the University at home and abroad, waste of 
expence besides hurt of body and mind, and evil example from 
those that profess learning and sobriety,'* and it was 'further 
enordered' that no student should 'take tobacco in St Mary's 
Church in the Commencement time, or in the Schools in the Lent 
Acts, or at any other time of exercise of learning in the said 
Schools, in any dining hall of Colleges, or at any other time and 
place of comedies or publick University tragedies, shews, or 
assemblies.' The penalties prescribed range from six shillings 
and eightpence up to 'disgrading' and expulsion in the case of 
graduates, while any offender who was 'non-graduate and 
adultus,' in addition to a fine could be 'made uncapable of his 
degree for one whole year when his time cometh'; 'and if any 
herein shall offend being non-adultus, then every such shall have 
correction in the Schools by the rod.' On the occasion of 
James I's visit to Cambridge in 1615, among a series of special 
regulations we find one providing ' that no Graduate, SchoUer, or 
Student of this Universitie presume to resorte to any Inn, 
Taveme, Alehowse, or Tobacco-shop, at any tyme dureing the 
abode of his Majestic here ; nor doe presume to take tobacco in 
St Marie's Church or in Trinity Colledge Hall, upon payne of 
finall expellinge the Universitie.'' 

1 Cooper. AnnaU, iii. 6. S /4. p. 16. 

3 lb. V. :««. 4 /». IV. ie«. 

S /b. iii. 26. 6 /*. p. 27. 

7 Cooper, A ittt'iU, iii. 68. Cf. a similar regulation on tiie occasion of Charles I's visit in 1632 to see a play in 
Trinity College Hall : ' Item, thitt no tobacco be taken in tl'.e Hall, nor any where else publiquely, and tnnt 



202 UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 

With Dr Goad's regulations of 1595 and the subsequent 
additions, may be compared a series of orders and regulations 
passed by the Senate in 1750^ From these it appears that no 
person in statu pupillari was allowed to keep a horse, 'except 
it be for the sake of his health and with the express consent of his 
parents or guardians, given under their hands to the Master of 
the College to which he belongs ' ; any person in statu pupillari 
found at any ' coffee-house, tennis-court, cricket-ground, or other 
place of publick . • . entertainment,' between nine and twelve in 
the morning was to be fined lOs. ; every person in statu pupillari 
who did not attend the University sermon was fined Qd. for each 
offence, ' unless he can make it appear that he was excused by the 
Master or one of the Deans of his College,' and to facihtate the 
collection of the fines each College had a special part of the 
galleries assigned to it, and its members were marked in by the 
sizars of the College to which they belonged. The germ of later 
regulations may also be found in the following provisions relating 
to persons in statu pupillari: that no tavern-keeper or coffee- 
house-keeper should trust any of them 'above the sum of twenty 
shillings ' without the consent of his Tutor, or serve them with 
'wine, punch, or any other strong liquor' after eleven o'clock at 
night; that thej'^ shoidd not be 'suffered to go out of town on 
horseback or in any wheel carriage whatsoever without the 
express consent of his Tutor or the Master of the College ' ; and 
that every such person 'appearing with a gun or keeping or 
procuring other persons to keep sporting dogs for his use during 
his residence in the University' should be liable to a fine. No 
person was allowed to play at dice within the precincts of the 
University, nor at cards 'unless for small suras.' 

The regulations of 1750 were supplemented from time to time 
during the next hundred years by further prohibitions, as new 
practices arose which were regarded as unseemly or reprehensible^. 
In 1752 the Vice-Chancellor and Heads issued a decree against 
carrying hghted torches in the streets, causing 'great terror and 
apprehensions that some parts of the Colleges or town may be 
fired thereby.'' In 1791, in consequence of a fatal duel between 
two undergraduates of Pembroke*, the Vice-Chancellor issued a 
notice prohibiting the shooting at marks with pistols, as 'an 
exercise which obviously tends to introduce and promote the 
•dangerous and impious crime of DuelUng'^; and in 1828 the 

neither at their standinge in the streets nor hefore the Comedye heginne, nor nil the tyme there an? rude 
or immodest exclamntions t>e mnAe ; nor any humming;, hawlfint;. whi^Iine. liissinic, or laiighinK be used, 
nor any stamping or knoclcing, nor any other such uncivill or unscholiarlilce or boyish demeanor upon any 
occasion ' lib, p, 2S0). 

1 Cooper, A'lnalx^ iv. 278. 

•J A Grace of May 8, ITIK, imposed penalties upon memi)ers of the I'nivetsity who stole bodies from 
churchyards or concealed them within the precincts of the University, 

.1 /». iv. 3(». 

4 Hee GmininK. Iteminiwenr*»^ i, 219, 

.■) Cooper. Aniialt, iv. 441. 



UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 203 

authorities prohibited persons in statu pupillari from ' associating 
or holding communication with' a Bachelor of Arts of St John's, 
*he having been convicted of being concerned in a gambling 
transaction with a person in statu pupillari, of having afterwards 
■challenged such person to fight a duel, and subsequently upon 
his refusal to accept the challenge, of publicly and violently 
assaulting him.'^ In 1798 scholars were forbidden to drive 
carriages, 'particularly in the streets, to the great danger of 
themselves and annoyance of others, and in violation of all good 
order and discipline '^ ; and in 1841 'tandems and four-in-hand 
carriages' were forbidden^, the general prohibition of driving 
carriages having apparently by that time fallen into disuse. In 
1831, 1837, and 1838 townsmen were discommuned for 'suffering 
persons in statu pupillari to resort' to their houses 'for the 
purpose of playing at billiards'*; and in 1842 it was made an 
■offence to ' be found resorting to or having any communication 
whatever with any professed teacher of the art of boxing, or be 
found attending any prize-fight.'^ Later in the year pigeon- 
shooting came under the same ban^. 

The hour fixed for the closing of the gates of the Colleges has 
■ varied. In 1675 they were to be shut at eight in the winter and 
nine in the summer, and the keys brought to the Master; but 
even then, we are told, 'some use the more benign interpretation, 
and call it eight till nine in winter and nine till ten in summer.'' 
In theory, although not always in practice, no one could be 
admitted after these hours; but by 1750 the rule had become 
less rigid, although students found out of College after eleven 
were fined 6s. %d. for the first offence, 13s. 4rf. for the second, 
'publickly admonished' for the thiid, and expelled for the 
fourth^. 

An account of modern University discipline will be found in 
the Student's Handbook. 



In addition to its control over its own students, the University 
has also exercised in special spheres control over the proceedings 
of tradesmen in the Town of Cambridge. The price and quality 
of the provisions supplied to students was from early times 
regarded as an important University interest, and in 1382 
Richard II by charter granted to the Chancellor and his 
successors the custody of the assize of bread, wine, and beer, 
the oversight of weights and measures, and 'power to inquire 
and take conusance of forestallers and regrators, and of putrid, 
corrupt, and unfit flesh and fish, in the town and suburbs, and 



204 UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 

to make due punishment thereupon.'^ These rights were recited 
and confirmed in Queen Elizabeth's charters of 1561 and 1589^. 

The powers thus acquired were exercised mainly through the 
Taxors, officers common to all medieval Universities^. They 
ranked next after the Proctors*, and their primary function was 
to assess the rent of houses leased for University purposes or 
for the residence of scholars, but they also had the supervision 
of victuals and victuallers, of weights and measures, and the 
assize of bread and beer^. In 1542, in consequence of the 
poverty of the University at that time, the office was abolished 
and the duties were transferred to the Proctors^, but four years 
later it was revived^, and continued until 1855, when it came 
to an end owing to Sir John Patteson's award on the matters 
in dispute between the University and the Town^. The salaries 
of the Taxors were discontinued by Grace of the Senate in 1856*. 

The exercise of these powers involved frequent interference 
with Cambridge trade. In 1633 the Proctors seized candles 
'made of unlawful stuffe' and fined the merchant who sold 
thera^". The University accounts for 1536-7 contain a charge 
of lOd. incurred by the Proctors for a night watch to prevent 
the carrying of candles out of the town^^; and in 1629 we find 
the University fixing the price of candles and proceeding against 
certain chandlers in the Vice- Chancellor's Court for exceeding 
the price thus set*^. In 1596 the Town complained that 'the 
Proctors deputie after nine of the clocke at night and divers 
with him holdinge naked swordes in then- handes, entered into 
the howse and bed-chamber of Roger Fidlinge to search for 
flesh '^^; and nearly 200 years afterwards, as late as 1784, the 
Taxors were still visiting the market to 'seize and destroy all 
unwholesome provisions.''* In 1550 the University was fixing 
the price of ale, and when the brewers 'stowghtly and contemp- 
tuously' refused to take it, the Vice-Chancellor committed them 
to prison'^. The privilege of licensing all 'victuellers or Tipplers' 
within the liberties of the University was also mast jealously 
preserved from all encroachments on the part of the Town'', and 
the keepers of unlicensed alehouses were fined''', the offender 
being in one case bound over 'never to vittell agayne.' The 
Vice-Chancellor also 'commanded his sign to be plucked down'**. 

I Cooper, .^/lHn?4>.^. 121. 2 /6. il. ISR, *fi. 3 (irave-llook A. p. xU\i. 

4 The Biddin){ Prayer recoftnises tliU. The Latin version printed in Nichols's Progr<^$tes and the 
Eiijilish venion of ISM— 1702 both insert the Taxors next after the Proctors— the latter in a sentence 
whicli closely follows the familiar form: 'And herein for his Grace, diaries. Duke of Somerset, our 
Chancellor, the Rererend and leamol the Professors. Mr Proctors, Mr Taxers, and all that bear office in 
this our Body ' (Mulliniier. ii. <KS)— 3UI. See also p. im abbre. 

5 GnieeBook \, p. xxivii. 6 Cooper, Annalt, i. -Wl, 7 lb. p. 441. 
8 /». V. 1S2. 9 ]b. V. 221. 10 lb. I. S69. 

II Crace-Book B II. pp. xv, av. Cf. Cooper, AnnnU, i. 44.'', ii. 5S1. 

12 Cooper, .innal$, ill. 214—17. A controversy with the Town arising out of this case was settled by the 
King in Council in favour of the University. 

13 lb. ii. 651. 14 lb. iv. 411. 

1.5/6.11.49. 16 /ft. ii. 180; iii. ice. 17 / 6. v. 29a 

18 Cooper, AintaU, v. .'ins. Copies of the Vice-Chancellor's licence will be found in Cooper, .\nnalt. iii. 
238 (1631), and iv. 24 |16»4|. 



UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 205 

The quality of the liquor was also supervised; in 1565 one 
Henry Hodgeson was cited by the Taxors before the Vice- 
<Jhancellor, and was fined for having exposed for sale 40 
kilderkins of 'mustye beere.'^ The issue of licences to sell wine 
was also in the hands of the University authorities^, who fixed 
the price^. 

The dissatisfaction of the Town of Cambridge with this inter- 
ference with their trade was accentuated by the large powers 
claimed by the University over Sturbridge Fair*. The nature 
of these is indicated by the terms of the proclamation used by 
the University about 1548 at the opening of the Fair^. They 
include control over quantities, quality, and prices of bread, 
beer, wine, fish, and flesh; over weights and measures; and 
over the size of 'bottels of hey,' faggots of wood, and sacks of 
charcoal. The chandlers also were to furnish 'good and lawfuU 
candeir at a fixed price; and corn was only to be sold within 
fixed hours. There was, however, a controversy of long standing 
over the question what wares might be regarded as 'victual' 
and therefore subject to the jurisdiction of the Vice-Chancellor®, 
and this came to a head in 1534. The steps taken by the 
University to defend its privileges are described in the Grace- 
Books'. It was fortunate in securing the powerful aid of 
Thomas Cromwell, referred to as singularin patronus noster, to 
whom an annual stipend of forty shillings was assigned by 
Grace pro termino vitae suae naturalist; and the controversy 
was ended in favour of the University by an ' angry and decisive 
letter' to the Corporation from King Henry VIII^. The Town 
recorded its disappointment in the words 'all is lost.'^" The 
controversy still smouldered on, and after many years of fruitless 
negotiation the University and Town at length came to an 
agreement, embodied in the charters of 1589, as to their . 
respective rights in Sturbridge Fair^^. «The Mayor who agreed 
to the terms of the new charters was regarded as having 
betrayed the Town, and 'shortlie after was putt [out] of his 
Aldermanshipp, and lived the remaynder of his life in great 
want and miserie, and hateful! to all the townesmen.'^^ Complaints 
were, however, still made of the exactions of the Proctors and 
'Taskers.'^^ In 1596 the Vice-Chancellor and Heads, in a letter 
to Lord Burghley, referred to 'the froward affection of our 
unkinde neighbours the Townesmen' who are renewing the 'ould 



1 Cooper, Aiuials. v. 29). 2 /b. ii. 1ft!, 409, iil; iii. 515; iv. 2iM. 

:t Jb. V. 306 ; ii. 409. 

4 For a learned iicoimiulation of references to Sturbridge Fair, see Jlayor, Life of Ambrose Uomnickc 
VV>. 15S— lft5. 

5 Printed in Cooi)cr, Aniuds, ii. 18—21. fi Grace-Book B II, p. xiv. 

I B II, pp. xiv— XV, and T, pp. xvii— xviii. See also Cooper, AunaU, i. :53.'i, :!72— 4, 388—90. 

8 Grace-Book F, pp. xviii, and 2a). 9 Cooper, Anmila, i. 390. 

10 Grace-Book T, p. xviii. 11 Cooper. Annnh, ii. 466—75. 12 /b. p. 47-7. 

13 lb. ii. 560. 



206 UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 

complaint«s,' ^ and a formal answer to the charges was returned. 
As late as 1738 the University published an edict against 
schismatical congregations at Sturbridge Fair, and Pro-Proctors 
were appointed to see it executed — a measure due to a fear that 
the eccentric London preacher known as 'Orator Henley' would 
'erect an oratory in the Fair.'^ An account of the Fair as he 
saw it in 1789 is given by Gunning in his Reminiscenced. 
The powers of the University over markets and fairs were 
abolished by the Cambridge Award Act of 1856. 

Four of the more important University privileges survived 
into lat«r times — the right to prohibit entertainments, the control 
over weights and measures, the right to control ale-houses, and 
the Vice-ChanceUor's power to Ucense vintners. 

As early as 1270 letters patent issued by Heiu-y III at the request 
of the University had forbidden tournaments, tiltings, justings, 
or other warlike games in Cambridge or within five miles thereof* ; 
and more than three centiuries later, in 1604, James I, 'for the 
better maintenance, safety, and quietness ' of the University and 
its students, ' and to remove, take away, and prevent all occasions 
that maj' tend either to the infecting of their bodies or minds, 
or to the withdrawing or aUenating the younger sort from the 
courses of their studies there intended,' authorised the authorities 
of the University by royal letter^ to prohibit 'aU and all manner 
of unprofitable or idle games, plays, or exercises' within the 
radius of five miles, 'especially bull-baiting, bear-baiting, common 
plays, public shews, interludes, comedies and tragedies in the 
Enghsh tongue, games at loggets®, nine-holes, and all other 
sports and games whereby throngs, concourse, or multitudes are 
drawn together, or whereby the younger sort are or may be 
drawn or provoked to vain expence, loss of time, or corruption 
of manners.' These powers were confirmea by charter in 1605', 
and in 1737 it was provided by statute^ that 'all persons 
whatsoever who shall for gain in any playhouse, booth, or 
otherwise, exhibit any stage play, interlude, shew, opera, or 
other theatrical or dramatical performance, or act any part, 
or assist therein' within the radius 'shall be deemed rogues and 
vagabonds,' and the University authorities were empowered to 
sentence such offenders to a month's imprisonment with hard 
labour. This Act was repealed by the Theatres Act' of 1843', 
which placed the licensing of theatres in places beyond the limits 
of the Lord Chamberlain's jurisdiction in the hands of the 
Justices of the Peace, subject to the proviso with regard to 
Oxford and Cambridge that no licence should be in force within 
the precincts of either University or fourteen miles rotind it 

1 Cooper, AnnaU. ii. offi. 2 lb. iv. 241. 3 i. 162—173. 

i Cooper, Amialt, i. .53. ,'5 lb. iii. fi. 

6' Logotts' was an old English (stme. It consisted in throwing missiles, also called loggats, at a stake 
fixed in the ftround, the nearest winning. 
7 Cooper, A nnaU, iii. 16. 8 10 Geo. II, c. 19 : ib. iv. 32a 9 6 and 7 Vict c 6S. 



UNIVERSITY DISCIPLINE 207 

without the consent of the Vice-Chancellor^. The Acts of 1737 
and 1843 related to theatrical performances only, but other 
entertainments were brought under the statute law by the 
Cambridge Award Act of 1856^, which provided that ' no occasional 
pubhc exhibition or performance, whether strictly theatrical or 
not,' should take place within the Borough unless with the 
consent in writing of the Vice-Chancellor and the Mayor, except 
during the period of Midsummer Fair or in the Long Vacation. 
This exception was abohshed by a clause in the Cambridge 
University and Corporation Act of 1894^, which at the same time 
made the consent of the Vice-Chancellor no longer necessary. 

The control of the University over weights and measures, 
which was in full force in Gunning's time (see p. 182 above) was 
in substance transferred to the Borough Magistrates by the 
Cambridge Award Act of 1856, although power was reserved to 
the Vice-Chancellor to appoint Inspectors of Weights and 
Measures who should have 'concurrent power' with those 
appointed by the Town Council. The same Act abrogated the 
power of the Vice-Chancellor to grant Alehouse Licences within 
the Borough, although the right was reserved to him of making 
a complaint in writing against any licence, and the Justices were 
required to consider such a complaint in a special session and 
were authorised to revoke any alehouse licence so complained 
of after hearing the parties. 

The Act of 1856 which abrogated the power of granting 
Alehouse Licences, expressly reserved the right to grant Wine 
Licences 'in the same manner as it is now exercised under ancient 
usage' and in accordance with the provisions of 10 Geo. II, c. 19, 
and 17 Geo. II, c. 40, although it prohibited the taking of money 
by the University for such Ucences. It appears from a passage in 
Cole's MSS referring to about 1745, that at that time there were 
four University Vintners, all members of the University, who 
sub-let the so-called University Taverns*. They paid £30 a year 
each for the privilege, and on a vacancy occurring in the office, 
the Heads nominated two persons, one of whom was elected by 
the Senate^. By Gunning's time the restriction to fovu: vintners 
had disappeared and the number was now unlimited, licences 
being granted on appUcation to the Vice-Chancellor. The power 
to grant Wine Licences is the last rehc that still remains of the 
control formerly exercised by the University over the Market and 
the sale of provisions and liquors within the University precincts. 

The University still retains the general power of 'discom- 
muning' ; the conditions under which it may be exercised arc 
described in the University Calendar. 

1 Cooper, ,<«■)«?»; iv.HBl. 2 19 Vict. c. 17. 3 57 and 58 Vict. c. 6(1. • 

^ Writing of Thomas Wliitstons of St John's, he says : ' He was presented by the University some years 
since to the Licence of tlie Mitre Tavern, whicli he let to Mr Ciancellor, whose widow now keeps it. But 
this being found by the University a l)ad practice and a sort of taxing ourselves, this year a Grace was 

Eiisse<i in the Senate to nhliffe every one who takes one of the four licensed University Taverns to give a 
onrt to tlie University that tliev will keep it themselves' (MSS tule ix. : B.M. Add. MSS 5810, f. 16((). 
5 Gunning, C reuonies, p. -^li). 



Public Buildings and Institutions 

For a fuller account of the University Buildings reference 
should be made to Willis and Clark's monumental work, Tht 
Architedural History of the Univernty of Cambridge, 3 vols, and 
maps, 1886. 

THE UNIVERSITY CHURCH 

From very early times the Church of St Mary the Great has 
been connected with the University *. Its reUgious services have 
been held there from a very remote period, and at a time when 
there were no University buildings the more important academic 
proceedings used to take place there. The first record of a Grace 
being passed at a Congregation held in the Church is in 1275^; 
and the great ceremony of Inception, on Commencement Day, 
which had a religious character and was preceded by the celebra- 
tion of the mass, was held in Great St Mary's long after the 
building of the Arts Schools^. 

The advowson belonged to the Crown, but in 1343 it was 
transferred to the Master and Fellows of King's Hall with the 
intention that it should serve them as a College Chapel*, and it 
subsequently passed with the oth^r estates of King's Hall to 
Trinity, who now own the Rectory and appoint the incumbent. 

The structure itself has undergone many vicissitudes. The 
earliest chiu-ch was burnt down and many houses round it on 
9 July 1290, and its successor was more than fifty years in 
building, for the higli altar was not coiLsecrated until March 15, 
1346. In 1478 a new church was begun, towards which Henry VII 
contributed £40 and 100 oaks for the roof, and the Lady Margaret 
£20^; but part of the cost was borne by the University, the 
Proctors being for many years accustomed to ride about the 
country in order to soUcit contributions. The building, without 

1 The connexion of the University with St Bene'fs fhuroh is still older. As early as the year 1273 (see 
Hare, i. 2S* reference is niaile to the rinfiinK of the Bells of St Benedict's for academical iMjrposes— 
sumnloning scholars * to ye schooles, att such times as neede did require — as to acts, clennmis, congrega- 
tions, lecturs, disses. and such like.' Payments by tlie University authorities to the incumbent or church- 
wardens of St Bene'ts are recorded as late as 165B. 

2 MuUinKer, i. 'i®. 

3 Iff. p. :55. In the 14th centurj* the University Chest must liave been kept there, for in i;*l the reliels 
under James de tirancestre went to St Mary's to break it open and burn tlie bulls, charters, and muni- 
ments which it contained Uooper, An>ial».\. 130). 

4 Willis and Clark, ii. 4:1.). 5 Le Keux and Cooper. Mvmori/Ut, iii. ^£fi. 



THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 209 

the lower, was completed in 1519, and the tower was finished 
in 1608, 'so that from the beginning to the ending thereof were 
no fewer than an hundred and thirty years. '^ In 1545 some 
materials for it were provided from dissolved rehgious houses. 

The galleries for Bachelors of Arts and undergraduates were 
erected in 1739^ from the Benefaction of IVIr Worts (see p. 168); 
and in 1754 another gallery commonly called 'the throne'^ was 
put \ip above the entrance to the chancel from a design by 
Mr James Burrough, Master of Caius, for the accommodation of 
the Heads of Houses, Noblemen, Doctors, and Professors. About 
the same time the floor of the nave was appropriated to the 
University and fitted with benches for Masters of Arts ; this part 
of the church was known as 'the pit.' Another gallery for B.A.'s 
and undergraduates was built by the University at the west end 
of the church in 1819, but this and the throne were 'happily 
removed' in 1863*. 

The windows were originally filled with stained glass, executed 
by James Nicholson, one of the artificers employed at King's 
College Chapel, but this was taken out in or soon after 1566. 
The first peal of bells was rung in 1595, and the chimes date 
from 1671. In March 1793 the old clock was taken down and 
the University agreed to put up another, striking the quarters 
'changeable upon four bells.' Dr Jowett, the Regius Professor 
of Civil Law, was consulted, and after taking counsel with 
William Crotch, then a pupil of Dr Randall, the Professor of 
Music, he took a movement from the fifth bar of the opening 
symphony in Handel's 'I know that my Redeemer liveth,' and 
by a series of variations expanded it into the chimes now familiar 
in many parts of the world^. The present clock was renovated 
in 1892. The ringing of the 'Bedmakers' or 'Apprentices' BeU 
from 5.45 to 6 a.m. and the 'Curfew' from 9 to 9.15p.m. may 
be traced to an order made by the vestry, 26 October 1663, that 
the great bell should be rung at 9 o'clock at night and at 5 in 
the morning. 

THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARYs 

The buildings which now contain the University Library at 
one time included all the rooms required for the public life of the 
University, and it is only within recent memory that the gradual 
process of absorption by the Library has been completed. 

1 Fuller, quoted in MuIlliiKer, i. 427 »i. 

2 An interesting letter of Oct. 4, 1709, on the necessity of adding these galleries, is printed in Wordsworth, 
Scholae A cademicae,v. .S03. 

. ^ 'K'.'*? niclinamed 'GolRotha.' A print shewinR this gallery, with the old high pulpit standing in Ctont of 
It, will be found m Aclternmn s riistorti of CamhrUlge (180.)). 

4 Le Keux and Cooner, Mi-mnrials, iii. .•)07. See p. 51. note 8. 

5 Dr Stokes's article on 'Cauibridge Bells and Chimes' in the Vambridm' Itevlea for Feb. 8, 1912. 
I)r William Crotch (mS— 1W7) was afterwards organist of Christ Church and' St John's College, Oxford, 
•and nlso of St Mary s Church there. 

r. See the acconnt of tlie Library in Henry IJradshaw's Collectfd Papern, pp. 181—203. 

H. R. ]4 



210 THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

A portion of the present site was given to the University 
shortly before 1278 by Xigel de Thornton, Doctor in Medicine, 
and this was subsequent!}' increased: first by ground acquired 
in 1421 from Trinity Hall; next, by the purchase in 1432 of the 
'garden of the Hostel of the Holy Cross,' usually called Crouched 
Hostel ^; later, by the acquisition in 1459 of land from Corpus 
Christi College; and finally by the purchase in 1829 of the site 
of the Old Court of King's College for £12,0002. 

The foundation of the building on the north side of what is 
now the East Court is said to have been laid by Sir Robert 
Thorpe, Master of Pembroke Hall, and afterwards Lord Chan- 
cellor of England, who died in 1372^. The date of the 
foundation is about 1359*. The work was stopped for some 
years for want of funds, but by about 1400 the building was 
completed by the aid of the executors of Sir William Thorpe, 
Sir Robert Thorpe's brother, who are described as having 'caused 
to be built Divinity Schools, together with a Chapel for the souls 
of the aforesaid William and Grace his wife.'* The 'New Chapel' 
as it was still sometimes called until the building of the 
present Senate House, was on the first floor. It afterwards 
became the 'Regent House,' ^ and Fuller describes the Regent 
and Non-Regent Houses as 'having something of chapel character 
and consecration in them, as wherein some University devot'ons 
were performed.'' The western side was undertaken next, and 
included the Canon Law School, with 'a Common Library' 
immediately above it, and to this Library, which had been 
completed about 1438, Dr Walter Crome presented an important 
benefaction of books on the Feast of St Hugh (17 November) 1444. 
The building of the south side was begun in 1458 and was intended 
to provide Schools of Philosophy and Civil Law, the existing 
Schools having fallen into ' irremediable decay and ruin '^ ; it was 
probably completed in 1470 or 1471. The room on the first floor 
of this building was also assigned to Library purposes ; and the 
'Common Library' above the Canon Law School came to be used 
in the early part of the 16th century for the 'Humanities' or 
Terence School. Lastly, 1470-3, the east side of the quadrangle 
was built by Thomas Rotherham, Bishop of Lincoln, and after- 
wards Archbishop of York, Chancellor both of the realm and of 
the University, the first floor being a Library for the reception of 
choice books; and after this period, although the assignment of 

1 The greater part of the ganlen was re-sold in 1440 to King Henry VI, but a piece 68 feet by 10 was 
reserved ' for the erection of new Schools,' 

2 Willis and Clarlj. iii. 3, 8—9. 3 lb. iii. 10. 

4 Dr Stokes, Thi- CJiaplaim and the Chapel of the I'ntnerHty of Cambridge (Camb. Antiq. Soc. Octavo 
Publications. No. XLI (1906)). Tliere is a reference to 'our great Schools in School Street' in a lease dated 
IS February 1M7, but these buiMinss were not the property of the University (Dr Stokes ou 'Early 
University Property,' Cambridqe Antio. Soc. Commttniccttions^ Xo. LIII (1909)). 

5 Willis and Clark, iii. 11. 

6 The ' Rejtent House ' was divided into two parts, one for the meetings of the Regents and the other 
for the Non-Regents. Tlie question how far it retained a ' chapel character ' is fully discussed by Dr Stokea 
(p. 531. It is now the Catalogue Room. 

7 Uistory. p. 127 8 Willis and Clark, ill. 13. 



tHE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 211 

the roome to particulair piitposes was ehartged' from time to time, 
no important structttlral alteration of the buildlttgs took pliace 
until- alter ITIS'. 

The occasion of the next development of the Library was 
George I's gift to the University in 1715 of the library of Dr John 
Moore, Bishop of Ely, — a collection which exceeded 30,000 
volumes (see p. 16&). An attempt was made to accommodate 
the 'King's books,' as they were called, by fitting up the original 
'Common Library' on the first floor of the west side of the quad- 
rangle, which was now being used as a Law School; and the space 
over the Porter's Lodge belonging to the Old Court of King's 
College was leased in order to provide better communication. 
But it was found that this provision was not nearly sufficient, 
and it was therefore decided in 1-719 to build a new Senate Hous* 
(see p. 213) in order that the Regent House might be added to 
the Library, The new Senate House was opened in 1730, but 
the business of dismantling and refittimg the Regent House 
occupied nearly four years ; the books were not actually moved 
in until 1734. 

The present fa9ade to the Library^, i'ncluding the East Room,- 
was built between 1754 and 1758, from a design by Stephen 
Wright, at a cost of £10,500, met mainly by private subscription, 
the list of subscribers being headed by King George II, who 
gave £3000. Tlie more important subsequent additions are 
(1) Cockerell's Building, 1837-40, named after Charles Robert 
Cockerell, the architect; (2) Scott's Building, 1864-7, also named 
after the architect, George Gilbert Scott; (3) the Hancock 
Building, 1887-90, erected from a benefaction under the Will of 
the Reverend Edward Grey Hancock (B.A. 1855), formerly 
Fellow of St John's College, from the plans of John Loughborough 
Pearson, R.A. While the work was proceeding, Dr Charles 
Taylor, Master ©f St John's, gave the University £400, being his 
stipend as Vice-Chancellor for the academical year 1887-8, and 
this was expended on the statues in the external niches of the 
building. The oak eases in the Manuscript Room were given by 
Dr Cayley. When the site of the Old Court of King's was cleared 
in 1835, after its purchase by the University, the unfinished Gate 
of Entrance, dating from 1441-4, justly described as 'a venerable 
and beautiful specimen of Architecture,' was left untouched, 
together with portions of the walls of the rooms on the south and 
north of it. The opportunity was now taken to incorporate- 
it in the new Hancock Building and to complete it according to 
the original design. 

At the time when Cockerell's Building was begun in 1837, in 
addition to the Schools of Divinity, Arts, Physic, and Law, the 

1 Wlieii the old fa(jade was pulled down in 1754, the arch, the carve<l spandrels, and the side-niches were 
purchased by Sir John Cotton and in 1758 were set up as the entrance to the courtyard of Madingley Hallrf 
where they may still be seen (Willis and Clark, iii. 18). 

14 2 



212 THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

buildings which now belong to the Library pro%aded accommoda- 
tion for Botanical, Geological, Mineralogical, and Zoological 
Museums^. The process of absorption has, however, gone on 
steadily and is now complete. 



The Library at present contains more than 800,000 volumes, 
including many early printed books and over 8000 mamiscripts, 
as well as upwards of 100,000 maps. It has been enriched at 
different times by royal and private Benefactors, amongst whom, 
as donors of books, the names of William Loring (1415), John 
Croucher, Dr Richard Home (1424), Archbishop Rotherham 
(1480), Archbishop Parker (1574), Dr Andrew Feme (1589), 
Dr Richard Holdsworth (1649), Henry Lucas (1664), Bishop 
Hacket (1670), King George I (1715), Henry Bradshaw (1870-86), 
Sir Thomas Francis Wade (1886), Dr John Venn (1888), John 
Couch Adams (1892), Samuel Sandars (1894) and Viscount 
Morley of Blackburn (1902), may be mentioned as pre-eminently 
distinguished. The last-named presented to the LTniversity the 
valuable historical library of nearly ^0,000 volumes collected by 
Lord Acton, late Regius Professor of Modern History. 

The permanent sources of the increase of the Library are as 
follows : 

1. The Copyright Act, under which it is entitled to receive on 
demand a copy of every book published in the United Kingdom. 

2. The Rustat Fund, arising from an estate at Ovington in 
Norfolk. This estate was bought with £1000 given to the 
TJniversity in 1667 by Tobias Rustat, M.A. (see p. 173), Yeoman 
of the Robes to King Charles II, to be laid out in land, the rents 
to be appUed in the purchase of choice books for the Library. 
The available annual income is now about £100. 

3. Wilham Worts, M.A., of St Catharine's College, ordered 
by his Will, in 1709, that the annual surplus of the rents and 
profits of his estate at Landbeach, in the county of Cambridge, 
after the discharge of the other outgoings (see p. 168), should be 
applied to the use of the Library. This surplus now amounts to 
about £700 a year. 

4. In 1829, John Manistre, M.A., Fellow of King's College, 
Ijequeathed £5000 to purchase books. This sum has been 
invested, and produces the annual income of £140. 

5. A poilion of the Benefaction Fund has been invested to 
form an Endowment Fund, which at present produces an annual 
income of about £300. Of this about £80 is derived from a sum 
of £2733. 12<;. Sd. being part of the Xobel Prize for Physics which 
was awarded to Lord Rayleigh (now Chancellor of the University) 
in the year 1904 and by him presented to the L^niversity. 

I The Recistry was also in theise buUdiniiS from 1082 to 1?S6, when it was removed to the tower of the 
Pitt Press Bnildiiig isee p. 224 . 



THE SENATE HOUSE 213 

6. By Grace of the Senate (May 31, 1866) a portion of the 
quarterly payment made by all members of the University to the 
Chest was assigned to the support of the Library. The sum now 
allowed (1915) in normal years is £6000 a year. 

7. By the Statutes of 1882 the Common University Fund is 
applicable to the Library ; an annual grant of £1000 is now (1915) 
made to the Library from this source. 



The rules for admission to, and for the use of, the Library will 
be found in full in the University Calendar, and in an abbreviated 
form in the Stvdent^s Handbook. 

THE SENATE HOUSE 

The foundation of the present Senate House was laid 22 June 
1722 by the Vice-Chancellor, Thomas Crosse, D.D., Master of 
Catharine Hall, 'with four stones: the first in honour of the 
King ; the second of the Prince ; the third of the Chancellor of 
the University; the fourth of the Benefactors.'^ The work 
proceeded rapidly for the next three years, and by October 1725 
the roof was completed, but the internal fittinigs were delayed, 
partly by want of funds and partly by opposition to the whole 
scheme arising within the University itself. The building was 
not opened until 6 July 1730, and the western end was not 
completed until 1768. The total cost, including the site, was 
£16,386. The architect was James Gibbs, but the general plan 
ultimately' adopted appears to have been suggested by Mr (after- 
wards Sir) James Burrough, a Fellow and afterwards Master of 
Gonville and Caius College, who achieved distinction as an 
architect, and whose name tradition has especially connected 
with the Senate House. The design originally suggested by 
Gibbs included a second building, parallel to the Senate House, 
and exactly similar in size and appearance, on the site nearer 
King's. This would have provided for the Registrary's and 
other offices on the ground-floor, and for a Printing House above. 

The memorial statues originally in the Senate House were: 
King George I by Rysbrack, presented by Viscount Townshend, 
placed in the Senate House in 1739 and removed in 1884 to the 
Library ; Charles, Duke of Somerset, Chancellor of the University, 
1689-1748, the gift of his daughters, Frances, Marchioness of 
Granby, and Charlotte, Lady Guernsey, executed by the same 
sculptor, 1756; King George II, by Wilton, given by Thomas 
Holies Pelham, Duke of Newcastle, Chancellor of the University, 
1746-68, placed in the Senate House in 1766 and removed in 1884 
to the Library; and William Pitt, by Nollekens, placed in the 

1 Willis and CLark, iii. 46. 



214 THE BOTANIC GARDEN 

Senate House in 1812 by public subscription. The Senate House 
also at one time contained a statue of Academic Glory, executed 
at Florence by John Baratta in 1715, and bought by Peter 
Burrell, M.B., of St John's, at the sale of Cannons, the estate of 
the Duke of Chandos. It was presented by him to the University, 
probably in 1745, and three years later an unsxiccessful attempt 
was made to eject it from the Senate House, on the ground that 
it resembled Queen Anne ; it was removed to the Law School in 
1807^, and eventually, in 1885, to the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

THE BOTANIC GARDEN 

In 1762 Richard Walker, D.D., Vice-Master of Trinity 
College, 'with a view to the reviving of 'so useful as well as 
curious a branch of Icnowledge' as Botany, since 'nothing can 
be more conducive thereto than having a public Botanic Garden 
with proper Persons to take care of, govern, and conduct the 
same,' conveyed to the University part of the site of 'the 
Saint Austin Friary,' with other property which he had acquired 
two years before. In 1764 he also executed a bond securing to 
the University an annuity of £50 to be spent on 'the further 
improvement of the Botanic Garden.' In 1783 Edward Betham, 
M.A., formerly Fellow of King's, as 'a true Friend and well 
wisher to the Botanic Garden' gave £2000 upon trust for its 
improvement, and in 1807 a benefaction left in 1775 by Charles, 
Viscount Maynard, either for buildings or for the use of the 
* Public Physic Garden,'2was assigned to the Garden. In 1831 an 
Act of Parhament was obtained authorising the removal of the 
Garden from its original site in Free School Lanej where some 
of the Museums and Laboratories now stand, to its present 
position on ground bought from Trinity Hall between Trumping- 
ton Street and the Hills Road; and in 1853 the Old Botanic 
Garden site was appropriated to the University. The handsome 
iron gates belonging to the Old Garden were removed from 
Pembroke Street to the entrance of the New Garden in 1909. 

The Garden is controlled by a Syndicate consisting of the 
Vice-Chancellor, the Provost of King's, the Masters of Trinity 
and St John's, the Professors of Physic and Botany, and six 
members of the Senate elected by Grace. The rules for admis- 
sion will be found in full in the University Calendar and in 
an abbreviated form in the Stvdenfs Handbook. 

The Curator of the Botanic Garden is not permitted to t£Cke 
private pupils. 

1898 Richard Irwin Lyuch. Hon. M. A. 1906. 

1 A print of the Law ^bool in Ackerman sliews it tliere. 

•2 ' Tne last relic of the " physic fmnlen " is a splendid siiecinien of the Sophora chinensU, which yield* 
tlie dye for the imperial yellow Court clothing of the Chinese, and which in summer somewhat darkens 
the windows of the Pathological Laboratory' (Dr Shipley, A Memvir of John WilHi Clark, p. 82). 



THE OBSERVATORY 215 

THE OBSERVATORY 

Thomas Plume, D.D., of Christ's (B.A. 1649), Archdeacon of 
Rochester, the founder of the Plumian Professorship (see p. 86), 
also made the building of an Observatory one of the objects to 
which his estate was to be assigned. He died in 1704 and the 
first Plumian Professor, Roger Cotes, M.A., Fellow of Trinity, 
was not formally appointed until 1707 ; but it had already been 
decided on whom the office was to be conferred, arid in 1706 the 
Master and Seniors of Trinity College resolved that he 'and all 
his successors after him, of what College or place soever they 
shall be, have the roomes and leads of the King's Gate . .' . for a 
dwelUng and observatory, soe long as the Trustees or Electors of 
the said Professorship shall think fit.'^ The building, the cost of 
which was defrayed partly by subscription and partly by Trinity 
College, was begun soon after, and in a letter of 13 February 1710 
Dr Bentley refers to 'the College Gate-house rais'd up and 
improv'd to a stately Astronomical Observatory, well stor'd with 
the best Instruments in Europe '2; but in its later stages the 
work went on very slowly for want of money, and it was not- 
completed until 1739. In 1792 the Plumian Trustees, finding 
that the Professor 'had neither occupied the said rooms and 
leads, nor fulfilled the conditions, for at least 50 years,' and that 
'the Observatory and the instruments belonging to it were, 
through disuse, neglect, and want of repairs so much dilapidated 
as to be entirely unfit for the purposes intended,'^ relinquished 
their claim to it, and it was taken down in 1797. A view of the 
top of the Great Gate, taken in 1740 and shewing the Observa- 
tory, is reproduced in Willis and Clark's Architectural History of 
Cambridge*. 

The present Observatory on the Madingley Road was erected 
in 1822-4, after the designs of John Clement Mead, at an expense 
of upwards of £18,000. About £6000 of this sum was contributed 
by subscriptions, and the remainder was granted from the Uni- 
versity Chest. 

In 1870 the present meridian circle made by Troughton and 
Simms was erected in place of the previous instrument made by 
DoUand and of the mural circle. The object glass of the 
telescope is an excellent one by Cooke, of 8 inches aperture. 
There are two divided circles of 3 feet diameter, each of them 
being read off by means of four micrometer microscopes. This 
instrument was procured by means of a grant from the Special 
Sheepshanks Fund mentioned below. 

The transit clock is by Hardy. There are also two other 
clocks, one by Molyneux and Cope and one by Graham, with 
several smaller instruments, of which some have been purchased 

J Eiidowmeiifs, p. 83. 2 Willis and Clark, ii. 300. S Ibid. i li. .501, and ill. »1. 



216 THE OBSERVATORY 

by the Plumian Professors according to the regulations of their 
foundation, and others have been bought by the University or 
have been presented to the Observatory by generous benefactors^ 

In 1835 a telescope of nearly twelve inches apertilre and 
twenty feet focal length, made by M. Cauchoix of Paris, was 
presented to the Observatory by his Grace the Duke of North- 
umberland, Chancellor of the University. The equatorial 
mounting of the telescope was completed under the super- 
intendence of George Biddell Airy, then Plumian Professor, and 
was erected in a dome twenty-seven feet in diameter. 

In December 1858 the Representatives of the late Richard 
Sheepshanks, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, gave 
£10,000 stock, 3 per cent. Consols, for the promotion of the 
science of Astronomy in the University. The annual proceeds 
of one-sixth part of this stock are to be apphed every year 
to the maintenance of 'The Sheepshanks Astronomical Exhibi- 
tion,' and the annual proceeds of the remaining five-sixths are 
to be apphed to the following purposes, viz. : To the causing^ 
to be made the best possible observations and calculations for 
advancing the science of Astronomy (whether Physical or 
Gravitational or Mensurative), or the sciences of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Meteorology, or other sciences usually pursued 
continuously in an Observatory ; or to the erection of Buildings 
or procuring of Instruments proper for, and appropriated to, 
those Observations; or to the payment of actual observers 
and actual computers personally employed on the Observa- 
tions and Calculations. The entire endowment is invested in 
the names of Trustees, who are the Master, Fellows, and 
Scholars of Trinity College; but the immediate expenditure of 
the sums annually available for the purpose above-mentioned is 
entrusted to the Observatory Syndicate. 

In March 1863 a further sum of £2000 was transferred to the 
University by Anne Sheepshanks to be employed for the benefit 
of the Observatory, with special preference for its employment 
in the purchase of one or more large instruments or classes of 
instruments, if such should be required. 

In ]889 Robert Stirhng Newall, F.R.S., offered to the Uni- 
versity his refracting telescope with a view to its being used for 
the development of Stellar Physics. This offer was accepted by 
the University and the instrument was erected at Cambridge in 
1891 on a_ site to the S.W. of the Northumberland Dome, in a 
field purchased as an addition to the Observatory grounds. The 
instrument was the first of the large refractors of modem days ; 
it has an aperture of 25 inches, and a focal length of 29i feet. 
The discs for the object-glass were cast by Messrs Chance of 
Birmingham in 1862, and they were worked by Messrs T. Cooke 
and Sons of York. The mounting was made by the last-named 



THE OBSERVATORY ^ 217 

firm, and was completed about the year 1871. The building is 
of iron, and has a hemispherical dome, with an internal diameter 
of 40 feet. The expense of removal of the telescope and iron 
building from Gateshead-on-Tyne and the re-erection at Cam- 
bridge was met by .a ciontribution from the Trustees of the 
Sheepshanks Fund, and a gift from Professor Adams with the 
special view of purchasing additional land to improve the site. 

In 1905 Frank M«Clean, M.A., F.R.S., of Trinity College, 
bequeathed a sum of £5000 for improving the instrumental 
equipment in connexion with the Newall Telescope. By appro- 
priations from this fund, instruments have been provided for 
spectroscopic observations of the sun and are known as 
the Maclean Solar Instruments. They consist of a double 
coelostat with mirrors 16 inches in diameter, an object glass 
of aperture 12 inches and of focal length about 60 feet, and a 
powerful spectrograph of Littrow form. They are erected in 
buildings adjoining the Newall Dome. 

In 1898 a telescope was erected for photographic purposes. 
The object-glass is a triplet of 12| inches aperture and ]9| feet 
focal length by Messrs Cooke and Sons. The novel form of coude 
mounting is by Sir Howard Grubb, Dublin. The cost of this 
instrument and of the building which contains it was defrayed 
from the accumulations of the Sheepshanks bequest, and the 
instrument is accordingly known as the Sheepshanks Telescope. 

In 1908 the Royal Society presented the equipment which 
had been placed by them in the hands of Sir William Huggins 
in 1871, and had been used and developed by him in his 
astrophysical researches. The equipment consists of (i) a 
refracting telescope (with an object glass 15 inches in diameter 
and 15 feet in focal length) to which is attached a spectroscope 
designed by Sir William Huggins for both visual and photographic 
work, and (ii) a Cassegrain reflecting telescope (with a miiTor of 
"Speculum metal eighteen inches in diameter, and about seven 
feet in focal length) to which a spectroscope is attached with 
optical parts made of Iceland spar and quartz. These two 
telescopes were made and mounted on a single polar axis by 
Sir Howard Grubb of Dublin. They are erected in a new dome 
made by Cooke and Sons, on a site to the south of the Sheepshanks 
telescope, contiguous with the Astrophysical Building which was 
built in 1909. 

In 1909 Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E., presented a valuable 
outfit of spectroscopic apparatus. It comprises amongst other 
instruments a powerful quartz spectroscope. 

In 1911 Lady Huggins presented the large and valuable set 
of physical apparatus, including induction coils, air pumps, and 
spectroscopic apparatus, wherewith she and Sir William Huggins 
had carried on their physical researches. 



•218 ^ THE OBSERVATORY 

In 1913, those instruments and appliances which had been 
used in the Astrophysical Department of the Observatory, 
namely, the Newall telescope, the M<Kl^lean solar instrument, 
the Huggins telescopes and physical apparatus, and the Hills 
spectroscopic apparatus were included in theSolar PhysicsObserv- 
atory which was transferred to Cambridge in that year (see p. 219). 

The Observatory Syndicate consists of the Vice-Chancellor, 
the Lucasian, Plumian, Lowndean, and Astrophysics Pro- 
fessors, and six other members of the Senate to be elected 
by Grace. Of these six two retire by rotation on Dec. 31 in 
«very year, and their places are suppUed by two other persons 
elected at a Congregation before the end of full term in the 
preceding Michaelmas Term. The Syndicate is empowered to 
order new instruments for the Observatory, to direct the requisite 
repairs of the buildings, and to audit the accounts. The Syndicate 
meets at the Observatory once at least in every Term, and 
annually, in the month of May, inspects all the instruments, etc., 
belonging to the Observatory, and afterwards makes a report 
to the Senate as well of the state of the Observatory as of the 
proceedings of the previous year. 

The Director of the Observatory is appointed by the Observa- 
tory Syndicate with the approval of the Vice-Chancellor. He 
must reside at the Observatory during forty weeks in each 
year, provided that when his services are required in observa- 
tions or scientific conferences elsewhere, the time so spent shall 
be accepted as equivalent to residence subject to the consent 
of the Vice-ChanceUor. 

Directors of the Observatory 

1707 Roger Cotes, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. First Plumian Pi-ofessor of Astrouomv, 

1707. 
1716 Robert Smith, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Plumian Professor, 1716. LL.D. 1723. 

D.U. 1739. .Master of Trinity, 1742. 
1760 Anthony Sheplierd, M..\., Fellow of Clirist'Si Plumian Professor, 1760. D.I). 1766. 
1796 Saumel Vince, .M.A., Sidney. Plumian Professor, 1796 .\rchdeacon of Bedford, 

1809. 
tl822-'24 I'resent Observatory built.] * 

1824 Robert Woodhouse, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Lucasian Professor, 1820. Plumian 

Professor, 1822. 
1828 [Sir] (ieorge Biddell Any, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Lucasian Professor, 1826. 

Plumian Professor, 1828. LL.D. 1862. K.C.B. 1872. 
1836 .James Challis, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. Plumian Professor, 18.36. 
1861 John Couch Adams, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. Lowndean Professor, 1859. 
1892[-1914] Sir Robert Stawell Ball, D.Sc. Dublin. Lowndean Professor, 1892. M.A. 

1892. Fellow of King's, 1892. 

The Assistant Observers are appointed by the Director with 
the consent of the Vice-Chancellor. 

First Assistant Second Assistant 

1829 A. I). Baldrey 1833 James Glaisher 1855 W. T. Lynn 

1843 John Glaisher 1836 John Glaisher 1856 Henry Taylor 

1844 A. G. Berry 1844 A. G. Berry 1857 Artlmr Bowden 
1846 J. U. Morgan 1845 J. H. Morgan 1859 W. T. Cliristy 
1848 James Breen 1846 James Breen 1860 Henry Todd 
1859 Arthur Bowden 1848 Charles Todd 1895 A. R. Hinks 
1864 .Vudrew Graham 1854 G. S. Criswick 1903[-14] W. E. Hartley 
1903(-13] A. R. Hinks 



J 



THE SOLAR PHYSICS OBSERVATORY 219 

These lists include some interesting names, especially among 
the Junior Assistants. Sir Charles Todd, James Glaisher, Lynn, 
and Criswick were afterwards well-known astronomers. 

The office of Newall Observer was established in 1891 and has 
feeen held by H. F. Newall, M.A., Trinity. An Assistant in 
Astrophysics was appointed in 1906, but the office lapsed in 1913 
when the Solar Physics Observatory was transferred to Cambridge* 

1907 Hryaii Cooksoii, M.A.. Trinity. 

1910 Frederick Jotiu Marrian Stratton, M.A., Fellow of Caius. 

Selected Observations have been pubhshed from time to time 
^the expense having been defrayed by the Press Syndicate). 
Copies are distributed to the principal Observatories and" 
Academies. 

The Observatory is open to members of the University and 
their friends every weekday between twelve and -one, and the 
Director usually gives notice in the University Reporter at the 
beginning of each Michaelmas and Lent Term that the Northum- 
berland Telescope will be open to members of the University 
and their friends on fine and clear Saturday evenings during 
the ensuing full term, between the hours of 8 and 10.30 p.m. 



THE SOLAR PHYSICS OBSERVATORY 

By Grace of Dec. 7, 1911, the University accepted the charge 
of the Solar Physics Observatory, formerly at South Kensington, 
and buildings for this purpose were erected close to the older 
Observatory from the plans of Mr T. D. Atkinson. By Grace 
of April 25, 1913, the work of the Astro physical Department 
was combined with that of the Solar Physics Observatory, and 
both are now carried on under the direction of the Professor of 
Astrophysics. 

The principal instruments are the following: 

The Newall telescope, the M'^Clean solar instruments, the 
Huggins telescopes, the Hills spectroscopes (see pp. 2 16-17). 

A spectroheliograph for the study of solar phenomena in 
monochromatic light. 

A concave grating, mounted in Rowland's method. 

A 36-inch reflector with a mirror (silver on glass), mounted 
equatorially. 

An annual grant is made from the Treasury in support of 
the Solar Physics Observatory, subject to conditions laid down 
in a letter from the President of the Board of Education printed in 
full in the Unii^ersify Reporter, 14 November 1911, p. 236. 

The Staff of the Solar Physics Observatory consists of a 
Director, an Assistant Director, an Obse^jver in Meteorological 
Physics, four Assistant Observers, and two Attendants, one of 



220 THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

them resident in the Solar Physics Building. The Professor 
of Astrophysics is ex officio Director of the Solar Physics 
Observatory, and is required to reside during forty weeks in 
each year, provided that when his services are required in 
observations or scientific conferences elsewhere in connexion with- 
the work of the Observatory, the time so spent may be accepted 
as equivalent to residence, subject to the approval of the Vice- 
Chancellor. The duties of the staff consist principally in making 
and discussing such regular observations as are calculated to 
throw light upon the physical constitution of the sun, stars, and 
nebulae, and upon the interpretation of solar and stellar phe- 
nomena, especially in regard to search for possible correlation of 
solar and terrestrial changes, whether in respect of magnetic or 
meteorological phenomena. The Assistant Director and the other 
members of the staff are appointed by the Director with the 
consent of the Vice- Chancellor, and may be removed in the same 
way. Each appointment is for a limited period not exceeding 
five years, at the discretion of the Director, but the members of 
the staff are eUgible for reappointment for further periods. The-' 
Assistant Director and the Observer in Meteorological Physics 
may be required by the Director, with the approval of the Solar 
Physics Committee, to deliver such courses of lectures from time 
to time as may be found desirable and consistent with their other 
work in the Solar Physics Obsei-vatory. 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

The rights of the University in connexion with printing may 
be said to date from 1534, when Henry VIII by letters patent 
gave his royal license to the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars to 
assign and elect from time to time three stationers and printers 
or sellers of books residing within the Univei-sity, to print all 
manner of books approved by the Chancellor and three Doctors^. 
The claim of the University to print led to disputes with the 
Stationers Company, who in 1583 seized the press and materials 
of Thomas Thomas, the University Printer, on the groimd that 
he was infringing their privileges, but the Vice-Chancellor 
and Heads appealed to Lord Burghley, and by his good 
offices the rights of the Univei-sity were confirmed in 1584*. 
In 1628 Charles I confirmed the privilege by charter^ and in the 
following year an Order in Council gave the University, together 
with the King's Printers and the Stationers Company, the 
exclusive right of printing Bibles and Prayer books*. The sols- 
right of printing Almanacs and 'Prognostications' had already 
been vested in the same parties*, and the privilege was leased to- 
the Stationers Company, which paid the University over £500 a 

1 Endotc'nenU, p. 31. "2 Cooper, Amvih. ii. 393 — I. 3 lb. iii. 1SI9. 

4 These riffhts were shortly afterwards sharert with the University of Oxfoni. 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 221 

year; but in 1775 this monopoly was overthrown by a judicial 
decision which declared the printing of almanacs to be a common 
law right^. The privilege of printing Bibles and Prayer-books, 
however, still exists, and the University continues to receive 
compensation from the Government, in the form of an annuity, 
for the loss of the monopoly of almanacs. 

The early Printers carried on their business in their own 
houses, and it was not until 1655 that the University obtained 
from Queens' College the lease of a site at the corner of Silver 
Street and Queens' Lane where the first Printing House was 
built^. In 1696, at the suggestion of the Duke of Somerset, who 
had been elected Chancellor in 1689, and through the exertions of 
Dr Richard Bentley, afterwards Master of Trinity, a new building 
was erected to the north of the old one, and new presses and type 
were obtained ; the improvements being carried out by public 
subscription and a loan of £1000. The Grace appointing a 
Syndicate for the management of the Press was passed 21 January 
1698. In 1716 the newer, building was made over to the Pro- 
fessors of Anatomy and Chemistry and business was carried on 
in the older house, but this was found to be inconvenient, and in 
1762 the acquisition of the present site began. The first step 
towards the erection of the present buildings may be dated from 
18043. 

On the death of William Pitt, his friends and admirers opened 
a subscription for the purpose of erecting some memorial worthy 
of his fame. By means of the funds thus raised a marble statue 
-of Mr Pitt, executed by Westmacott, was erected in Westminster 
Abbey; and a bronze statue of him, executed after a model by 
Chan trey, was placed in Hanover Square, London. A large sum 
-still remained unexpended ; and the Committee at whose disposal 
the funds were placed, desiring to employ the surplus in some 
mode that might contribute to the honour and usefulness of 
"the University ^n which Mr Pitt had received his education, 
^ offered to erect a building which should form the front of the 
University Printing Offices, and be designated by the title Pitt 
Press. This offer was accepted ; and a large sum of money was 
•expended by the University in purchasing the necessary site. 
The first stone of the New Buijding was laid in 1831 by the 
Marquis Camden, the Chairman of the before-mentioned Com- 
mittee, attended by the Earl of Clarendon, the Earl of Harrowby, 
Lord Farnborough, and Henry Bankes, Esq., M.P., also members 
of that Committee. The building was completed in 1833. The 
architect, Edward Blore, had designed Sir Walter Scott's house 
at Abbotsford. 

In connexion with the list of University Printers which follows*, 

1 E'irlowmenU. n. 48. 2 Willis and Clark, iii. 131. S 76. iii. l.'M. 

4 Reference should be in;>de to a communication to the Cambridge Antiquarian Societ.v (/f«7«>r^« itiid 
Commit luaitloiix. 1883 — i. No. XX) of Biographical Notes on the Universitj- Printers, by Mr Robert 
Bowes, from which the information here given is reproduced. 



222 THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

it should be observed that mauy of the Printers holding office^ 
before 1700 were not actually engaged in printing. It appears tO' 
have been sometimes the practice for the University to appoint 
graduate members holding other offices, such as R«gistrary or 
Esquire Bedell, in order to preserve the right to appoint three' 
Printers, and these were paid a nominal salary of £5 a year. 
Meanwhile the working printer held his office on a different 
footing, as, for instance, John Hayes, who paid £100 a year to the 
University when his two colleagues were receiving £5 a year 
Irom it. 

[1521 John Siberchi.] 

i Xicliolas Sperynft-. 
1534 ] Garrett Godfrey 2. 

(Sygar Nicholson 2, Gonville Hall. 
1639 Nicliolas Viljcrim, vice Godfrey, deceased, 
1540 Richard N'oke. 
1'546 Peter Sheres. 
1577 .John Kingston. 
1583 Thomas Thomas, M.A.a-. d. 1588. 
1588 John L^ate'*, vice Thomas, deceased; d. 1039. 

? John Porter (before 1593). 
160« Cantrell Legge* ; d. 1625. 
c. 1608 Thomas Brooke, M..\., Clare. Esqture Bedell, 1591; Librarian, 1623. He 
was Printer in IHOS and at least until 1621 ; d. 1629. 
1622 Leonard Greene, rice John Legate, deceased ; d. 1630. 

(Thomas Buck, M.A.«, Fellow of Catharine Hall, vic^ Legge? Esquire Bedelly 
1625 1 1624. Said to have resigned 1653 ; d. 1670. 

j.John Buck, M.A.^, St Catharine's (originally Magdalene), vice Brooke? 

(. Esquire Bedell, 1626. 
1630 P'rancis Back. 
1632 Koger Daniel', vice Francis Buck, resigned. His patent was cancelled for 

neglect, 1 June 1650, but he continued to print books in London. 
1650 John Legate the younger, vice Daniel. Patent cancelled, 1655. 
1655 John Field », vice Legate; d. 1668. 
1669 Matthew Whinn, M.A., St John's. Registrary, 1645. 
1669 John Hayes >o, vu-e Field ; d. 1705, oeL 71. 
1680 John Peck, M.A., Fellow of .St John's. Esquire Bedell, 1669. 

1 John Siberch, who printed scN-eral books at Cambridge in 1.531 and 1522, may be rejsarded as the pre- 
cursor of tJie University Printers, but the University couJd make no formal appointments until tbe isaoeof 
the letters patent in 15*1 Nevertheless, DrCaius calls him * University Printer.' and one of bis title pwres 
has cwm gra/ia et pritrHegio : it is therefore probable tliat he was at least under the protection of the 
University 'see G. J. Gray, Earlier Cambridgf Stationers, pp. .K ff. i. 

3 These three were all in busine^ in Cambridge before their appointraefit as Printers. 

3 Educated at Eton ; Fellow of King's, 1574—81. His successor described him as a companion ' of tlie. . 
printers of tlie true kind and best omen ' who thought ' that it was men of leaniinK. thorooghljr imbued 
with academic studies, who should »dve themselves to cultiv.ating and ri^h'ly%ppl^ing that illustrious 
benefit sent down from Heaven and tiiven to aid mankind and perpetuate the arts. 11100133 's printing 
office was in the Regent Walk, which was immediately opposite the West door of Great St Mary'i Church, 
and it is in the Cliurch that he lies buried. 

4 Legate was the first who used ifrom 1603 onwardi the impression of the Alma Mater Cantabriffiue with 
the motto nine lueem et pocula sacra round it. He hired a house in Regent Walk for his priniing ofllce 
and in 1609 was elected a Churchwanlen of St Mary's parish. 

5 Cantrell Leexe, 'son of Edward Legge of Burcliam in the County of Norfolk, Yeoman.' had been 
apprenticed to John Legate. 

6 Thomas Buck had a way of quarrelling with hi\ partners, and Leonartl Greene, who claimed on ht» 
own behalf that he was 'acquainted with the matter of books and printing by reason of his trade therein 
for the space of thirty yeare almost,' complained that Mr Buck was unexperienced, having led a student's 
life.' Tliomas Buck s printing house was first at * the Angel.' on tbe Market Hill, east of the Rose Inn ; 
and afterwards at ' the Augustine Friare' on the site of the Museums in Pembroke .Street and Free School 
Lane. In 1629 he pro.iuced rather a fine Bible. 

7 Thomas Buck's younger brother. 

8 Roger Daniel was summoned before the House of Commons, 2? .August 1612, for printing the King's 
answer to the Decfciration of the Houses concerning the Commission of .\rrav. and on 3 Sept he was 
ordered not to print anything concerning the proceedings of Parliament, ana discharged. In January 
lew. however, the Commons took offence at the publication of The Jtetoleing of Conscience. &c., a 
Royalist pamphlet by Henry Feme. D.D., aften^-ards Bishop of Chester, and Daniel was taken into 
custot^ by tlie .Serjeant-at-.imis. but when he produced the warrant of Dr Holdsworth, the Vice- 
Cbancellor, for the printing of the book, the House ordered him to be bailed, and resolved 'that Dr 
Holdsworth forthwith be sent up in safe Custody at his own charges ; and that Captain Cromwell be desired 
to take care to send him up acconiingly.' 

9 In 1655 Field built the new Printing Office in Silver Street, where St Catharine's Lodge now stands 
(see p. 221 ^ In 166D he held office as a Churchwarden of St Botolph's ^rish. 

10 J(din Hayes paid the University £100, and later lin association with a partner.!, £150, for the privilege 
of printing. He was a Churchwarden of St Botolph's parish in 1669. 



I 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 223 

1682 Hugli Martin', M.A., Fellow of Pembroke. Esquire Bedell, 1680. 

1683 Dr James Jackson 2. 
1680 Jonathan Pindar. 

1693 Henry Jenkes^, Fellow of Caius. 

1697 Jonathan Pindar (the second). Held office at least till 1730. 

1705 Cornelius C'rowiifield*, vice Hayes, deceased. Pensioned, 1710. 

1731 William Fenner"; d. 1734. Lease relinquished by his widow, 1738. 

1740 Joseph Bentham^. Resigned, 1766. 

1758 John Baskerville?. 

1766 John Archdeacon *, vice Bentham; d. 1795. 

1793 John Burges^; d. 1802. 

1802 John DeightoniO; resigned, 1802. 

1802 Kichard Watts ; resigned, 1809. 

1804 Andrew Wilson"; resigned, 1811? 

1809 .John Smith!-'; pensioned, 1836. 

1«36 John William Parker W; reslKued, 1853. 

1854fCliarles John Clay", M.A., Trinity; d. 1905. 

{(reorge Seeley ; retired, 1866. 
1882[-lyl6] .John Clay, M.A., St John's — at first in partnership with his father' 
until the latter's death. See Ordinances, 1901, pp. 301—2 and 1914, p. 370. 

The Press Syndicate consists of the Vice-Chancellor and fourteen 
members of the Senate elected by Grace, each holding office for 
seven years, two retiring every year. 

The publishing business of the Press is carried on, under the 
management of Charles Felix Clay, M.A., at the Cambridge 
University Press, Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 

Members of the Senate may obtain information as to the days 
and hours of visiting the University Press at the Counting House 
of the Press. Generally speaking it is desirable that one or two 
days' notice should be given for fixing the time of the visit. 

1 Huxh MHrtin received a salary of £.5. augmented for three years by an additional £.5 in 1691. 

2 Possibly James .lackson. Fellow of Clnre, M.D. 16S7. 

:J He received a salary of £.5, witli an extra £5 ' by consent of the Heads.' 

■4 Cornelius CrowiiHeld, deM^ribed by Ames as ' a Dutchman who had been a soldier,' ' a very ingenious 
man,' had been enj;af{eil in the service of tlie Press for many vears before his appointment as University 
Printer, and he apiiears to have acted as business adviser to the Curators since 1698, the date of their first 
appointment. He was also a boolcscller on his own account. 

.5 William Ged, *an ingenious artist' wlio was a goldsmith in Edinburgh, invented about 1725 a 
practicable method of producing stereotype plates, and in 17*J9 he entered into piirtnership with William 
Fenner, a London stationer, John James, an architect at Greenwich, and Thomas James his brother, a 
London type-founder. In 1730 the partners applied to the University, through the Earl of Macclesfield, 
for a license to print Bibles and Prayer-booivs, and in 17;tl a lejise w.as granted to William Fenner for eleven 
years for the special purpose of printing from stereotype filates. The partners sank a large sum of money 
and Fenner die<l insolvent in 17:U, but his widow continued printing under the lease in spite of the 
protest! of John James, who claimed that the concession was really made to him, Fenner's name liavin); 
been inserted in the lease only because he wjis a practical printer. The whole enterprise was, however, a 
failure, as only two Prayer-books were finished, and Mrs Fenner surrendered the lease in 1738. 

6 Joseph Bentham was the brother of James Bentham, the historian of Ely Cathedral. He was an 
Alderman of the town ; he died in 1778, aged 68, and was buried in Trumpington Church. 

7 John Baskerville was tlie famous type-founder of Birmingham. He nad a FAiropean reputation, and 
his folio Biljle. published in 17S3, is one of the finest English Bibles ever produced. As a type-founder 
Caslon was his only competitor of importance. He was elected University Printer for ten vears from 
16 December 17.58. but four years later he was complaining bitterly of his arrangement with the University, 
describing himself as ' heartily tired' of the business of printing. ' It is surely a particular hardship,' he 
wrote, 'that I should not get bread in my own Country (and it is too late to go abroad) .ifter having 
:icquire:l the reputation of excelling in the most useful art known to mankind ; while everyone who excels 
asa Player, Fiddler, Dancer &c.. not only lives in affluence, but has it in their power to save a fortune.' He 
died in 1775. 

8 In 1768 John Archdeacon's salary wiis fixed at £140 a year. 

9 From the appointntent of John Burges in 1793 to the death of John Archdeacon in 179.5, both names 
appear together as University Printers. Burges is burie<l in St Botolph's Church. 

10 Although John Deighton only held the office of Printer for eight months, he had already been con- 
nected with the Press as publisher, and liatl founded the firm now known as Messrs Deighton, Bell and Co. 
He died in 1828, aged 80. 

11 .\ndrew Wilson w.is appointed for the special purpose of re-introducing stereotyping, but he was to be 
joint agent with Watts for the sale of Bibles and Prayer-books. In 1807 the University acquired his stereo- 
type secret, originally discovered by Earl Stanhope. He died in 1844, at an advanced age. 

12 There is a tablet to his memory in St Botolph's Church, and a portrait at the University Press. 

13 Parker's connexion with the Press dates from 1828, for he hjid already, acting on behalf of Mr Clowes, 
an eminent London printer, .tdvised the Syndics with regard to certain economies by which the Press was 
esuiblished as a source of profit to the University. As Printer he received a s,*ilary of £400 a vear, visiting 
Cambridge for two days once a fortnight. Alter much opposition he succeeded in introducing steam 
power, he died in 1870, aged 78. 

14 Aeq. 3rd Classic, 18.50. 



224 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 



THE REGISTRY 

In 1571-2 a room on the east side of the Schools Quadrangle 
was fitted up to serve the double purpose of a Registry and the 
Vice-Chancellor's Court or Consistory. In 1662, for the greater 
security of the University documents, the Registry was removed 
to a room equipped for the purpose situated between the Schools 
of Theology and Philosophy, and here it remained until 1831, 
when a Syndicate reported that the room was damp and dark, 
that the records were rapidly perishing, and that it would be 
well to remove them to a room in the Old Court of Bang's. The 
room selected was on the first floor of the south side, formerly 
the Combination Room. In 1836, when the Old Co\u't was pulled 
down, the Registrj^ was transferred to a room at the south end 
of the ground floor in the University Press, and in 1848 to its 
present position in the tower of the Pitt Press building. 

THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 

Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam, of Trinity Hall (M.A. 1764), 
who died 5 February 1816, bequeathed to the University 
144 pictures, as well as collections of illuminated MSS., books, 
engravings, etc., and the annual proceeds of £100,000 South Sea 
Annuities for the erection of a Museum for their reception. 

The dividends having accumulated to a sum exceeding 
£40,000, the building was commenced on the 2nd of November, 
1837, from the designs of George Basevi, and was carried on 
by him until his death in 1845^, when Charles Robert Cockerell, 
R.A., succeeded him. In 1847 it became evident that the avail- 
able funds would not suffice for the decoration of the haU: work 
was therefore suspended, and the pictures, books and other 
objects which comprise the Fitzwilliam Collection, together with 
the ^lesman Collection described below, and other donations, 
were removed into the unfinished building. The entrance hall 
was completed in 1875 at a cost of more than £20,000 from the 
designs of Edward Middleton Barry, R.A. The total cost of the . 
building amounted to about £115,000. 

Among the most valuable pictures in the original collection 
are three of the Venetian School, viz. Hermes, Aglauros, and 
Herse by Paul Veronese; Venus and Cupid by Palma Vecchio; 
and A Genthinan and his Mistress by Titian; and one by 
Rembrandt, engraved as the Portrait of an Officer. The collection 
of early prints is one of the richest in Europe. The bulk of this 
collection is contained in bound albums in the library of the 
Museum. The works of the early engravers of Grermany and 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 225 

the Low Countries, including those of Diirer and Rembrandt, 
are separately mounted in solander cases. 

Daniel Mesman bequeathed a collection of pictures to the 
University. His brother the Reverend Charles Mesman, to 
whom they were bequeathed for his life, having given up his 
life-interest in the bequest, the collection came in 1834 into the 
immediate possession of the University. The collection amounts 
in number to 248 paintings and 33 drawings and prints. The 
majority of the pictures are small examples of the Flemish and 
Dutch schools. 

In 1850, John Disney, F.R.S., of the Hyde, near Ingate- 
stone, Essex, presented a collection of ancient marbles, eighty- 
three in number. The collection of ancient marbles formed 
by Dr E. D. Clarke was transferred in 1865 from the University 
Library to the Sculpture Gallery of the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

In 1861 John Ruskin presented to the Museum twenty-five 
water-colour drawings of great interest and beauty by 
J. M. W. Turner, R.A. ; and in 1863 Mrs Elizabeth Ellison, 
of Sudbrooke Holme, Lincolnshire, presented thirty pictures by 
modern English painters. Seven pictures, by Adrian Vandervelde, 
Ruvsdael, Paul Potter, Franck, Patel, and Nikkelen, were pre- 
sented in 1864 by A. A. VanSittart, M.A., Fellow of Trinity 
College. In 1872, by an arrangement with the executors of the 
Reverend Richard Edward Kerrich, M.A., of Christ's College, 
the Museum acquired a portion of certain collections which he 
had bequeathed to it ; viz. seven paintings, two hundred volumes 
of books, and many valuable portfolios of ancient prints. A small 
collection of oil paintings, including three important works by 
Hogarth, was bequeathed by James William Arnold, D.D., of 
Clare and St John's Colleges, in 1859, and placed in the Museum 
in 1873. In 1876, a further gift of seventeen pictures was made 
by A. A. VanSittart, M.A., including fine examples of Hobbema, 
Ruysdael, and Wynants. In 1878 the Museum acquired, by the 
bequest of the Reverend Charles Leasingham Smith, M.A., of 
Christ's College, eleven pictures of various schools, including 
works of Salvator Rosa, Peter Molyn, Marieschi, and a miniature 
portrait by Samuel Cooper. 

Fifteen paintings on panel by early Italian masters were- 
purchased from the late Charles Butler in 1893. These include- 
a fine altar retable by Cosimo Rosselli, and other interesting: 
examples of the schools of Siena and Florence during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

In addition to the permanent collection, there are numerous 
pictures and other works of art on loan from time to time. 
Drawings by Old Masters are lent each term by His Majesty the 
King from Windsor Castle and by the Duke of Devonshire from 
Chatsworth, 

H. R. 15 



226 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 

. The Univei-sity purchased in 1864 a collection of coins from 
the executors of the late Lieutenant-Colonel WiUiam Martin 
Leake. In 1886 the^ Committee gf the Antiquarian Society 
recommended that the Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
should receive under his charge the collection of coins belonging 
to the Society and consisting of, 1st, an old collection of Enghsh, 
Roman and foreign coins; 2nd, Dr Bacon's collection, mostly 
English and foreign; 3rd, 17th century tokens. This offer was 
accepted by Grace of the Senate, March 25, 1886. In 1899 a 
collection of coins, ancient, medieval, and modem, numbering 
about ] 2,000, was presented by the Reverend WiUiam Cxcorge 
Searle, M.A , formerly Fellow of Queens' College, who afterwards 
largely increased his benefactions. In 1906 J. R. M<=Clean, 
M.A., of Trinity College, the eldest son of another great bene- 
factor, presented a most valuable collection of over 5000 Greek 
coins. Mr ]\I'^Clean died in 1913, having in the interval added 
almost as many more Greek coins to his original gift. In 
1876 a considerable purchase of rare prints, towards the com- 
pletion of the collection of German and Flemish masters, was made 
at the Liphart sale : also a collection of ancient Phoenician, Greek, 
and Roman glass from tombs in the island of Cyprus was purcha-^ed 
from General L. P. di Cesnola. A number of other objects from 
Cypriote tombs have been added to the collection. In the same 
year nineteen albums of ancient engravings, four of them con- 
taining exclusively the etchings of Rembrandt and his scholars, 
were trar\sferred to the Fitzwilliam Museum from the University 
Library ; and the most important portions of their contents have 
been incorporated with the collections of Lord FitzwilUam and 
Mr Kerrich. In 1890 and 1891 a considerable number of early 
printed books illustrated with woodcuts were purchased for the 
Library. In 1910 the collection of modern engravings was en- 
riched by John Charrington, M.A., of Trinity College, who 
presented a collection of over 300 proofs and early impressions 
■of David Lucas's mezzotints after John Constable, R.A. The 
Museum is indebted to Mr Charrington for many subsequent gifts. 

Between 1880 and 1902 the late Richard Pendlebury, M.A., 
Fellow of St John's College, presented a collection of printed 
music, both vocal and instrumental, together with a number of 
works of reference in the same subject. The Pendlebury Collec- 
tion, -as it is called, amounts to about two thousand bound 
volumes. Members of the University and others have the privilege 
of borrowing volumes from it under special regulations. 

In 1902 Francis Barrett-Lennard presented a valuable collection 
of transcripts of the works of G. F. Ha'hdel, chiefly in the wTiting 
of the composer's amanuensis, J. C. Smith. The collection 
^known as the Barrett-Lennard CoDection) is preserved in a 
book-case believed to have been the property of Handel. 



I 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 22t 

111 1904 Frank M«Clean, M.A., F.R.S., of Trinity College, 
bequeathed 200 manuscripts of great interest, upwards of 200 
early printed books, and a valuable collection of objects of art, 
including ivories, enamels, gems, and some fine Egyptian antiqui- 
ties. Most of these belonged to classes previously unrepresented 
in the collections. The manuscripts range in date from the 
ninth to the sixteenth century ; among them are many finely illus- 
.trated Horae and some excellent specimens of Greek calligraphy. 

In 1912 the Museum received the greatest benefaction that 
has come to it since its original foundation. Charles Brinsley 
Marlay, M.A., of Trinity College, who died on June 18 of that 
year, bequeathed to it a very large and valuable collection of 
pictures and miscellaneous works of art, together with the sum 
of £80,000 for the enlargement of the existing building and the 
cost of the necessary increase of the staff. This collection, to 
be called the Marlay Collection, cannot be placed on exhibition 
in its entirety until the new galleries, plans for which are being 
prepared by Messrs Smith and Brewer, are erected. 

In 1913 a valuable collection of 103 watches, dating from the 
16th to the 19th century, was bequeathed by the late Francis 
dray Smart, M.A., M.B.,. of Gonville and Caius College. 

The picture-galleries are on the upper floor, on which are 
also Dr Glaisher's loan-collection of English and European 
pottery and faience, and some cases of Oriental pottery and 
porcelain. The Central Gallery on the ground floor contains 
the collection of Greek vases and glass and Cypriote antiquities, 
Greek and Roman marbles, bronzes and inscriptions, and 
the two North Galleries the Egyptian antiquities. Among 
these are an important series of models of boats and domestic 
scenes, with other antiquities of the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Dynasties from tombs at Beni Hasan acquired in 1903. In the 
■South Gallery, which has been partitioned off from the rest, is 
the room containing the coins and medieval manuscripts. 

The following catalogues of the collections in the Museum are 
• now published: A Short Catalogue of the Pictures, edited by 
E. 0. Vulliamy, M.A. ; The Principal Pictures in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, with 224 illustrations; Illustrated Catalogue of the 
Pictures, by F. R. Earp, M.A. ; Catalogue of the Engraved Gems, by 
J. Henry Middleton; Catalogue of the Engraved Works of Albert 
Dilrer, by C. H. Middleton- Wake, M.A. ; Catalogue of the Fitz- 
william Collection of Music, by J. A. Fuller-Maitland, M.A., and 
A. H. Mann, Mus.D. ; Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities, by 
E. A. Wallis-Budge, Litt.D. ; Catalogue of the Manuscripts, 
by M. R. James, Litt.D. ; Catalogue of the Greek Vases, by 
Ernest A. Gardner, M.A. ; Catalogues of the M'^Clean Bequest 
i\) Manuscripts by M. R. James, Litt.D., (2) Miscellaneous 
'Objects by O. M. Dalton, M.A. 

15—2 



228 THE MUSEUM OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

The care and arrangement of the Museum are entrusted to a 
Director, and its general management to a Syndicate consisting 
of the Vice-Chancellor, and eight other members of the Senate^ 
two of whom in rotation retire every year, their places being 
supplied by two other members elected by the Senate. They 
meet in the Museum at least twice in every term, four members 
(the Vice-Chancellor or his deputy being one) constituting a 
quorum ; but in cases of emergency a smaller number may act, 
provided they are unanimous. 

The appointment of the Director is by a Board of Electors. 

In 1913 the superintendence of the Marlay Collection was 
added to the duties of the Director of the Museum, who is now 
styled 'Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum and Marlay Curator,* 

Directors 

1876 [Sir] Sidney Colvini, M.A., Fellow of Trinity, Slade Professor of Fine Art. 

Knighte<l, 1911. 
1883 [Sir] Charles Waldstein, M.A., King's. Reader in Classical Archaeology, 

1883. Litt.U. 1888. Fellow of King's, 1894. Slade Professor of Fine Art, 

1895. Knighted, 1912. 
1890 John Henry .Middletou^, M.A., Fellow of King's, Slade Professor of Fine Art. 

Litt.I>. 1893. 
1894 Montague Uliodes James, M.A., Fellow of King's. Litt.D. 1895. Provost of 

King's, 1905. 
1908 Sydney Carlyle Cockerell. M.A. 1908. Fellow of Jesus, 1910. Marlay 

Curator, 1913. 

The rules for admission to the Museum will be found in full 
in the University Calendar, and in an abbreviated form in the 
SttidenCs Handbook. 

THE MUSEUM OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

This Museum, in Little St Mary's Lane, which until 1911 was 
regarded as part of the Fitzwilliam Museum, consists of four 
Galleries of Casts (A, B, C, D), a Library with a room for the 
Curator, and a Lecture-Room, together with large accommo- 
dation in the basement. A house has been secured as a residence 
for the Assistant. 

The four Galleries of Casts are arranged in a chronological 
series, each Gallery representing, as far as practicable, a marked 
period in the history of Art, as follows: 

A. The Archaic period (down to the early part of the 5th 
century B.C.). 

B. The age of Pericles (Paionios, Alkamenes, Pheidias, Poly- 
kleitos, 5th century B.C.). 

C. The age of Phihp and Alexander (Skopas, Praxiteles^ 
Lysippos, 4th century B.C.). 

D. The Hellenistic schools of Pergamon and Rhodes, and the 
Graeco-Roman period, together with portrait-statues and 
busts. 

p. lOe, note . 2 See p. 103, note 3. 



THE MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY 229 

Of these casts a certain number were already in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, and have been transferred to this building; but the 
great mass of them have been purchased out of the Fitzwilliam 
income. 

The Library consiste, in the first place, of the chief part of 
Colonel Leake's books, which have been transferred from the 
Fitzwilliam Museum, forming a good working basis for further 
additions. A subscription raised by Professor Colvin in 1883-4 
for this particular object was laid out by him in the purchase of 
upwards of 850 volumes, and a large number of works on Archaeo- 
logy have been added since. 

The Lecture-Room is not only used for University Lectures, 
but is available, by permission of the Syndics, for other archaeo- 
logical lectures. It is also used for the meetings of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society. 

The administration of the Museum of Classical Archaeology 
was separated from that of the Fitzwilliam Museum by Grace 
of 25 May 1911. It is now entrusted to a Curator under the 
direction of a Committee of six members of the Senate, of whom 
three are nominated to the Senate for election by the Special 
Board for Classics and three by theFitzwilliamMuseumSyndicate. 
The Reader in Classical Archaeology is ex-officio Curator of the 
Museum. 

The rules for admission to the Museum will be found in the 
University Calendar and in the Student's Handbook. 



THE MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY . 

This Museum, which formerly occupied the Eastern and 
Southern portions of the building in Little St Mary's Lane, 
consisted of four Galleries (E, F, G, H) and a room for the Curator, 
together with a portion of the basement; but in 1913 the 
Museum was removed to a new building in Downing Street, 
and by a Grace of 7 March 1913 it was styled 'The Museum of 
Archaeology and of Ethnology.' 

The nucleus of this Museum is the 'Cambridge Antiquarian 
Museum and Library,' comprising the collections formed by 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society since its foundation in 1840. 
During this period a large number of specimens of local antiquities 
were brought together, including more than one collection 
of intrinsic value and importance, relating to the district of which 
Cambridge may be looked upon as the centre. The Society never 
possessed any local habitation of its own, and its collections were 
long housed in one or other of the University buildings; but 
when the proposal for a University Museum of Archaeology took 
definite form, the Society offered to present the whole of its 



230 THE MUSEUM OF ETHNOLOGY 

collections and library to the University, if only they could be 
adequately housed and cared for. This arrangement was carried 
into effect when the building in Little St Mary's Lane was 
completed. Two important ethnological collections formed in 
Fiji, the one by the Hon. Sir Arthur H.Gof don, G.C.M.G., M.A., 
oi Trinity College, the other by A. P. Maudslay, M.A., of Trinity 
Hall, were presented by them to the University in 1884, and the 
entire series of South Sea Island native manufactures collected 
by Baron A. von Hiigel was then placed on deposit in the. 
Museum. 

The most important collections since added, are: Archae- 
ological — Roman objects in bronze, glass, earthenware, and stone 
fi-om France and Italy, by J. Barratt, M.D. ; Roman earthenware 
vessels from Great Chesterford, Essex, by Prof. Hughes and 
F. J. H. Jenkinson, M.A. ; Saxon cinerary urns, personal 
ornaments, etc., from a burial ground near St John's College, by 
Museum excavation ; local and foreign antiquities, bequeathed 
by Walter K. Foster; stone implements and other objects 
of predynastic date from Egypt, by the Egypt Exploration Fund ; 
Benin bronzes, by Air W. t>. -Webster ; and the Murray Collection 
of Irish antiquities (chiefly prehistoric) by purchase through 
private subscriptions. Ethnological — Solomon Islands, by Pro- 
fessor Bevan; New Hebrides, by Bishop Selwj'n; Islands of 
Torres Straits and British New Guinea, by A. C. Haddon, Sc.D. ; 
New Guinea, etc. by Brady Bequest; Potynesian Islands, by 
George Brady, M.D. ; Ajidaman Islands, by Colonel Sir 
R. C. Temple, Bart.; Nicobar Islands, by E. H. Man; ElUce 
Islands, and the Maldives and Laccadives, by J. S. Gardiner, 
M.A. ; New Zealand, by Lord Peckover and C. J. P. Cave, M.A. ; 
British New Guinea by Sir W. Macgregor, Borneo, by C. Hose, 
Sc.D., and R. Shelford, M.A. ; Selangor, Malacca (Malay and 
Sakai), by W. W. Skeat, M.A. ; Lower Siam, by pm-chase (private 
subscription); British Guiana, by Sir J. A. Swettenham and 
Major W. Cooke Daniels ; Eastern Pacific, by Professor Bevan. 
The Starr Collection of Mexican Folk-Lore, and the Owen Collec- . 
tion of dresses and ornaments of the Musquallia Indians have 
been received on permanent deposit from the Folk-Lore Society ; 
and the Captain Cook Collection in the possession of Trinity 
College has also been transferred to the Museum. 

The management of this Museum is entrusted by Grace to the 
Antiquarian Committee. This body consists of the Vice-Chan- 
cellor, the Director of the FitzwilUam Museum, the Disney 
Professor of Archaeology, the University Reader in Ethnology, 
two members of the Fitzwilliam Museum Syndicate appointed by 
the Syndicate, the President of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, and two members of the Council of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society appointed by the Council of that body, every 



THE LABORATORIES AND MUSEUMS ' 231.' 

member of the Committee keeping his place on the Committee so. 
long only as he holds the qualification in virtue of which he has 
been appointed, and of three other persons to be elected by Grace- 
of the Senate. They are bound to meet at least once a term and 
to present an annual Report to the Senate before the end of eack 
academical year; they may also report to the Senate at any 
other time when they deem it desirable. 

The Curator, to whom the care of the Museum is entrusted, is 
appointed by the Antiquarian Committee, with the consent of the: 
Vice- Chancellor, and acts as Secretary to the Committee. The 
office was established in 1883. 

Curator 

1883 Baron Anatole Andreas Aloys von IlUgel. AI.A., Trinity, 1889. 

THE LABORATORIES AND MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE^ 

The earliest Lecture Room on the present site of the Museums 
of Science was that used by the Professor of Botany on the 
ground-floor of a house, usually known as 'The Great House,', 
which formerly stood in the Old Botanic Garden which had been 
given to the University by Dr Richard Walker in 1762 (see 
p. 214). In 1783 the building had become ruinous and its site 
•was sold in the following year ; it therefore became necessary to 
provide some other place for the lectures of the Professor of 
Botany, and also for those of the Jacksonian Professor, who had 
been appointed in 1783. This led to the erection, in 1786, of a 
large Lecture Room, 40 feet long by 28 feet broad, with a private, 
room for the Professor of Botany at one end and for the Jacksonian 
Professor at the other. 

The Professors of Anatomy and Chemistry had already been 
-provided for by the assignment to them in 1716 of a house near 
the old University Press (see p. 221), but the accommodation 
thus provided was so inconvenient that the Professor of Chemistry 
took the earliest opportunity of migrating to the new Lecture 
.Room, while the pressure on the available space compelled the 
Profess'or of Anatomy to share his room with the Professors of 
Physic and Modern History. No provision whatever was made 
for Mineralogy when the Professorship was founded in 1808, 
and Geology occupied a 'small, damp, and ill-lighted' room, 'at- 
the north end of the Philosophy School,' now the ' Novel Room ' 
of the Um'versity Librarj'. In 1832 it was decided to enlarge the 
buildings in the Old Botaaic Garden in order to provide for the. 
Professors of Anatomy and Physic, as well as for the Professors of 
Botany and Chemistry and for the Jacksonian Professor. The 

1 All account of ttie hi.stnry of the lalwratories and the Museums, with plans of them as they were n» 
1873 ami in 1912, will be fouiul in Dr Shipley's Memnir of John Willis Clark, pp. 298—343. - 



232 THE LABORATORIES AND MUSEUMS 

completion of Cockerell's Building (see p. 211) in 1842, made for 
the time ample provision for Mineralogy and for the Wood- 
wardian Museum of Geology. 

The first comprehensive scheme for Museums and Lecture 
Rooms dates from the year 1863, when an important group of 
the present buildings was begun from the designs of Anthony 
Salvin, an architect well known as an authority on medieval 
mihtary architecture, who had carried out works of restoration 
at the Tower of London and Windsor Castle. Under his direction 
accommodation was provided for all the Professors of the Natural 
Sciences, except Anatomy, Chemistry, and Greology. The work 
was completed by .June 1865, the style and plan selected being 
fortunately such as readily to admit of extension and addition, 
and while it was proceeding, the old Schools on the south- 
east side of the site were altered so as to adapt them to the 
requirements of the Professors of Anatomy and Chemistry. 

In 1870 the Duke of Devonshire, the Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity, offered to defray the cost of a Laboratory for Experimental 
Physics in connexion with the Professorship then about to be 
established. A site for this was found in Free School Lane, 
adjoining the Old Botanic Garden, and the building, from the 
designs of W. M. Fawcett, M.A., of Jesus College, was com- 
pleted in 1873. In order to commemorate the munificence of 
the Chancellor, it was agreed to call it 'The Cavendish Labora- 
tory.' A southern wing, the cost of which (£4000) was largely 
paid for out of fees, was put up in 1895; and a further addition 
was erected in 1907 on the Mortlock site (see p. 233) at a cost 
of about £8000, the greater part of this sum being provided by 
the Xobel Prize awarded to Lord Rayleigh, who handed it over 
to the Department for this purpose. 

After 1870 the next addition to the Museums was the build- 
ing which extends from the Lecture Room of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy to Corn Exchange Street, erected in 1876-9 
from the design of Mr Fawcett. It provided private rooms and 
work-rooms for Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. In 1880 
two large rooms called "Museums of Philosophical Appa,j'atus" 
were thrown into one, so as to provide suitable space for the 
Library of the Philosophical Society. In 1882 a Laboratory for 
Animal Morphologj' was constructed above the upper floor on the 
south side of Mr Salvin's quadrangle; and in 1884 a second 
Laboratory for the same science on the western side. In 1890 a 
range of buildings was erected from Mr Fawcett's designs on the 
ground next Com Exchange Street, to provide additional Class 
Rooms for Physiology, a new building for Human Anatomy, and 
a large Lecture Room common to the two departments. 

Space for further extensions had been provided by the purchase 
in 1884 of the site of the Perse Almshouses, at the south-west 



THE LABORATORIES AND MUSEUMS 233 

corner of the Museums grounds, for £2675, and in 1888 of the 
site of the Perse School for Boys (which had been removed to 
new buildings in Hills Road), at a cost of £12,500. In 1896 the 
garden ground and adjoining premises at the back of Messrs 
Mortlock's Bank was also bought by the University for £12,000 
and in 1901 an adjoining house was acquired for £500. In 
1885-9 the new Chemical Laboratory in Pembroke Street was 
built on the site of the Perse Almshouses from the design of 
Mr J. J. Stevenson upon a plan proposed by Professor Liveing, 
and in 1908 an eastern wing was added from the design of Messrs 
Stevenson and Redfern. 

The Laboratory for Engineering and the Mechanical Sciences 
designed by W. C. Marshall, M"A., Trinity, erected between 
the Chemical and the Cavendish Laboratories on the site of 
the old Perse School House, which was incorporated in the 
new building, was opened in 1894. An extension of the 
Laboratory, built as a Memorial to the late John Hopkinson, 
M.A., r.R.S., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, and to his son, 
John Gustave Hopkinson, with funds given by Mrs Hopkinson 
and her son and daughter, was opened in 1900. In 1903 the 
Engineering Laboratory was further enlarged by the addition 
of the Perse School Headmaster's House, which had been for a 
time used as part of the Botany School. In 1912 this house was 
pulled down and replaced by a building specially designed for 
the work of the Department, planned by Mr Marshall. 

In 1895 Downing College was empowered by Act of Parliament 
to sell their surplus ground, and three portions of this were 
purchased by the University. In 1896 two acres fronting 
Downing Street were bought for £15,000; in 1897 an additional 
strip of land 40 feet wide along the southern boundary of the land 
already purchased was acquired at the rate of £5000 an acre; 
and in 1902 arrangements were made for taking over 6 J acres 
more on the basis of an annual rent-charge of £120 an acre, 
redeemable at any time by the University. On the land thus 
acquired new University buildings have been erected from time 
to time, and these include further extensions of the Scientific 
Departments. 

The Geological Collections were removed from the Woodwardian 
Museum to the Sedgwick Museum, designed by Mr, now Sir 
Thomas, Jackson, R.A. and erected on the Downing site in 1903 
as a Memorial to Professor Adam Sedgwick (see p. 243). The 
total cost of this building was nearly £50,000, rather more than 
half being subscribed by the Sedgwick Memorial Trustees. The 
•new Botany School, designed by Mr Marshall and erected on 
the same site, was also completed in 1903, and this set free 
•space which was utilised by the Engineering Department, now 
greatly increased by the addition of many rooms formerly used 



a34 the; laboratories and museums 

for Botany and also by the erection of a new Drawing Office, 
The new Medical School in Downing Street, erected from 
the designs of E. S. Prior, M.A., of Gonville and Caius College, 
now Slade Professor of Fine Art, at a cost of some £34,000, 
was completed in 1904. The Sedgwick Museum, the Botany 
School, and the Medical School were formaUy opened by King 
Edward VII on March 1, 1904. 

The School of Agriculture, situated on the Downing College 
site, was built during 1909 from the designs of Mr Arnold 
Mitchell and was formally opened by the Duke of Devonshire in 
April 1910. The cost of the building was defrayed by a sum of; 
£20,000 collected by a Committee of the Cambridge University 
Association under the presidency of the late Duke of Devonshire^ 
Chancellor of the University, and by the present Duke. This sum 
provided the building and equipment, and left a considerable 
residue to be invested for maintenance. The Drapei-s Company 
of the City of London, who also endow the Agricultural Professor t- 
ships, were the largest subscribers. 

The Drapers Company has also presented to the University a 
building for the accommodation of the Department of Physiologj'. 
This building, erected on the Downing site, in accordance with 
plans prepared by Sir T. G. Jackson, at a cost of about £22,000,. 
was opened by Prince Arthur of Connaught on June 9, 1914. 

Adjacent to the Drapers Building for Physiology is a new 
building, also from the plans of Sir T. G. Jackson, for the 
department of Experimental Psychology. The greater part 
of the funds for the erection of this building (between £3000^ 
and £4000) was presented to the LTniversity by the family of 
Charles Samuel Myers, M.D., Sc.D., of Gonville and Caius 
College. It was opened in 1913. The University has recently 
extended the School of Agriculture by the addition of a building' 
of about the same size as the originS-1 School, paid for by funds 
provided by the Development Commissioners, who are also 
providing funds for the research to be carried on there and for 
the upkeep. The architect is Mr Arnold Mitchell. The building 
was completed by the end of 1913. A new building has been 
erected on the Downing site for the Department of Forestry, from 
plans prepared by Mr Marshall. This was opened in 1914. 

In the last 30 or 40 years nearly £400,000 has been expended 
in the provision of Laboratories, Lecture Rooms, and Museums;' 
and a very large proportion of this sum has been provided by the 
munificence of benefactors to the University. Without these 
splendid gifts, which to a considerable extent are due to the 
exertions of the University Association, the ITniversity would not 
have been able to provide the accommodation necessary for 
the rapid expansion of her scientific departments. The U^niversity 
Association was founded at a meetmg at Devonshire House ori- 



THE DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 235- 

January 31, 1899. The first President was the late Duke of 
Devonshire, and the President now is Lord Rayleigh. The 
Honorary Treasurer has from the first been E. H. Parker, M.A., 
of King's College. The Secretaries have been H. J. Edwards, 
C.B., M.A., Peterhouse, from 1899 to 1906, and H. A. Roberts, 
M.A., of Gonville and Caius College, from 1904 to the present 
date (1915). 

T. The Department of Zoology 

The Zoological Laboratory consists of the top floor and the., 
greater part of the floor beneath of the long range of buildings 
between Engineering and Human Anatomy. It is divided into- 
the Balfour, Sedgwick, and advar.ced class rooms, research rooms, 
and the Balfour and Newton Libraries. It contains a valuable 
collection of portraits of zoologists and the microscopical collec- 
tions of F. M. Balfour, Adam Sedgwick, P. G. Sinclair, W. Heape, 
and others. The Balfour Library owes its origin to the gift of 
Professor Ba]fou"r's collection of scientific papers and books ; and 
in 1912 the Rev. A. M. Norman presented his library of over 
1000 volumes, which contains a unique series of separate 
zoological papers. 

The collections belonging to this Department are partly in 
the building on the east side of Mr Salvin's court, partly in the 
room called the Bird Room over the adjoining lecture-room. 

The collection of skeletons of Vertebrates, which include a 
few stuffed specimens, was commenced by Sir Busick Harwood, 
Professor of Anatomy 1785-1814; but it owes its present 
development to the exertions of the Reverend William Clark, 
M.D., Professor of Anatomy 1817-1866. During his tenui'e of 
office no opportujiity was lost of acquiring specimens. Of these 
some were purchased by the University or by subscription, others 
were presented by himself. Since the removal of the collection 
into the existing Museum in 1865 it has been largely increased by 
the exertions of the late Professor Newton, of J. W. Clark, M.A.> 
Trinity, Superintendent 1866-91, and especially of S. F. Harmer, 
ScD., of King's, Superintendent 1892-1909; and it has become 
one of the most complete in this country for educational purposes. 

The collection of organs in spirit originated in a small number 
of choice preparations presented to the University by Mr 
Lawrence. Subsequently, the museum of Sir Busick Harwood 
was purchased in 1815, after his death, for £367. 10.S. ; a con- 
siderable number of specimens were acquired at the sale of Mr 
Brookes's museum in 1 830 ; and in 1 836, the valuable collection 
of Dr Macartney, Professor of Anatomy in Trinity College,. 
Dublin, was purchased by the University. It was later increased 
by the collection of Professor Schroder van der Kolk of Utrecht, 
presented by the late Professor Sir George Humphry. The series ; 



236 THE DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 

is under constant revision, and additions are made to it every 
year as opportunities occur. 

With the continued increase of all parts of the collection, the 
Museum has become inadequate for the proper display and 
storage of the specimens; and new buildings are urgently 
required. As at present arranged, the Mammals occupy the 
gi'ound-floor of the Museum ; the Fishes, Amphibia, and Reptiles 
are in the galleries; and the Invertebrata in the annexe on the 
east side, formerly used hj the Professor of Physiology as a 
class-room. 

The fishes in spirit, among which are the very interesting 
collections formed by Charles Darwin, M.A., of Christ's College, 
during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. 'Beagle,' and by 
the Reverend R. T. Ix)we, M.A., of Christ's College, in Madeira, 
have been placed in presses in the Gallery constructed in 1877 
round the room in which the ornithological collections are placed 
for the present. 

The Bird Room contains the collection of British Birds 
presented by the Cambridge Philosophical Society to the Uni- 
versity in 1865; the Swainson Collection of birds purchased by 
subscription in 1840; the collection presented by F. B. Goodacre, 
M.D., of St John's, in 1863; the Strickland Collection presented 
by the widow of the late H. E. Strickland, M.A., in 1867; the 
Selby Collection deposited in 1869 by the trustees of the late 
Mr P. J. Selby ; and the Hepburn Collection, presented in 1870 
by the devisees of the late James Hepburn, of St John's College, 
long resident in San Francisco. 

On the 18th June 1907 the ^enate accepted a bequest made 
by the late Alfred Newton, M.A., Professor of Zoology and 
domparative Anatomy from 1866 to 1907, of the whole of his 
Natural History collections and library, together with a sum of 
£1000 upon trust to provide for the maintenance of the said 
library. The Newton Collection, a large part of which had been 
presented during the life-time of the donor, includes unique 
series of the dodo, solitaire, and other extinct birds, and of the 
■eggs of palaearctic birds, and is particularly rich in specimens 
illustrating the Avifauna of Jamaica and the Mascarene Islands. 
The library is one of the best and most comprehensive selec- 
tions of works dealing with the study of birds, and contains 
many extremely valuable editions of ancient and modern 
travels. 

On the 26th February 1874 the Senate accepted the offer of 
Miss Frances Strickland, of Apperley Court, to found a Curator- 
ship endowed with a permanent stipend of £150 per annum. The 
chief duties of the Strickland Curator are the proper custody 
and accurate cataloguing of the Strickland and other ornitho- 
logical collections belonging to the University. He is appointed 



THE DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 237 

by the Special Board for Biology and Geology, with the coasent 
of the Vice-Chancellor. 

1874 Osbert Salvin, M.A., Trinity Hall. 

1883 Hans Friedrich Gadow, Pli.D.^ M.A. 1884, pott King's. 

A collection of Invertebrata has been gradually formed. It 
consisted, in the first instance, of a series, partly in spirit, pai'tly 
dry, hastily put together for the instruction of students. The 
cabinet of shells formed by the late S. P. Woodward, author of 
the Manual of the Mollusca, was added in 1867. Since then the 
collection has been increased by several important acquisitions: 
(1) an extensive collection of Shells, with a valuable con- 
chological library, bequeathed by Robert MacAndrew, F.R.S., 
in 1873, catalogued and the nomenclature revised by the Rev. 
A. H. Cooke, M.A., of King's College, for whom the office of 
Honorary Curator of the MacAndrew Collection was created in 
1890; (2) a valuable collection of Shells, bequeathed by Miss 
Jane Saul in 1895; (3) a series of Invertebrata in spirit, formed 
by Dr Dohrn of Naples, and purchased in 1883 ; (4) the collection 
of Foraminifera formed by H. B. Brady, F.R.S., and presented 
by him in 1883 and following years; (5) the valuable series of 
marine Polyzoa, presented by Miss E. C. Jellj' in 1895 and sub- 
sequent years, forming the beginning of a collection of Polyzoa 
which has been largely added to from other sources, especially by 
Dr S. F. Harmer, since the date of its commencement. 

The Museum also possesses very large collections of Marine 
Invertebrata, brought back by various scientific expeditions 
organised from Cambridge, among which those presented by 
Professor J. Stanley Gardiner deserve special mention. 

The collection of British Insects is extremely good. It has been 
formed by the union of the old collections belonging to the Philo- 
sophical Society, the Selby Collection, the Brown Collection — 
(made by the late Messrs J. and T. Brown of King's Parade) — 
and the collection of Coleoptcra and Diptera made by the late 
G. R. Crotch, M.A., of St John's College, who bequeathed a sum 
of money to form a fund for the purchase of books or specimens. 
Numerous additions have recentlj'^ been made to the British 
collection, among which should be mentioned especially the 
Blackburne-Maze collection of British Lepidoptera, made by the 
late Mr W. P. Blackburne-Maze, and presented in 1910 by hi& 
son, Mr C. J. Blackburne-Maze. The Museum also possesses 
Mr Crotch's collections of CoccineUidae and Ei'otihdae. The 
entomological department was largely developed by the exertions 
of Dr David Sharp, Curator in Zoology 1890-1909. 

Recently, during the Superintendentship of Mr Punnett, half 
the ground-floor of the annexe has been devoted to the exhibition 
of series illustrating evolution and heredity. A large cabinet 
has been obtained through the generosity of T. H. Riches, M.A.^ 



■^^8 -THE MINER ALOGICAL MUSEUM 

«of Gonville and Caius College, and specimens have been presented 
by Professor Bateson, Professor Punnett, and others, UlUstrfiting 
these subjects. It is proposed to call this department the 
"Darwin Gallery," and it*is hoped before long to extend it. 

A- Catalogue of the Museum has been prepared, but remains 
for the present in manuscript. 

The Museum is managed by a Superintendent appointed by 
the Special Board for Biology and Geology, with the Consent of 
the Vice-Chancellor. 

1866 Jolin Willis Clark, M.A., Fellow of Trinitv. Registrary, ISitl. 
1892 Sidney Frederic Harmer, M.A., Fellow of^Kiug's. ScD. 1898. 

1909 H^iiiald Crundall Punnett, M.A., Fellow of Caius. Professor of Biology, 

1910. .\rtliur Halfour Professor of Genetics, 1912. 

1910 Leonard Doncaster, iM.A., Fellow of King's. ScD. 1918. 

The office of Assistant to the Superintendent was estabh'shed 
in 1891 without stipend from the University, and was revived 
jn 1902 with a stipend of £50 a year. The Assistant is appointed 
hy the Superintendent with the approval of the Vice-Chancellor. 

1891 (only) .losepli .Jackson Lister, M. A., St .lolin's. Fellow of St John's, 1899. 
1902 Leonard Doncasler, B.A., King's. .M.A. 1903. Fellow of King's, 1910. 

Superintendent of the Museum, 1910. ScD. 1913. 
1904 Stewart Andrew MoDowall, B.A., Trinitv. M.A. 1908. 

1906 Frank Arniitage Potts, H.A., Trinitv Hall. Fellow of Trinity Hall 1908. 

M.A. 1908. 

1908 Charles Leopold Boulenger, B.A., King's. M.A. 1910. 
1910[-11] Wilfred Backhouse Alexander, B.A., King's. 

A Curator in Zoology, appointed in 1877, has been called 
since 1909 the Curator in Entomology. His duties are assigned 
to him by the Superintendent. The appointment is made by 
the Special Board for Biology and Geology, with the consent of 
"the Vice-Chancellor. 

1877 John Follett BuUar, B. A., Trinity. M.B., .M.A. 1883. 

18T8 Francis John Henry Jenkiuson, B.A., Fellow of Trinity. M.A. 1879. 
Librarian. 1889. 

1879 Alfred Cort Haddon, B.A., Christ's. M.A. 1882. ScD. 1897. Fellow of 

Christs, 19'.»1. Header in Ethnology, 1909. 

1880 Alfred Hands Cooke, B.A., Fellow of King's. M.A. 1881. ScD. 1914. 
1890 David Sharp, .M.B., CM. (Edin.). M.A. 1891. 

1909 Hugh Scott, B.A., Trinity. M.A. 1910. 

II. The Minebalooical Museum 

The formation of the Collection commenced with the minerals 
collected by Dr Edward Daniel Clarke, the first Professor of 
Mineralogy, which were purchased by the University after his 
death in 1822 for the sum of £1500. A collection of minerals 
suited for the purposes of instruction was presented by Dr 
WTiewell in 1832, soon after his resignation of the Professorship. 
Many fine specimens of common and rare minerals have at 
different times been given by the late Marquis of Northampton, 
the Rev. G. Francis, Mr G. W. Hallam. Mr Hibbert, Mrs Calverley, 
JVIrs Peacock, Miss Whitehurst, Mr W. Hopkins, Mr J. W. Clark, 



THE MINERALOGICAL MUSEUM 239 

and others. In 1858 H. W. Elphinstone, M.A., of Trinity 
College, presented the collection of the late Henry Warburton, 
M.A., of Trinity, which includes the minerals formerly in the 
possession of Dr W. H. WoUaston. In 1860 "the collection of 
,Dr James Forbes Young was presented by his brothers. Sir Charles 
George Young and Mr H. Young. In 1866 a collection containing 
.many choice minerals was presented by Lord Lilford. A valuable 
series of specimens of gold, collected by the late Mr J. Hepburn, 
was presented to the Museum in 1870. 

In 1841 Viscount Alford gave the University the rich collection 
of minerals formed by Sir Abraham Hume. Bart. This collection 
includes one of diamonds, of which a catalogue was published by 
.the Count de Bournon. 

In 1^57 Charles Brooke, M.A., of St John's College, presented 
the collection of minerals, in many respects unrivalled, made 
by his father Henry James Brooke, F.R.S., on condition that it 
be maintained entire as the Brooke Collection. 

In 1897 the Reverend Thomas Wiltshire, M.A., Hon. Sc.I.)., 
of Trinity College, presented his fine collection. It contains 
many remarkably good specimens found during the preceding 
forty years in Swiss, American, and English localities. 

In 1899 the Carne Collection, consisting mainly of Cornish 
minerals, together with the cabinets in which it was contained, 
was bought for the University, a sum of over £500 being raised 
by subscription to defray the cost. 

The Mineralogical Collection is contained in two rooms on the 
first floor of the west wing of the building in which the Museum 
is situated. The entrance is at the north-west corner of the 
Court. The minerals are arranged in severalelass covered table- 
■cases, which resemble those in use in the Ecole des Mines of 
Paris, space for duplicates and for the specimens required for the 
illustration of lectures being supplied by tiers of drawers placed 
underneath. The collection is arranged mainly according to 
the classification adopted in E. S. Dana's system of Mineralogy. 

The lecture and demonstration rooms and the chemical 
laboratory are at the north end of the wing and on the ground 
floor below this end ; they ai-e entered by the passage used for a 
thoroughfare. The west windows of some of these rooms and of 
some of those in the gallery are provided with platforms for 
supporting the heliostat or other instrument used to give the 
bright signal needed in the determination of the geometrical 
'charactei's of minerals. 

The Demonstrator in Mineralogy (see p. 140) is ex officio 
-Assistant Curator of the Museum. 



240 THE CAVENDISH LABORATORY 

III. The Cavendish Laboratoky 

In this Laboratory, which is provided with a Hbrary, dark 
rooms, and numerous rooms for conducting experiments, every 
facility is furnished for the prosecution of physical research. 

The ground-floor contains a set of rooms for operations requiring 
great steadiness, such as exact measurements. A store-room, a 
workshop, and a battery-room are also provided on the ground- 
floor. 

The first floor contains a spacious lecture-room with a prepara- 
tion-room, a large apparatus-room, a private room for the 
Professor, and a large working laboratory, fitted with tables 
standing on beams of their own, so as to be independent of the 
vibrations of the floor. All the tables in the building are sup- 
ported in the same way, and there are in every floor small trap- 
doors by means of which bodies may be suspended over the 
tables in the room beneath and through which electric and other 
communications may be made. 

The ofiice of Assistant Director of the Ca.vendish Laboratory, 
estabUshed in 1891, came to an end at IMr Shaw's resignation 
in 1899. 

1891 Richard Tetley Glazebrook, M. A., Fellow of Trinity. C.B. 1910. 
1898-9 [Sir] William .Napier Shaw, M.\., Fellow of Emmanuel. Sc.I). 1902. 
Knightefl, 1915. 

IV. The Philosophical Library 

The use of the Library of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 
was offered to the University in 1881 ; and the conditions 
suggested by the Society ha\-ing been accepted by the Senate 
(2 June 1881), the books were transferred to the large room on 
the ground-floor of the central building, with the view of com- 
mencing a general scientific library. In 1881 the library con- 
tained 5000 volumes, but since then the number of books and 
periodicals has been increased to 20,000 by donations, exchanges, 
and purchases. Most of these are journals, obtained by exchange 
with some 300 other societies. The Library thus formed Ls found 
to be of great service to the Professors and others who work in 
the Museunis, The rules governing its use will be found in the 
University Calendar. 

The room contains a portrait of Charles Darwin by Sir W. B. 
Richmond, a bust of Sir John Ray, busts of Cayley and Stokes 
by a local artist, a portrait of Professor Newton, and a replica of 
the bust of Darwin now in the South Kensington Museum. 

V. The Optical Lecture-Room 

This room is at the south-west corner of the upper floor of 
the Museums adjacent to the rooms occupied by the Lucasian, 
Lowndean, and Plumian Professors. It was arranged as a lecture 



THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY 241 

theatre, the fittings having been designed, perhaps in part by 
Sir G. B. Airy, but mainly by Sir G. G. Stokes, so as to be adapted 
to optical demonstrations with the aid of sunlight reflected from 
outside by heUostats. The lectures of the Lucasian Professor 
were formerly delivered in this loom ; and it was also the stated 
place of meeting of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

The arrangements for the practice of students in astronomical 
observation, which was formerly connected with this lecture-room, 
have been transferred to the Observatory ; and since the opening 
of new Universit}' Lecture Rooms in Bene't Street in 1911, the 
room has no longer been used for its original purpose, and is 
now assigned to the Balfour Library (see p. 235). 

VI. The Chemicaj. Laboratory 
The principal entrance to the Chemical Laboratory is from 
Pembroke Street, but access can also be obtained from the 
Museums Court and Free Sdiool Lane : a bronze bust of Professor 
Liveing adorns the entrance hall. The ground-floor contains the 
laboratories for elementary work, comprising the main laboratory 
provided with accommodation for 130 students, an auxiliary 
laboratory to accommodate 80 students, and a room between 
them which is used for large operations; communicating with 
these are two balance rooms and two rooms for the conduct 
of operations with noxious gases, etc. Separated from this set of 
rooms by the entrance hall are three lecture rooms connected 
directly with a series of preparation and specimen rooms. The 
large lecture room seats 240, and is accessible by separate 
entrances from the street and from the rear: the two smaller, 
each seating 60, are approached from the entrance hall. The 
mezzanine floor at the west end of the building contains labora- 
tories for special purposes, and the mezzanine on the main stair- 
case gives access to the private room of the Professor of Chemistry 
and a room for organic analysis ; on the mezzanine floors at the 
east end are four smaller laboratories for the use of the Lecturers 
in Chemistry. On the first floor are found a large advanced 
laboratory, which accommodates about 65 students, and an 
auxiUary laboratory • with benches for 30 workers ; these are 
connected through a large room which is used for special opera- 
tions. To the west of these rooms are a balance room, the lecture- 
and private rooms of the Jacksonian Professor, and another 
laboratory devoted to organic Chemistry. At the east end, 
communicating directly with the advanced laboratory, are the 
private laboratories of the Professor of Chemistry and a large 
physico-chemical laboratory. Higher up are the library and 
several rooms for special investigations ; tlie attic floor contains 
rooms for the housekeeper and the assistants, and for a spectro- 
scope with a concave grating. One part of the roof has been 

H. R. 16 



242 THE DEPARTMENT- OF HUMAN ANATOMY 

arranged as a large flat area upon which work can be carried out 
in the open air. 

The basement contains laboratories for demonstration purposes 
and two rooms fitted entirely with fire-proof materials in which 
operations with easily inflammable substances can be safely 
conducted. Under the set of three lecture rooms are receiving 
and store rooms and rooms for gas analysis and high temperature 
work, together with the metallurgical laboratory, furnace room, 
and balance room occupied by the Goldsmiths Reader in ISIetal- 
lurgy. To the east of the entrance hall are the machinery room, 
containing two small steam engines, a d\Tiamo, air pumps and 
other machinery, the accumulator room, and the boiler house. 
Further east he a large research laboratory connected with a 
balance room, and a lectiu-e room, to seat 150, with its accom- 
panying preparation room. 

The whole building is warmed by steam and hot water, and 
steam is laid on to all the rooms for use in chemical operations. 
Tubes from the air pumps are led into the different rooms, some 
giving low exhaustion for filtering are distributed to the working 
benches, while those giving the highest exhaustion are carried 
to the balance rooms, lecture rooms, and a few other points. 
The large lecture room and the low rooms on the mezzanine 
floors are lighted by electricity, and there are leads from the 
dynamo and storage battery to all the lecture rooms for experi- 
mental purposes. A separate small storage battery can be placed 
in connection with any of the laboratories where an electric 
current is needed. The whole of the working rooms are ventilated 
by a shaft 100 feet high heated by the boiler furnaces. 

VII. The Dkpaktment of Human Anatomy 

This building is the northern and the first floor of the southern 
portion of the large block erected in 1 890, and consists of three 
floors. 

On the ground-floor are large work-rooms and preparation- 
rooms with storage' room, and the private room of the Professor 
of Anatomy. 

The first floor is occupied chiefly by the Museum of Human 
Anatomy, which contains an extensive series of specimens 
illastrative of human anatomy and a very fine series of the skulls 
of men of different races. There are also many dissections, 
spirit preparations, and models for teaching pm-poses. 

On the south side of the Lecture-Room occupying the western 
part of the first floor is the Anthropological Laboratory in 
which the practical classes in that subject are conducted, and 
the eastern part of that floor is the Embryological Laboratory. 

Adjoim'ng the gallery of the Museum is the Bone Room, 
wherein are mounted specimens of bones for the use of students. 



THE ENGINEERING LABORATORY 243 

The second floor is occupied by the dissecting room, which i$ 
capable of accommodating 250 students. 

Between the northern and southern parts of this buildiiig is a 
large lecture-room capable of seating 280 students and on the 
ground-floor of the south block is a smaller lecture-room used for 
anatomical demonstrations. 

VIII. The Engineeeing Laboratory and Mechanical 

Workshops 

The Laboratory includes rooms and apparatus for the experi- 
mental study of mechanics and elasticity, the strength of 
materials, heat and heat engines, electricity and its practical 
applications. Amongst the apparatus are a 50- ton testing machine 
and three smaller testing machines, a large horizontal compound 
steam-engine specially arranged for experimental work and several 
other steam-engines (three with direct-coupled dynamos), two 
steam turbines and five internal combustion engines, together with 
many appliances for the practical study of electricity. The Labora- 
tory is also furnished with apparatus for the practical study of 
hydraulics, including motor-driven centrifugal pump and two, 
turbines. Adjoining the liaboratory are the Mechanical Work- 
shops, in which practical instruction is given in wood work and. 
iron work, including pattern-making, fitting, turning, and forging. 
These are fitted with numerous lathes and vices, machines for 
shaping, planing, slotting, and drilling, and all the appliances 
necessary for teaching pupils and for making instruments and 
machinery. There is also a drawing office furnished with the 
necessary appliances for mechanical drawing and designing. 

The Laboratory is also well equipped with apparatus specially 
designed for research work, particularly in matters connected 
with the action of internal combustion engines, with the 
properties of materials of construction, and with a variety of 
electrical problems. 

In 1884 the office of Superintendent of the Mechanical Work- 
shops was established by Grace, but it was suppressed in 1800. 

1884^90 .James Samuel Lyon, B.A., Clare. M.A. 1886. 

IX. The Sedgwick Museum 

The original Museum consisted exclusively of those specimens, 
English and Foreign, which are described in Dr Woodward's 
Catalogues, printed in 1728-9. The English Fossils were 
bequeathed by him to the LTniversity; and by a Grace of the 
Senate, dated Feb. 26, 1729, the Vice-Chancellor was empowered 
to purchase, for a sum not exceeding £1000, the Foreign Fossils 
described in those catalogues. During the lifetime of Professpr 
Sedgwick and greatly by his influence £23,400 was collected for' 

16—2 



244 THE SEDGWICK MUSEUM 

the extension of the University Library and the erection of a 
Geological Museum, which occupied two-thirds of the building 
then erected and represented about £15,598. £3900 of Wood- 
wardian Trust money was put into the same building. The 
University enabled the Geological Department to realise these 
assets, and after Professor Sedgwick's death the pubUc were 
again invited to subscribe, and by 1898 £28,700 was raised 
by subscription and interest. Dr Latham, late Master of 
Trinity Hall, gave about £700, and thus a sum of nearly £49,000 
has been given to the University for the Geological Museum. 
The immense collection which grew around the original Wood- 
Tvardian Museum has now been housed in a building erected as 
a memorial to Professor Sedgwick and opened by His Majesty 
King Edward VII on March 1, 1904. 

The original collection possesses great historic value, as repre- 
senting the condition of a progressive science during the latter 
half of the 17th century, and has not been incorporated among the 
more recent additions to the Museum. It contains amongst other 
things the fossils collected by Agostino SciUa, a distinguished 
Sicilian painter who published in 1670 a work entitled "La Vana 
speculazione disingannata dal senso," in which he shews by 
comparison with recent forms that fossils are really the remains 
of organisms. Pencil drawings of these fossils made by Scilla 
to illustrate his work are preserved in the Museum. Dr Wood- 
ward founded the chair of Geology to support this view, in 
opposition to Dr Elie Camerarius, who held that fossils were 
lu^9us natvrae. 

Professor Green, 1778-88, added a few valuable organic 
remains to the Woodwardian cabinets ; and Professor Hailstone, 
1788-1818, formed a collection of simple minerals, and other 
specimens illustrative of the physical structure of the British 
Tsles and of some portions of the Continent. 

During fifty-two years continual additions were made to the 
collection by the personal labours and munificence of Professor 
Sedgwick, by contributions from Cambridge graduates and 
undergraduates, by the purchase of specimens from time to 
time out of the old Woodwardian surplus fund, and, since the 
promulgation of the new Statutes, by special grants from the 
Senate. These later additions have been recorded in the annual 
reports. 

The palaeozoic collections added to the Museum during the 
forty-four years previous to 1855 were arranged and classified by 
Professor M'^Coy, and his catalogue of them was published with 
an introductory essay by Professor Sedgwick. 

A catalogue of the fossiLs of the older palaeozoic strata was 
prepared by J. W. Salter, also with a preface by Professor 
Sedgwick, the last work which proceeded from his pen. 



THE BOTANY SCHOOL 245 

Catalogues of the reptiles and birds by Professor H. G. Seeley, 
and of the type specimens in the Museum by Henry Woods, 
M.A., of St John's College, have been printed by the University. 

The Museum contains many collections of note, among which 
may be mentioned those of Leckenby, Fletcher, Hugh Strickland, 
Montague Smith, Wiltshire, Meyer, and Whidborne, and portfons 
of others which have an exceptional value from having been 
made by specialists such as Count Miinster, Barrande, Bonney, 
Hudleston, Binney, and Turnbull; also the Petrological 
Museum arranged by Harker, the Elles Collection of graptolites, 
the Watson Collection of building stones, marbles, etc., besides 
numerous additions to the general collection by Marr, Woods, 
Reed, and other members of the staff. 

X. The Botany School 

The Herbarium was founded by John Martyn, Professor of 
Botany, 1733-61 ; but when Professor Henslow was appointed 
to the chair of Botany in 1825, he found nearly the whole of 
Martyn's collection gone hopelessly to decay. Professor Martyn 
also made a valuable donation of books to the Library; these 
and many other books which have been recently acquired are 
carefully preserved and available for use. The library of 
Charles Darwin, which Sir Francis Darwin has generously placed 
in this Department, has been catalogued and is accessible to 
those engaged in research. 

The Herbarium includes selected sets of plants gathered by 
many botanical travellers ; the whole herbarium of the late C. M. 
Lemann, M.D. ; and nearly the whole of the valuable herbarium 
of the late Dr Lindley. The fine collections of Algae formed 
by the late Dr J. E. Gray (of the British Museum) and Mrs Gray 
were presented by them to the Herbarium. The herbarium of 
the late celebrated rubologist, Mons. Gaston Genevier of Nantes, 
was obtained in 1880. The late Professor Babington's valuable 
herbarium and library were left by him to the University for 
the Botany School. The herbarium of the late Rev. Dr Churchill 
Babington was presented in 1889. The Rev. J. D. Gray has 
recently (1908) presented an exceptionally good collection of 
British plants. The collections are open to the use of botanists 
with the permission of the Professor or the Curator. 

In 1887, Lady Bunbury presented the whole of the herbarium 
and botanical collections of the late Sir Charles James Fox 
Bunbury to the Botanical Museum. These include Lichens, 
Fruits, and Seeds, a consfderable general Herbarium (British and 
Foreign), and a collection of Fossil Plants. 

The Museum, which was founded by Professor Henslow, has 
been considerably extended in recent years. 



246 THE MEDICAL SCHOOL 

The office of Assistant Curator of the Herbarium was established 
in 1878, the Professor of Botanj' himseK acting as Curator; but 
in 1907 the office of Curator was substituted for that of Assistant 
Curator. The Curator is appointed by the Professor of Botany, 
with the consent of the Vice-Chancellor, for a limited period, not 
exceeding five years, to be fixed by the Professor on making the 
appointment. The duties of the Curator are to assist the 
Professor in arranging and keeping in order the Herbarium, and 
to assist persons using it for the purpose of study, 

1878 Thomas Hughes Corry. B. A., Caius, 1883. 

1883 Michael Cressb Potter i, B.A., Peterhouse. M.A. 1884. Sc.D. 1909. 

1891 Isaac Uenry Burkina, B.A., Caius. M.A. 1895. 

1898 Henry Harold Welch Pearsons, B.A., Caius (formerly Christ's^ U.X. 1900. 

ScD. 190T. 
1900 Richard Henry Yapp*, B..\., Caius (formerly St John's). M.A. 1903. 
1905 Robert Heath Lock, B.A., Fellow of Caius. M.A. 1905. Sc.D. 1910. 

1908 Charles Edward Moss, D.Sc. (Victoria). B.A., Emmanuel, 1910. M.A. 1915. 

The office of Assistant Curator of the Botanical Museum was 
established in 1904 without stipend from the University; in 
1907 the office of Curator was substituted for that of Assistant 
Curator. The Curator of the Botanical Museum is appointed 
in the same manner as the Curator of the Herbarium. His 
duties are to assist the Professor in arranging and keeping in 
order the Botanical Museum, and to assist persons using it for 
purposes of study. 

1904 E<lward Russell Bui-don, B.A., Sidney. M.A. 1906. 

1909 Hugh Hamshaw Thomas, H.X., Downing. M.A. 1911. Fellow of Downing, 

1914. 

The Botany School comprises a basement and three floors, 
with a mezzanine between the first and second floors. There is 
also a flat roof, available for experimental purposes. 

For information with regard to the Botapic Garden see p. 214 
above. 

XI. The Medical School 

The new Medical School is assigned to the departments of 
Medicine, Surgery, Pharmacology, Pathology, and Public Health. 
Connected with the Pathological Laboratory is the Humphry 
Museum — intended to accommodate specimens chiefly in Morbid 
Anatomy — required for the teaching of the departments above 
mentioned. 

The Pharmacological and the Pathological Laboratories are 
thoroughly equipped with apparatus and specimens, not only for 
teaching purposes but also for carrying on original research. 

1 Professor of Botnny and BioIoi?y at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

2 Director of the Botanic Ganiens. Singapore. 

3 Professor of Bof»>y, South African Collese. Capetown. 

4 Professor of Botanj, Queen's College, Belfast. 



THE SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE 247 

The new building also contains a Medical Library where the 
most recent literature — both British and Foreign — can be con- 
sulted by students. 

XII. The School of AaRicuLTURE 

The work of the Department of Agriculture is carried on in the 
School of Agriculture, on the University Farm, the Plant- 
Breeding Farm, and at the Field Laboratories. 

The School contains three lecture-rooms, a library, large 
laboratories for Chemistry and for Biologj% and many private 
rooms for research. An extension provided chiefly for research 
in Plant- Breeding and Animal Nutrition has also been com- 
pleted, the funds being provided by a Government grant. 

The University Farm, known as Gravel Hill, is approached 
from the Huntingdon Road, and lies between that road and the 
Madingley Road, adjoining the Observatory. It consists of 
120 acres of arable land near the Huntingdon Road, and 80 acres 
of pasture on the Madingley Road. It is well equipped for 
teaching and experimental work. 

The Plant-Breeding Farm, known as Hoav Hill, is about two 
miles out of Cambridge on the Huntingdon Road, and adjoins 
the University Farm. It has been equipped by a grant from the 
Board of Agriculture out of the Development Fund in order to 
further Professor BiiTen's work in Plant-Breeding. It consists 
of 230 acres, mostly arable, and is vv^ell equipped for seed growing. 

The Field Laboratories, which were started in 1910 as a private 
venture, and have now been handed over to the University, are 
situated on the Milton Road, and cover an area of about ten 
acres. Among the numerous buildings are several designed for 
the accurate study of various problems in the nutrition of animals. 
These have been provided by Government grants for the use of 
Professors Wood and Hopkins, and form part of the equipment of 
an institute for Research in Animal Nutrition. 

XIII. The School of Physiology^ 

The first experimental laboratory known to have been equipped 
in Cambridge was the fifteenth century Audit Chamber of King's 
Hall, which Richard Bentley, the Master of Trinity, converted 
soon after 1702 into what he called an "elegant Chymical 
laboratory" for Francis Vigani, the first University Professor 
of Chemistry. This room, now the Bursary of Trinity College, 
may also be regarded as the first Physiological laboratory, for 
it is known that Stephen Hales, Fellow of Corpus Christi College, 
who first measured the blood pressure and made many important 

1 This information is derived from an account of tlie Sciiool of PliysioJOKy distrilmted dn tli.e occasion 6f 
tlie presentation of tlie Scliool by tlie Worsliipfnl Company of Drapei-s and its opening by H.R.H. Prince 
Artliur of Connauxht on June 9, 1914. 



248 ■ THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIOLOGY 

observations in animal and plant physiology, began his experiments 
early in the eighteenth century in this "elaboratory of Trinity 
College." But though many graduates in the ancient Faculty of 
Medicine in the University have left names now illustrious in the 
history of Physiology, like those of Harvey and of Glisson, and in 
a less degree those of Wharton, JoyUffe, Jurin, Wollaston, and 
Young, their chief work was not done in Cambridge itself, and it 
was not until the last third of the nineteenth century that 
Physiology began to be regarded no longer as an appanage of 
Human Anatomy or of Zoology, but as an independent experi- 
mental science in the main Une of biological enquiry, and as an ' 
essential part of medical study. 

The present School consists of five storeys, the lowest being 
sunk five feet below ground level. The whole of the floors are of 
fireproof construction and the roof trusses are of ii-on, which is 
exposed as much as possible within the building. At the West 
end the fourth and fifth storeys are thrown together into one 
large room for Histology classes, and here the fifth storey is 
represented by the gallery which surrounds the room. The 
special necessities for hght in this room made the architectural 
treatment of the roof dilficult. The ridge and furrow roof bears 
skylights on its western slopes and these are transverse to the 
long-axis of the building. The chief classes are in the morning 
and no direct sunhght then gives trouble by shining through 
the skyUghts. The ugly appearance of the ridges in saw-edge 
silhouette against the sky has been masked along the north 
and south external sides by narrow longitudinal roofs; and these 
are tiled. 

Externally the building is of Cranley (purple) and Bracknell 
(red) brick, with dressings of Clipsham stone. 

On the Ground Floor, besides the rooms given to heating 
apparatus, coals, stores, etc., the following special rooms may 
be mentioned: 

The Battery and Switch-hoard rooms. Continuous electric 
cuiTent of 110 volts is suppUed to the Laboratory from an 
external power station. This can either be used directly on the 
Laboratory circuits or used to charge the batteries. The object 
of this system is to allow heavy currents to be drawn directly 
from the power station during the day, when the larger electric 
motors and arc lamps are in use in the Laboratory, and to 
provide by storage for the night load, when the dynamo in the 
Btation will not be running. In order that the voltage of the 
direct supply to the Laboratory circuits may not be altered 
whUe the cells are being charged, a booster motor is to be placed 
in the switch-board room for raising the voltage of the current 
suppUed to the cells. 

The battery has a capacity of 480 ampere-hours, which is 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIOLOGY 249 

sufficient for all the night load of the Laboratory. Some of the 
cells of the main battery are also used for supplying the four volt 
circuit which is distributed through the building and serves 
to drive time-marking clocks and tuning-forks, and other 
apparatus. 

A special feature of the supply to certain of the research 
rooms is that both 110 and 4 volt current can be taken from 
plugs, attached to wires hanging from the ceiling. 

The Workshop. This is intended only for the making of 
small pieces of apparatus and for the running repairs of the 
Laboratory. It is equipped with a screw-cutting lathe of 
3^ inch centres, a sensitive drilling machine, emery grinders and 
grindstone. All these are driven through overhead shafting by 
a 3J H.p. electric motor. 

The Aquarium. Modern Physiological research takes account 
of the problems presented by invertebrates as well as by the 
higher animals. Many of the invertebrates studied are marine 
animals, and for these tanks of sea water are provided. The 
sea water is continuously aerated and passed through filters 
by a series of pumps operated by compressed air. The whole 
of the system is constructed of stoneware and glass, so that no 
metal comes into contact with the water. The method has been 
in use in the old Physiological Laboratory for two years, and 
has proved capable of maintaining the animals in good condition 
without renewal of the sea water more often than once in three 
months. The water is obtained from Lowestoft, and is filtered 
through Berkefeld filters before it is used in the tanks. 

Compressed-air plant. The air compressor is driven by an 
electric motor from the direct-current supply. The system of 
pipes distributed through the building and the air-reservoir 
connected to the compressor have sufficient capacity to prevent 
rapid variations of the pressure. In order however that the 
supply may always be available at 25 lbs. per sq. in. the system 
is fitted with an automatic switch which starts the compressor 
as soon as the pressure drops to a predetermined value. 

The compressed-air pipes are distributed to the research 
rooms throughout the building. The chief purposes of the 
supply are the artificial respiration of animals, the aeration of 
the sea-water tanks, the pumping of fluids which must not be 
brought into contact with metal pumps, and the drying of the 
inside surfaces of glass apparatus. 

In this room is a small electrically driven centrifuge. A large 
one is to be installed later. 

Research rooms for electro-physiology. The principal room ( No. 4) 
has been designed for research into the electric stimulation of 
nerves and muscles and into the electric phenomena which accom- 
pany their action. For the latter purpose a capillary electrometer 



250 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIOLOGY 

is installed on a base designed to eliminate vibration, and is so 
arranged that its movements can be recorded by photography in 
the adjoining dark room. On stone slabs let into the walls of the 
room there are placed the various devices used for measuring and 
timing electric stimuli. There is a pendulum capable of delivering 
two or three electric shocks at determined intervals of time 
ranging from one ten-thousandth to one-tenth of a second; a 
machine is also provided which will deliver a longer succession 
of shocks, the strength, duration, and periodicity of which can 
each be controlled independently. 

This room has been placed in the basement, and at the greatest 
possible distance from the rooms which contain running 
machinery, in oi'der that the capillary electrometer may not be 
affected by vibration. 

In addition, room No. 1 is provided with a dark chamber 
for a string galvanometer, an instrument now in general use for 
the study of the heart and the diagnosis of its diseases. 

Thermo-electric research. Rooms Nos. 2 and 3. In these 
rooms apparatus is set up for the determination of the evolution 
of heat by tissues. As little as a millionth of a degree centigrade 
can be detected. A continuous record can also be taken of 
the heat given out by small animals on different diets over a 
period of several days. 

Oh the First Floor are the Library and book-store, the Demon- 
stration Theatre with adjoining Lecturer's Room, the Office, six 
private research rooms, a balance room, a dark room, and a 
cold storage room, placed above the refrigerating plant on the 
ground floor. 

The Cold Storage Room is about 5 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft., fitted with 
shelves and with an electrically driven fan for ventilation. It 
has two doors and can be kept indefinitely at 0° — 2° C. In the 
lobby to the cold storage room is a telephone. 

The Demonstration Theatre will accommodate a class of about 
80. By electro-motors controlled from the lecturer's desk the 
room can be rapidly darkened. Experiments can be prepared 
in the lecturer's room and brought in for demonstration. In 
the adjoining room (No. 7) given to photographic work, is the 
kinematograph which projects moving pictures upon a screen in 
the Theatre. This kinematograph has great value for teaching 
purposes. By its use, rapid movements which are exhibited 
can be slowed and their analysis facilitated. 

On the. Second Floor are the following : 

X-ray room. Room No. 1. The X-ray apparatus which is 
being installed is designed partly to demonstrate to students 
the method of use for cUnical purposes, and partly for physio-' 
logical research especially on the digestive system. 

Near the X-ray room are a student's research room, a room 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIOLOGY 251 

(No. 3) arranged for observations on colloids and containing 
an ultra-microscope, two rooms for the study of the special 
senses, one of these capable of being darkened for demonstrating 
the ophthalmoscope and visual phenomena. 

Bespiration. Three rooms, Nos. 7, 8, 9, have been specially 
designed for the study of respiration. This study is largely 
concerned with the capacity possessed by the blood to absorb 
oxygen and carbonic acid. For the estimation of these gases 
in the blood two types of apparatus are in use: 

(1) The mercurial air pump, in which the blood can be 
boiled in vacuo. Four of these pumps are on the west wall of 
room 7. 

(2) The gases in small quantities of blood — a. few drops — 
are estimated by expelling the gas from the blood on shaking it 
with appropriate re-agents in a bottle fitted to a gauge. The 
blood gas apparatus and the shaking machinery are on the east 
wall of room 9. In the middle of this room are gasometers 
containing gas of known composition. These gases can be put 
in suitable flasks and blood exposed to them at a known 
temperature in order to find the quantity of gas absorbed by 
the blood. The apparatus for this purpose is at the south end 
of the east wall. 

On this floor are also a photographic room, a common room 
for the teaching staff, the Professor's room (10), a large room (11) 
for neurological research, now used in part for the storage of 
apparatus, and two private research rooms (12 and 13). 

The Third Floor contains the large room for elementary classes 
in Histology. Abundant light is provided for the microscopes 
from the sides and from the roof lights, of which the arrangement 
has been described already. Microscopic sections and other 
materials are prepared in the adjoining room. In this large 
Histology room with its galleries 150 students can work 
simultaneously. 

The Experimental and Histological room for advanced classes 
contains tables placed underneath the windows for microscopical 
work. Behind these there are tables equipped with drums and 
other apparatus for experimental work. The equipment is 
eimilar to that provided in the Elementary room with the 
exception that each student has a larger space allotted to him. 
The students in this room are also provided with apparatus for 
the accurate measurement of the time between two electric 
stimuli; with this they are able to measure time intervals as 
short as one ten-thousandth of a second. In the centre of the 
room connections are provided for two kymographs, and at the 
west end a large stone slab is let into the wall to provide a steady 
base for galvanometers and other instruments which are affected 
by vibration. 



252 THE SCHOOL OP PHYSIOLOGY 

At the west end the Fottbth Floor gives on to the gallery of the 
Histology room. A small Demonstration Theatre is placed 
centrally and here classes of any number up to 50 can be drafted 
successively from the larger rooms to see demonstrations of 
methods or experiments. 

At the east end is the Experimental room for elementary 
classes. This provides space for forty-six students, each of 
whom has a separate equipment consisting of a recording drum 
and of apparatus for electric stimulation. The recording drums 
are arranged on five tables, which form separate units and can 
be worked independently. The mechanism for driving the 
drums is of a particularly simple kind and has been specially 
designed for this Laboratory. Along the edge of each table 
there runs a continuous b"ne of steel shafting driven by an 
electric motor which stands on the floor. Each drum is driven 
from the shafting through a pulley and a cord kept taut by a 
weight hanging beneath the table. A lever placed conveniently 
near to the drum serves for clutching- the driving pulley to the 
shafting and so for starting the drum. A feature of this 
system is that no part of the mechanism with the exception 
of the main shaft is put into motion untU the- drum is actually 
required to rotate, so that wear of the moving parts is reduced 
to a minimum. 

Two of the tables, namely those which occupy the centre of 
the room, carry the sixteen drums which formed the equipment 
of the old Physiological Laboratory. Some of these have been 
running since 1884. The other three tables contain thirty 
drums of a type designed for the new Laboratory. These drums 
can be driven at six different speeds ranging from one revolution 
per second to one revolution in thirty-five minutes. Every 
stiident is provided with a small storage cell as a source of 
current for the stimulation of nerves and muscles. The cells 
are charged from the main battery in the Laboratory at a time 
when there is no class occupying the room, and the students 
draw their current from special terminals on the cells which are 
provided with a safety device to prevent too heavy a discharge 
being taken. The bench tops are made of Nigerian mahogany. 

For the purpose of communication between the rooms on the 
different floors, a metaphone is installed, giving communication 
between ten of the rooms. 

In the Lecture Theatre, Demonstration rooms, Class rooms. 
Office, and Professor's room are time dials connected in circuit 
with a master clock and battery. 



PSYCHOLOGY, BIO-CHEMISTRY, AND FORESTRY 253 

XIV. The Psychological Laboratory 

The Psychological Laboratory, recently erected on the 
Downing site, is approached by the entrance and staircase of the 
new School of Physiology. The ground-floor contains a lecture- 
room. Director's and Assistant's rooms, a workshop, and a room 
ifor research in Animal Psychology "opening out on to a grass 
court. On the first floor are a long practical class-room accom- 
modating thirty students, a smaller practical class-room, a large 
dark room, and a library of psychological books and periodicals. 
The second floor consists solely of research rooms, including a 
top-lighted room suitable for work on vision, and a sound-proof 
room specially built for auditory experiments. 

XV. The Department of Bio-Chemistry 

The Department of Bio-Chemistry, separately constituted in 
1914, has succeeded to rooms previously occupied by the Depart- 
ment of Physiology. On the first floor of the building facing Corn 
Exchange Street is a large Laboratory for elementary classes. 
Rooms for advanced teaching are on the floor beneath. 

On the first floor of an adjacent building, running westward, 
are ten smaller rooms devoted to research. There are also dark 
rooms for spectroscopic and polariscopic work, a balance room, 
and other rooms devoted to experiments requiring special 
apparatus. 

XVI. The School of Forestry 

The work of the Department of Forestry is carried on in 
buildings erected in 1914 at the end of Downing Place. Towards 
the cost of the building a substantial government grant was 
received ; the rest of the money being raised by public subscrip- 
tion. The building contains two lecture rooms, laboratories, 
research rooms, Ubrary, and a workshop. There are large 
collections of teaching material, including a herbarium, and a 
•complete collection of timbers from all parts of the world. 

The Department receives a government grant in aid of research 
work on timber and also a grant to cover the cost of advisory 
work in twelve eastern counties. 

In addition to the indoor work of the School, facilities are 
provided for outdoor work at Sandringham and on the Cowdray 
estates in Sussex. At Sandringham an area has been granted for 
■carrying on investigaitions, and for purposes of demonstration. 
Lord Cowdray has granted the use of the woodlands on his estate 
at Midhurst for the training of students in practical work. 
These woodlands extend to 4600 acres, and are admirably 
suited for the purpose. 



254 THE SELWYN DIVINITY SCHOOL 



THE SELWYN DIVINITY SCHOOL 

The original Divinity School, probably the oldest LTniversity 
building, was on the north side of the 'Schools Quadrangle,' 
under the present Catalogue Room of the University Library 
(see p. 210). This School was incorporated in the Library in 1856, 
and was fitted with shelves to accommodate books, although it 
was still also used for lectures for a long time afterwards. 
In the same year WUUam Selwyn, D.D., of St John's College, 
Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, set apart £700 a year 
from the income of his chair as an augmentation of the stipend 
of the NorriSian Professor, proposing at the same time, if the 
Norrisian Professorship should meanwhile become vacant, to 
continue the same contribution 'during his tenure of his office 
for the furtherance of theological studies in such way as might 
seem best. At that time the income of the Lady Margaret's 
Professorship was very -large and that of the Norrisian Pro-* 
fessorship quite small, but by a Statute of 1860 provision was 
made for a re-distribution of endowments between the two 
Chairs, thus giving a permanent character to Professor Selwyn's 
voluntary arrangement. 

In accordance with this provision a Trust was formed in the 
year 1864 to receive and administer the sums so set apart with a 
view to building a Divinity School ; and shortly before Professor 
Selwyn's death on April 24, 1875, when the accumulated Fund 
amounted to nearly £9,000, a Syndicate was appointed (Dec. 3, 
1874) to consider the best site for such a building. In accordance 
with their report, a site opposite St John's College was purchased 
by the University for £3750 (Grace of May 27, 1875). On Nov. 2, 
1876, designs prepared by Mr Basil Champneys, of Trinity 
College, for the Divinity School and Literary Lectul-e Rooms 
adjoining it, in "English Gothic of the early part of the sixteenth 
century," were approved by the Senate, and the Divinity School 
was ready for occupation at the beginning of the Michaelmas 
Term, 1879. The entire cost of the Divinity School, including 
fittings and furniture, amounted to a little more than £11,000,- 
of which about £10,700 was provided by Dr Selwyn's gift. The 
Literary Lecture Rooms which were added at the expense of the 
University, cost about £4000 more. The niches on the exterior 
have since been fiUed (1892-1898) with a series of statues, 
through the liberality of the late Samuel Sandars, M.A., of 
Trinity College. The statues, executed by Mr Edmund Kett 
of Cambridge, represent nine eminent Cambridge theologians 
(Archbishops Cranmer and Barker, Bishops Fisher, Pearson, 
Andrewes, and Lightfoot, Erasmus, John Lightfoot, and Benjamin 
Whichcote). 

The Divinity School contains a large lecture-room, capable 



THE LAW SCHOOL 255 

of holding about 250 students, a smaller lecture-room, a Library, 
and four rooms for the Professors. In addition to this there are 
the four rooms assigned to Uterary subjects. 

THE LAW SCHOOL AND SQUIRE LAW LIBRARY 

These buildings, which are situated in Downing Street, adjoin 
the Sedgwick Memorial Miiseum on the east and the Archaeo- 
logical Museum on the west. All were designed by Sir T. G. 
Jackson, R.A. The funds for the building of the Law Library, 
for the purchase of furniture, and for the original equipment of 
the Library with books, were provided under the Will of the late 
Miss Rebecca Flower Squire, who died November 26, 1898. 
Provision has also been made, under the same Will, for the 
salary of a Librarian and for the further purchase and renewal 
of books. 

In addition a sum of £1000 has been received from the Master 
and Fellows of Gonville and Caius College in trust for the benefit 
of the Squire Law Library; such sum to be entitled the Charles 
Monro Fund and the annual income to be devoted to the purchase 
and binding of foreign books. An annual sum (not exceeding 
£50) is provided by the University for assistance to the Librarian 
and for incidental expenses of management. 

The rules governing admission to, and the use of, the Library 
will be found in full in the University Calendar, and in an 
abbreviated form in the Student's Handbook. 

THE EXAMINATION HALLS 

The Examination Halls, elected on part of the Mortlock site 
(see p. 233), from the designs of W. C. Marshall, M.A., Trinity, 
were first used in 1909. The larger Hall is 106 feet long, 
51 feet wide, and 30 feet high. The smaller Hall, which is 
divisible into two unequal parts, is 106 feet long, 30 feet wide, 
and 16 feet high, and is lighted entirely from the roof. Each 
is ventilated throughout by electric fans on a system arranged by 
J. B. Lock, M.A., of Gonville and Caius College, a member of 
the University Building Committee. 

UNIVERSITY LECTURE ROOMS 

The University Lecture Rooms erected on part of the Mortlock 
site (see p. 233) from the designs of Mr George Hubbard, were 
completed in 1911. The building contains a large Lectufe 
Theatre, seated for about 275 students, nine lecture-rooms of 
various sizes, a common-room for Professors, Readers, and 
Lecturers, and three rooms suitable for small classes and inter- 
views. The rooms are used mainly for lectures in Economics, 
English Literature, History, and Mathematics. 



256 THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

At the top of the building there is also a large Departmental 
Library, having a floor space of 2250 square feet. This provides 
accommodation for the Seeley Memorial Library, consisting 
of works on History and Comparative PoUtics; the German 
Research Library given to the University in 1914 by Mr Otto 
Beit; English, French, and German Departmental Libraries for 
the use of students reading for the Medieval and Modern 
Languages Tripos ; and a small library of works on Moral Science. 
The rules governing admission to, and the use of, these Libraries 
will be found in the Student's Handbook. 

THE UNIVERSITY OFFICES 

These are situated in a large private house in St Andrew's 
Street, rented by the University from Emmanuel College. The 
ground floor provides a Syndicate Room, a room for the Vice- 
Chancellor, and an office for the University Marshal ; the Council 
Room and the office of the Financial Board are on the first floor ; 
the second floor furnishes adcommodation for the offices of the 
Appointments Board, and the third floor for the Board of 
Military Studies. 

FITZWILLIAM HALL 

In 1892 a house in Trumpington Street, built in 1727, was 
acquired to serve as the centre of the corporate life of the 
Non-Collegiate Students who were first admitted to the Uni- 
versity in 1869 (see the University Calendar). 

Censors 
1869 Italph Benjamin Somerset, M.A., Fellow of Trinity. 
•1881 Francis George Howard, M.A., Trinity. 

1890 Tristram Frederick d-oft lluddleston, M.A., Fellow of King's. 
1907 William Fiddian Reddaway, M.A., Fellow of King's. 

THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

Stephen Perse, M.D., senior Fellow of Gonville and Caius 
College, by a clause in his WilP, dated September 27, 1615, three 
days before his death, bequeathed certain property in charge to his 
executors, to purchase divers grounds and tenements, to be appUed, 
amongst other purposes, to that of erecting and establishing within 
three years (if possible), after his decease, a convenient house 
capable of containing one hundred scholars to be used for a Free 
Grammar School. Theearliest buildings were erected in whatisnow 
known as Free School Lane, at the back of Corpus Christi College. 
The first master was Thomas Lovering, M.A., of Pembroke, 
and Jeremy Taylor was Perse Scholar at Gonville and Caius 
College in 1628.' 

1 A copy of the Will is in Baker's M8S. VoL XXTI. p. 131. 



ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL 257 

At the beginning of the 19th century the School had much 
decayed, and from 1816 to 1842 jLhe large schoolroom was used as 
a picture gallery for the FitzwiUiara Collection. s 

In 1841 a new scheme for the administration of the Benefaction 
was approved and new buildings were erected; and' in 1873 a 
Perse School for Girls was estabhshed. In 1888 the School was 
removed to a more convenient site on the Hills Road. 

The School is now conducted according to a New Scheme 
under the Board of Education, sealed 1910. It is under the 
management of a Governing Body consisting of fifteen persons, 
of whom two are nominated by the Council of the Senate of the 
University, two by Gonville and Caius College, one by Trinity 
College, five by the Borough Council of Cambridge, and five by 
the County Council. 

ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL 

The Hospital was founded in the year 1719 by John Adden- 
brooke, M.D., formerly of Catharine HaU, who left about £4500, 
' to hire, fit up, purchase, or erect, a building for a small Physical 
Hospital for poor people of any Parish or any County.' Land 
was purchased in 1728, and a building erected in 1740; but the 
money left by Dr Addenbrooke being insufficient for the main- 
tenance of the Hospital so built, an Act of Parliament was 
obtained in 1766 for making it a General Hospital, and establish- 
ing a constitution under which additional funds should he 
obtained. In October 1766 the Hospital was first opened for the 
reception of patients. 

In the year 1814 Mr John Bowtell, formerly a bookbinder of 
Cambridge, bequeathed a legacy of £7000, afterwards increased 
by dividends to £8400, part of which was expended in adding 
new wings to the Building. 

During the years 1864 and 1865 the Hospital was almost rebuilt 
and greatly enlarged from the designs of Sir M. Digby Wyatt and 
Sir G. M. Humphry at a cost of about £15,000, and in 1878 
additional wards were built at the cost of £3590. 

In 1890 accommodation for sick nurses was provided in 
memory of Miss Alice Fisher, late Matron, at a cost of £300 ; the 
funds being chiefly raised by friends. 

In 1895, through the generosity of Lord Peckover, a new 
Nurses' Home, consisting of 39 separate bedrooms, with requisite 
bath room and lavatory accommodation, was erected and 
furnished at a cost of about £3700. The same benefactor 
enabled the Governors during the years 1897 and 1898 to have 
a new Operating Theatre and Anaesthetising Room constructed 
and equipped with the most modern fittings and appliances 
at a cost of about £2000. 

H. R, 17 



258 ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL 

In the year 1899 a steam laundry was established and 
equipped at a cost of about £1250. 

In the year 1910 an Electrical and X-Ray Department was 
established and equipped at a cost of about £220, from donations 
given by Mrs Lilley Smith, Colonel T. W. Harding, and the 
Cambridge Borough Education Committee. 

In the year 1913 Mrs Bonnett of Lensfield Road, Cambridge, 
gave the sum of £3000 to erect and equip a Clinical Laboratory 
in memory of her son, the late John Bonnett, M.A., for many 
years Secretary and Legal Adviser to Addenbrooke's Hospital. 

In the years 1913, 1914, and 1915, new wards for children were 
erected on the top of the North Wing of the Hospital, together 
with new sanitary annexes. The bath annexes on the same 
side were remodelled, and new Out-Patient and Special Depart- 
ments erected on the south side. The old Out-Patient Depart- 
ment was converted into a new and better equipped Pharmacy 
and Surgical Dressings Stores, while the old Pharmacy was 
converted into Recovery Rooms in connection with the Out- 
Patient Operating Theatre. A new boiler house and pump 
room with hot water and heating installation were also pro- 
vided. The cost of these additions and alterations was defrayed 
from the money provided by the King Edward VII Memorial 
Fund, the Ladies' Needlework Guild, and other benefactoi-s. 
A new electric lift has since been provided and installed 
through the generosity of Mrs Almeric Paget and Lord Peckover 
of Wisbech. 

The Hospital now (1916) contains 192 beds. 

In consideration of a contribution of £300 a year to the funds of 
the Hospital, the University has the right of claiming appoint- 
ments on the staff for the Regius Professor of Physic and the 
Professor of Surgery, with facilities for lecturing. The Hospital 
also provides proper faciUties for conducting the University 
Examinations in CUnical Medicine and Clinical Surgery. 

In addition to this contribution of £300 a year from the 
University Chest, payments are also made by the University, 
from the annual grant from the Board of Education, of £50 a 
year for the general purposes of the Hospital; £100 a year for 
the purchase of apparatus required by the Honorary Medical and 
Surgical staff for special methods of treatment or in the teaching 
of students ; £350 a year for the stipends of seven members of the 
Honorary staff of the Hospital approved as University Teachers; " 
and £50 a year for the stipend of a Pathologist. The regulations 
under which thes^ payments are administered will be found in 
the University Calendar. 

Certificates of attendance on the practice in the Hospital are 
recognized by the University, by the Royal Colleges of Physicians 
and Surgeons, an 1 by the other licensing medical bodies. 



I 



University Scholarships^ &'c. 

*:,,* The substance of the Regulations governing the award 
of these Scholarships wiU be found in Chapter vri. of the Student's 
Handbook. 

[New Regulations for the Classical Scholarships known as 
the 'University Scholai-ships ' (i.e. the Battle, Browne, Craven, 
Davies, Pitt, Porson, and Waddington), made with a view to 
equalising the tenure and values of the Scholarships, were 
adopted in 1914. These will be found in the current issue of 
the University Calendar.'] 

CRAVEN SCHOLARSHIPS 

The Craven Scholarships were founded in 1649 under the Will 
of John Craven, Baron Craven of Ryton in Shropshire. The 
Testator's intention was to endow four Scholarships, two at Oxford 
and two at Cambridge, each Scholar receiving an annual stipend 
of £25 for fourteen years, and the residue of the estate being 
devoted to the redemption of English captives at Algiers or 
any other place under the dominion of the Turk. The Scholars 
were to be chosen by ' the Vice-Chancellor, the Kinges Professors, 
and the Orator there for the tyme beinge, or the greater parte 
of them,' but there was no further indication of the mode of 
election of the Scholars or the subjects in which they were to 
excel, and definite rules dealing with these matters were not 
drawn up until 1701. In 1819 the Court of Chancery decreed 
that the number of Scholarships should be increased to ten, five 
at Oxford and five at Cambridge, that they should be tenable 
for seven years, and that their value should be increased to £50 ; 
l)ut the preference to poor scholars of the Testator's name and 
kindred mentioned in his Will was to be preserved. In 1841 the 
Court raised the value of the Scholarships to £75; and in 1860 
the number of Scholarships was increased to twelve, six at each 
University, and their value to £80 a year. 

17—2 ^ 



260 



CRAVEN SCHOLARSHIPS 



1U9 

1C54 

1659 

1664 
1667 
1670 
1681 
1682 
1687 
1694 
1701 



1712 
1722 
172S 
1732 
1734 
1742 

1743 
1750 

1765 
1757 
1700 

1770 
1772 
1781 
17S2 
1787 
1791 
1793 
1794 
1796 
1799 

1799 
1803 
1806 

1811 
1812 
1815 
1817 
1820 
1821 



1823 
1826 

1827 

1828 
1829 
1833 
1834 

1835 
1836 



Kobert Sawyer, Ma^d. 
Arthur Stanhope, Trin. Hall. 
Thomas Stanhope, Joh. 
Jolni Whitmore, Magd. 
Isaac Craven, Trin. 
Thomas Whitmore, Trin. 
Joliu Atkinson, Trin. 
Robert I'eirce, Trin. 
Kobert Topliau, Pemb. 
John Pinehback, Trin. 
Pliilip Osbaldiston, Pemb. 
Kichard Coulton, .Inh. 
Tliomas Pilgrim, Trui. 
Sanmel Harris, Pet. 
WilHam Crow, Trin. Ilall. 
.John Walker, Trin. 
Walter Titley, Trin. 
William IJattie, King's. 
Nathaniel Crutch ley, Trin. 
Samuel Squire, Joh. 
Cliristopher Smart, Pemb. 
John Hardey Craven, Joli. 
Jolm Story, Trin. 
William Craven, Joh. 
John Foster, King's. 
Charles Marsh, Trin. 
Jonathan Davies, King's. 
Thomas Zouch, Trin. 
Joali Hates, Christ's. 
John Barlow Seale, Emm. 
Vicary Gibbs, Kirk's. 
Richard Porson, Trin. 
Joseph Goodall, King's. 
John Heys, Trin. 
Edward Maltby, Pemb. 
Samuel Uutler, Joh. 
Jf>hn Keate, King's. 
William Frere, Trin. 
Cliarles \\'ebb Le Has, Trin. 
Robert Grant, Magd. 
.Tames Parke, Trin. 
Benjamin Heath Drury, King's. 
Charles James l{h>nifield, Trm. 
Richard Ward, Trin. 
Thomas Stephen tiosset, Trin. 
James Scholefield, Trin. 
Connop Thirlwall, Trin. 
William Sidney Walker, Triui 
Alfred Ollivant, Trin. 
George Long^ Trin. 



Thomas Babington Macaulay, [ 



Trin. 
Henry Maiden, Trin. 
Francis Martin, Trin. 
William Selwyn, Joh. 
James Prince Lee, Trin. 
Capel Lofft, King's. 
William Aldwin .Soames, Trin. 
Christopher Wordsworth, Trin. 
Thomas Kynaston Selwyn, Trin. 
Henry Goulburn, Trin. 
I-Mward Howes. Trin. 
William Alexander Osborne, Trin. 
Charles Jf)hn Vaughan, Trin. 



1837 
1838 
1840 
1841 



1843 
1844 
1846 
1848 

1849 
1850 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 

1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1908 
1909 
1910 



Hon. George William Lyttelton, Trin. 
Philip Freeman, Trin. 
Alexander Blackall Simonds, King's. 
Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro, 

Trin. 
Henry Mildred Birch, King's. 
Henry .James Sumner Maine, Pemb. 
William .Johnsoli, King's. 
Oiarles Evans, Trin. 
Russell Uay, King's. 
Richard Elwyn, Trin. 
Frederick Hayes Whymper, Trin. 
William Wayte, King's. 
Samuel Hawksley Burbury, Joh. 
Charles Stuart Calverley, Christ's. 
William Charles Green, King's. 
Arthur Holmes, Joh. 
Henry Sidgwick, Trin. 
John Peile, Christ's. 
Richard Claverhouse Jebb,' Trin. 
Roland Knyvet Wilson, King's. 
Henry Whitehead Moss, Joh. 
Frederic William Henry Myers, Trin. 
Roljert Whitelaw, Trin. 
Thimias Moss, Joh. 
William Kann Kennedy, King's. 
George Hanley Hallam, Joh. 
William Emerton Heitland, Joh. 
Alexander Francis Kirkpatrick, Trin. 
Richard Dacre Archer-Hind, Trin, 
Walter Leaf, Trin. 
Henry Wace, Joh. 
Robert Alexander Neil, Pet. 
James Edward Cowell Welldon, King's. 
Alfred Hands Cooke, King's. 
Harry Rede Tottenham, Trin. 
John Cottam Moss, Joh. 
Tliomas George Tucker, Joh. 
William Ralph Inge, King's. 
Hugh Vibart Macnaghten, Trin. 
Montague Rhodes James, King's. 
Connop Williams, Trin. 
Norman Kenneth Stephen, Trin. 
Rlwin Josej)h Brooks, Joh. 
Arthur Bernard Cook, Trin. 
AValter Coventry Summers, Joh. 
Robert John Grote Mayor, King's. 
George Montague Buck, Caius. 
Lionel Dgvid Barnett, Trin. 
George Edward Moore, Trin. 
Cliarles Eklward Guiterman, Trin. 
Alexander William Mair, Caius. 
Ernest Harrison, Trin. 
Austin Edward Arthur Watt Smyth, 

Trin. 
William Rennie, Trin. 
Roger Cliarnock Richards, Trin. 
John Tressider Sheppard, King's. 
Kenneth John Freeman, Trin. 
Ralph Lewis Giberne Butler, Trin. 
Harold Mattingly, Cains. 
Frank Ezra Adcock, King's. 
James Ramsay Montagu Butler, Trin. 
Henry Evans Foster, "Trin. 



Proxinie accessit, or nearly eoiial to successful candidate, 1855, E. I. Brown, Trin. ; 1873, H. A. Perry, 
KiiiRS ; 187.5, J. A. ;<harkey, Christ's, J. E. C. Welldon, King's ; 1880. W. Wyse, Trin. ; 1908, K. J. Freemau. 
Trin. 

Deserving of special commendation, or honourable mention. 1833, E. S. Crea^, King's, H. Goulbiim, 
Trin. ; 1819, W. Owen, Joh. ; 1856, R. C. Green, Trin. ; H. Snow (Kynaston), Joh. ; 1869, J. Kennedy, KinK's ; 
'""= " " ^ '■ "-=•■ • "^, T. A. Bertram, Caius ; 1906, P. J. Pearse, Tn'n. ; 1909. 



CRANE'S CHARITY; LUMLEY EXHIBITIONS 261 



CRANE'S CHARITY 

John Crane, an apothecary in Cambridge, died in 1652, and 
left by his Will certain bequests to the University and Town of 
Cambridge and to other bodies. Among these bequests was 
money to buy an estate of £62 per armum, to be settled on the 
five corporations following, viz. the University of Cambridge, the 
towns of Wisbech, Cambridge, Lynn, and Ipswich. The rents 
were to be received by these in order, and were to be applied 
by the University, when their turn came, for the benefit of 
'poore schollars for their Releife when they are sicke for paying 
for their Physick, dyet, or other things necessary for them in 
their sickness,' the Testator 'knowing heretofore many haue 
miscarried for want of meanes to releiue them.' The distribution 
was to be made by the Vice-Chancellor, the Professors of Divinity, 
Civil Law, and Physic, and the 'cheife Apothecary in the towne, 
for that he knowes the need of most of the poore schollars in 
that case ' ; ' desiring the Master of Caius Colledg to ioyne with 
them to assist them.' This part of Mr Crane's Benefa'ction 
remained inoperative until 1822, when public attention was 
called to the state of affairs, and since then the fund has been 
regularly distributed. In 1875 the Trustees were authorised to 
apply out of the income of the Fund a sum not exceeding £50 
to the training of nurses. The present annual income of the 
Charity is about £220. 

Grants are now made to poor scholars for medical attendance 
and nursing, as well as for medicine, diet, and other necessaries 
in sickness. Meetings of the distributors, to consider and 
determine the claims of applicants for the benefit of the Charity, 
take place on the third Tuesday of May, and the third Tuesday 
of November, in every year; all applications of scholars must 
be made by the Tutors of their respective colleges. 



LUMLEY EXHIBITIONS 

Elizabeth, Viscountess Lumley, by a deed bearing date 
October 8, 1657, directed certain Trustees therein named to 
pay and allow yearly to ten poor scholars of the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge, educated in the School founded by 
her at Thornton in the county of York, or in default of such 
to any other poor scholars, not exceeding ten in number (sub- 
sequently reduced to five), who should be nominated thereto by 
the respective Convocations of the said Universities for the 
time being, the sum of £4 a year each, to be continued until 
they should have time to become graduates in one of the said 
Universities. 



262 - WORTS FUND; BATTIE SCHOLARSHIP 

By an Order of the Court of Chancery, issued in the year 1820, 
it was directed that, in consequence of the increased rents these 
five Exhibitions should in future be £15 per annum each, and 
that the rents not called for should accumulate. 

These Exhibitions are not now given. 

WORTS TRAVELLING BACHELORS 

William Worts, B.A. 1698, M.A. 1702, of Catharine Hall, 
who died in 1709, bequeathed his estate to five Trustees for 
various purposes (see p. 168), one of which was the payment of 
'annual Pensions of £100 a year each to two young Bachelors 
of Arts, who shall be sent into foreign countries soon after they 
have taken that Degree, and shall continue there for the space 
of three years.' They were reqiiired to travel by different 
roads, and each of them 'to write once in a month a letter in 
Latin to the Vice-Chancellor,' giving an account to the University 
'of the reUgion, learning, laws, poUtics, customs, manners, and 
rarities, natural and artificial, which they shall find worth 
observing in the countries through which they pass.' They 
were to be 'chosen out of two different Colleges,' beginning with 
King's and Trinity, 'each of which shall present two young 
Gentlemen to the Congregation, which shall choose one out of 
each of the two Colleges,' and the rest of the Colleges were then 
to take it in turn to present in the order of the cycle for the 
nomination of Proctors (see p. 34). 

In 1861 the following new Statute for the Travelling Bachelors 
was approved by the Queen in Council: — - 

The annual pensions charged by Air Worts upon his estate of 
£100 a year each to two young Bachelors of Arts, .to be sent 
into foreign countries and to continue there for the space of 
three years, shall cease to be so appUed, and shall constitute a 
fund, from which the University may make grants from time 
to time, by Grace of the Senate, at its discretion, for the pro- 
motion or encouragement of investigations in foreign countries 
respecting the religion, learning, laws, politics, customs, manners, 
and rarities, natural or artificial, of those countries, or for 
purposes of geographical discovery or of antiquarian or scientific 
research in foreign countries: the conditions as to publishing 
the result of such investigations to be determined in every case 
when any grant is made. 

BATTIE SCHOLARSHIP 

The Battle Scholarship was founded in 1747 by deed of gift 
from William Battie (1704-1776^, B.A. 1726, M.A. 1730, M.D. 
1737, sometime Fellow of King's. Dr Battie had himself held a 



BROWNE SCHOLARSHIP 



263 



Craven Scholarship 'whereby he was enabled to maintain him- 
self in the. . .University and encouraged to proceed in his 
Studies' and 'being duly sensible of the great benefit he received' 
from it, 'and also considering that benefactions of this nature 
tend to the advancement of religion and learning, and are a 
great support to such Scholars who unhappily labour under 
indigent circumstances' 'out of a grateful sense of his own 
obligations' to the University, and 'as a perpetual acknowledg- 
ment for the same' he transferred lands to the University to 
endow the Scholarship which bears his name. During his 
lifetime he reserved the nomination of the Scholars to himself,, 
and the first five were chosen by him, but after his death they 
were to be chosen by the Vice-Chancellor, the Provost of King's,, 
'the King's Professors of Divinity, Law, and Physic,' and the two 
Proctors for the time being. The Scholarship was to be awarded 
for Latin and Greek, and each candidate was required to visit 
each of the resident electors 'and shall give notice by a Latin 
epistle to such elector that he is a candidate.' 
Present value (1915), £40 a year. 



1747 Henry Venn, Jes. 

1757 George Chamherlayne, King's. 

1763 Edward Chamberlayne, King's. 

1765 William Coxe, King's. 

1773 Edward Cooke, King's. 

1785 .Jonathan Haine, Trin. 

1791 Kobert Smitli, King's. 

1798 Henry Vincent Bayley, Trin. 

1804 Tlionias Fraser, King's. 

1809 .Jolni Lonsdale, King's. 

1816 George .James Pennington, King's. 

1824 Alfred Power, Clare. 

1831 .James Hildyard, Christ's. 



1838 Rowland Williams, King's. 
1846 Brooke Foss Westcott, 'I'rin. 
1863 Henry Montagu Butler, Trin. 
1860 Francis Warre Cornish, King's. 
1867 Maxwell Cormac Cullinan, Christ's. 
1874 Arthur George Peskett, Ma«d. 
1881 .John Reynolds Wardale, Clare. 
1888 William Loring, King's. 
1895 John Frederic J)obson, Trin. 
1898 James Toplis, 'frin. 
1905 Harold Mattingly, Caius. 
1907 John Craufurd Wordsworth, Trin. 



Ileserving of honourable mention, 1S9.5, C. E. Guiternian, Trin. 



BROWNE SCHOLARSHIP 

Sir William Browne, Kt. (I692-I774), B.A. 1711, M.A. 1714, 
M.D. 1721, President of the College of Physicians, a member of 
Peterhouse, left in 1774 by his Will a perpetual rent-charge of 
£21 'per annum upon sundry estates for founding a Classical 
Scholarship, to be paid 'clear of Taxes and Disbursements ' to 
the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University. The 
Scholar was required to 'admit himself at Peterhouse, and 
reside there every intire term during his Under-Graduate-ship,' 
to 'behave well, studiously, and religiously, and give up to the 
Fellows' Table every Sunday a Copy of Greek or Latin Verses,' 
and to 'go to Lectures with the Mathematic Professor for Three 
years.' These restrictions were not formally removed until 1858. 

Present value (1915), £40 a year. 



264 DA VIES SCHOLARSHIP; PITT SCHOLARSHIP 



1775 Thomas Veasey, Pet. 1861 

1782 Joseph Tiffin, Pet. 1864 

1781 Wilfred Clark, Pet. 1871 

1791 John \'ernon, Pet. 1878 

1797 John King, Pet. 1880 

1806 Thomas Fallowtield, Pet. 1882 

1814 Joseph Hudson, Pet. i 1889 

1820 Charles l-xlward Palmer, Pet. 1896 

1827 Comyns Tucker, Pet. 1898 

1834 Nicholas Buckley Le«is, Clare. i 
1837 Thomas Samuel Woollaston, Caius. i 1901 

1844 John Stockdale Stallard, Pet. I 1903 

1846 Brocklesby Davis, Queens'. 1 1905 
1853 Elias Robert Horton, Pel. 



William Henry Stone, Trin. 

.John Ma.twell Image, Trin. 

.Tiihn Henry Pratt, Tiin. 

I2d>viii Cooper Perry, King's. 

William Wysc, Trin. 

William Edward Barker, Tiin. 

Edwin Abbott, Caius. 

George Cyril Armstrong, Trin. 

Austin Edward Arthur Watt Smyth, 

Trin. 
Roger Charnock Richards, Trin. 
Kenneth John Freeman, 'Trin. 
Percy James Pearse, Trin. 



I candidate. 18S2, H. V. Macnagbten, Trin. ; 1901. J. K. C. 



DA VIES SCHOLARSHIP 

. Jonathan Da vies, D.D., Fellow of King's College, and 
afterwards Provost of Eton College, bequeathed by Will dated 
24 July 1804, to the Vice-Chancellor for the time being and the 
Provost of King's College in Trust the sum of £1000 to found 
a Scholarship, to be called Dr Davies's University Scholarship, on 
the same footing as those called Craven Scholarships, 'for 
the greatest proficient in classical learning.' 



1810 John Patteson, King's. 
1813 George Waddington, Trin. 
1819 Thomas Pell Piatt, Trin. 
1825 Thomas Williamson Peile, Trin. 
1832 (ieorge John Kennedy, Joh. 
1839 Edward Balston, King's. 
1845 Franklin I.ushington,'l'rin. 
1851 Edward Macnaghten, Trin. 



185S Charles Henry Tawney, Trin. 
1865 Alft-ed Ivdward Humphreys, Trin. 
1872 Thomas Ethelbert Page, Joh. 
1879 Gerald Maclean Edwards, Trin. 
1886 Alan England Brooke, King's. 
1893 Albert Darby Nightingale, Trin. 
1 1900 Frederick Henry Marshall, Emm. 
1908 Reginald Hackforth, Trin. 
1 candidate : 18S1, J. L. Hammond, Trin. : ISJU, L. D. 



PITT SCHOLARSHIP 

The Committee of resident membei-s of the Senate appointed 
24 March 1806 to collect subscriptions for a statue of WilUam Pitt 
to be placed in the Senate House, finding that the amount 
subscribed was considerably in excess of that required for the 
statue, decided, 7 April 1813, to offer £1000 to the University to 
found a Scholarship, to be called the Pitt Scholarship, on the 
same general plan as those founded by Lord Craven. This was 
subsequently augmented by a donation of £500 from the Pitt 
Club in London. 

Present value (1915), £40 a year. 

1865 Frederick Pollock, Trin. 

1872 Arthur WooUgar Verrall, Trin. 

1879 Ed«in Cooper Perry, King's. 

1S86 Cecil Marcus Kuatchbull-Hugessen, 

King's. 
1893 John Arbuthnot Nairn, Trin. 
1900 Trevor Griffith Johnson, Jesus. 
1907 Donald Struau Robertson, Trin. 



1814 Mai-maduke Lawson, Job. 
1818 Horatio Waddingtou, Tiin. 
1824 Benjamin Hall Kennedy, .Joh. 
1830 Charles Kann Kemiedy, Trin. 
18.35 William (iiUim Humphry, Trin. 
1842 F^win Hamilton Giffoiil, Joh. 
1847 Charles Brodrick Scott, Trin. 
1852 Francis Vaughan Hawkins, Trin. 
1858 Francis Cotterell Hodgson, King's. 



Nearly equal to successful candidate : 1879. G. M. Edwards, Trin. 
HiKhly distiniiuished : 189ct. T. M. Taj lor. (.niiis. 



BELL SCHOLARSHIPS 



265 



BELL SCHOLARSHIPS 

William Bell, B.A. 1753, M.A. 1756, D.D. 1767, Prebendary 
of the Collegiate Church of Westminster and late Fellow of 
Magdalene College, transferred in the year 1810 £15,200 
to the University in Trust to found eight Scholarships. The 
purpose of the Benefaction was 'to give encouragement to 
learning, and to assist Clergymen of the Church of England in 
sending their sons to the University whose circumstances 
and situations are altogether such as not to enable them to ' 
bear the \<rhole of that expense, as well as to assist orphans 
of Clergymen under similar circumstances in obtaining the 
benefit of an University education,' The Scholars originally 
were not to be elected from King's or Trinity Hall, 'but from 
every other College in the University without favour or partiality 
to any College.' 

Present value (1915), about £50 a year for four years. 



The numb«rs (II and H) designate the Rnt and second Scholars, actually elected, and receiving the 
emolument of the Scholarship. 



Sivond Year 

1810 Tlioiiiiis Kobiiison, Trin. 
tieor(;e Peacock, Triii. 

Thinl Year 
George .John .skeeles, C'lif. 
•Idhn (iriffith, Trin. 

First Year 

1811 William Cecil, Magrt. 
Tliomas Shelford, Corpus. 

1812 William Owen, .Job. 
Samuel Grove Price, Trin. 

1813 .John .lames Hlunt, .Joti. 
William Charles Wollaston, Trin. 

1814 Hugh .James Rose, (1) Trin. 
Temple Chevallier, (2) Peuib. 1 . 
William Hildyard, Trin. j ^ *"'• 

1815 Conni>p Thlriwall, Trin. 
John Hutton l''isher, Trin. 

1816 Francis I-^dwanl Jackson Valpy, (1) 

Trin. 
Richard Periam Thursfield.l 

(2;)Joh. VAeq. 

Pel ham Kellowes Clay, Sid. I 

1817 Jloratio Waddhigton, Trin. 
I-'rancis Goode, Trin. 

1818 John Heyrick Macaulay, (1) Trin. 
Augustus Hlatch heevor, (2)1 

Cor]). > Ae(i. 

William TroUope, Pemb. ) 

1819 Mitfoid Peacock, (1) Clare. 
William Henry Marriott, (2)j 

Trin. )■ Aeq. 

Spencer Wilde, .Job. ) 

1820 Thomas Crick, (1) Job. 
John Moultrie, (2) Trin.) . 
James Tate, Trin. J^"'- 

1821 Francis Martin, Trin. 
Eklward Haines, Cbr. 

1822 John Frederick Isaacson, (1) Job. 
Mward Wilson, (2) Job. ) . 
William Williamson, Clare. I"^*'^' 



1823 

1824 

1825 
1826 



John Howard Marsden, (1) .lob. 
ilenry liro\me, (2) Corpus.' 
John Price, Job. 



Aeq. 



eq. 



1829 
1830 



1831 

1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 



Samuel Kees, (1) .Job. ^ 
.John Venn, (2) Queens'. V^ 
I'ldward Peacock, .Job. J 
l<;dward Herbert Fitzherbert, Trin. 
John Wordsworth, Trin. 
Horatio Samuel Hildyard, (1) Pet. 
Thomas Scott, (2) Queens'. \ 
Thomas Kutler, .Job. ( a 

Thomas Kyrle Ernley Chat- ( * '' 

field, Trin. J 

William Withers Kwbank, (1) Cbr. 
William Bunting Tate, (2) ) 

Trin. \ Aeq. 

Joseph Mann, Trin. ) 

Charles Uann Kennedy, (1) Trin. 
Josias Gardiner Webster, (2)1 

Clare. y Aeq. 

Charles Tennyson, Trin. ) 
John FMward Brcjinby, .Job. } . , 
.James Williams Inman, Job.i ''' 
zVllen William Cbattield, Trin. 
Henry Parker Cookesley, Trin. 

Firtt Year 
John Ilenry Howlett, .Job. 
James Francis Uimock, .Job. 

Third Year 
Henry Alford, Trin. 
First Year 
George .John Kennedy, Joli. 
lOdward Thomas Vaughan, Chr. 
I<kiward Howes, Trin. 
Henry Cotterill, Job. 
William Arrowsraitli, Trin.l . . 
George Ilenry Marsh, Job. J *'''■ 
Thomas Wbytebead, .lob. 
Alexander (irant Hildyard, Penib. 
George Currey, Job. | 

George Augustus Chichester,- Aeq. 

May, Magd. | 



266 



BELL SCHOLARSHIPS 



1836 John Gorham Maitlaud, Trin. 
Charles Penrose, Trin. 

1837 George Hewitt Ilodson, (1) Trin. 
•Jauies Atlav, (2) Joh. 1 . 
Sidney Lidderdale Smith, Joh.)^^'' 

1838 Cliarles John Ellicott, Joh.1 . 
Thomas Robinson, Trin. J^'*' 

1839 George Henry Ainger, Joh. 
William Wilson, Joh. 

1810 Frederick Gell, Trin. 

Fretlerick Holdship Cox, Pemb. 

1841 Thomas Field, Joh. 
Henry Keary, Tiin. 

1842 Hubert Ashtou Holden, Trm. 
.John James Stewart Perowne, 

Corpus. 

1843 Kdward Jolm Selwyn, (1) Trin. 
John Biden, (2) Joh. | 
Christopher Cyprian Feun,> Aeq. 

Trin. I 

1844 Kdwai-d Headlam, Joli. 
Joseph Simpson, Trin. 

1845 John Llewelyn Uavies, Trin. 
David James Vaughan, Trin. 

184(5 Hit-hard Klwyu, Trin. 

Alfre<l James Carver, Trin. 

1847 Frederick Calvert, Trin. 
Woodthorpe Scholerteld Collett, 

Clare. 

1848 John Daniel Williams, Trin. 
(•eorgc Hurn, Trin. 

1849 Jolm Thomas Pearse, Trin. "j 
Thomas Wethered Sliarpe, > Aeq. 

Trin. J 

1850 Edmund Kehle White, Trin. 
Laurence Craven, Trin. 

1851 Hammond Roberson Bailey, Joh. 
diaries Spread Towusend, Jesus. 

Thiril Year 
Johnson Hall Gedge, Trin, 

First y'ear 
1862 Henry Monta^i Butler, Trin. 
Maxwell .Melvill, Trin. 

1853 Edward Lawf.nd Brown, (1) Tiin. 
Richard Burton Worthinjf-\ 

ton, (2) Joh. I . 

Henry Pountney Darwall, f ^' 
Clare. / 

1854 George Moreton IMatt, Trin. 
Thomas Walton, Pemb. 

TlUrd Year 

John Batteridge Pearson, Joh. 

h'irtt Year 

1855 Edward Einest Bowen, Trin. " 
Edmund Hein-y Fisher, Trin. 

1856 Arthur Holmes, Joh. 
Henry .'^idgwick, Trin. 
James Maurice Wilson, .Joh. j 

1857 Cliarles Henry Tawney, Trin. 
Robert Chapman Whiting, Trin. 

1858 Douglas Close Richmond, Pet. 
Francis Storr, Trin. 

1859 Edwin Trevor Septimus Can-, 

Christ's. 
Philip Thomas Main, Joh. 

1860 Artliur Sidgwick, Trin. 
John Bradley Dyne, King's. 

1861 Frederic William Henry Myei-s, 

Trin. 
Arthur Coleridge James, 

King's. 
Edward Brediii Blake Kitson, 

Chr. 



\Aeq. 



\Ae(i. 



„,M«<?- 



\Aeii, 



1862 John Maxwell Image, Trin, 
Mevrick Henry Legge Beebee, Joh, 

1863 John Bailey Haslam, Joh. 
William Francis Smitli, Joh. I j 
Henry Denny Wan, Trin.U.J^'^* 

1864 John Edwin Sandys, Joh. 
Arthur John Butler, Trin. 

1865 William Rann Kennedy, King's. 
William Griffith, Joh. 

1866 George Charles Winter Warr, Oir. 
Douglass Round, Trin. 

1867 John Kennedy, King's. 
George Herbert Whitaker,| 

Joh. \Aeq, 

ChristQplier Wordsworth, Tr.) 

Third Yeaf 
John Stogdou, Clare. 

First Year 

1868 Richard Appleton, Trin. , 
Charles Edmund Hasking, 

Joh. 
Alexander Francis Kirk- 
patrick, Trin. ' 

1869 John Henry Pratt, Trin. 
(ieorge Waiter Prothero, King's. 

1870 Samuel Henry Butcher, Trin. 
Charles AVilliam Bell, King's. 

First Year 

1871 John George Butcher, Trin. 
(ilerald Henry Rendall, Trin. 

Seeoiid Year 
Theodore Thomas (Jurney,. Joli. 
First Year 

1872 Charles William Edmund -, 

Body, Joh. 
John Henry Herbert Good- ' j . 

win, Jesus. [ ^*''- 

Gerard Francis Stevenson, I 

Magd. J 

1873 Edward Cams Selwyn, King's. 
George Grey Butler, Trin. I 
Francis John Henrj' Jenkin-> Aeq. 

son, Trill. " I 

1874 James IMward Cowell Welldon, 

King's. 
George Cliawiier, King's. 

1875 Clement Bryans, King's. \jf„ 
Svdncv Rhodes James, Trin.) ''■ 

1876 Edward Vernon Arnold, Trin. 
Henry Charles Finch Mason,) 

Trill. V Aeq. 

Hercules Henry West, Trin. ) 

1877 Gerald Maclean Edwards, Trin. 
Edwin Cooper PeiTy, King's. 

1878 Frederick Brooke Westcott, Trin. 
John Reginald Harnier, King's. 

1879 Henry Francis Wilson, Trin. 
Charles Llewelyn Davies, ■» 

Trin. 
.John Reynolds Wardale, 
Clare. ; 

1880 William Ralph Inge, King's. 
Edward Ashurst Welch, King's. 

1881 Stanley Mordaunt Leathes, Trin. 
George Wilfrid Bl«nkin,| 

Trin. ^ Aeq. 

Herman Joynes, King's. | 

1882 Edward llutton Hensley, Job. 
Montague John Rendall, Trin. 

1883 HughLongboumeCallendar, \ 

Trin. {. 

Montague Rhodes James, [■"''/• 
King's. ' 



Ueq. 



TYRWHITT SCHOLARSHIPS 



267 



1884 Alan England Brooke, King'8. 
Ernest Walter Hrooks, King's. 

First Year 

1885 Walter Gorst Clay, Trin. 
John Edward Browne, 

Sidney. 
Michael Arthur North, 

Christ's. 

Hecond Year 
Arthur Mesac Knight, Pemb.j 



li.j^«9- 



■ Aeq. 



Aeq. 



Aeq. 



Aeq. 



Mac- 



Aeq. 



Trenham Candy Weather- 
head, Trin. 

1886 William Loring, King's. 
Alfred Charles Millard, Joh. 

1887 Edwin Abbott, Caius. 
Henry William Auden, 

Christ's. 
Edward Ernest Sikes, Joh. 
Henry Beauchauip Walters, 

King's. 

1888 Crompton Llewelyn Davies, Trin. 
Thomas Arthur Edwin Sanderson, 

Trin. 

First Year 

1889 Theodore Llewelyn Davies, Trin. 
John Charles Walter 

L'Estrange Burges, Trin. 
Robert John Groto Mayor, j 

King's. 

Second Tear 
Arthur Farquhar Chilver, Trin. 

1890 John Carlyon Vavasor Durell, 

Clare. 
Edward ArthurDunn, Pemb.l 
Frederick Farewell Sanigear V Aeq. 

Williams, Jesus. | 

1891 Richard Sheepshanks, Joh. 
Gilbert Harrison John Hurst, 

King's. 

Third Year 
Arthur Lvon Bowlev, Trin. 

1892 William Fellows Sedgwick, Trin. 
Albert Darby Nightingale, Trin. 

1893 John ManistvHardwich, Joh.) ^ 
Alfred JohnSmallpeice, Joli.f ^^" 

1894 Francis Macdonald Cornford, Trin. 
Algernon Charles Legge Wilkinson, 

Trin. 

1895 Reginald Gresliam Clive Paterson, 

Queens'. 
H«nry Ravenhill Sweeting, Jesus. 

Nearly equal to successful candidates : 1888, H. .St John Thackeray, King's. 

Honourably mentioned, 1891, G. G. Loane, Trin. ; 1900, C. W. Wordsworth, Trin. 

Distinguished or highly distinguished, 1898, A. K. Smith, Pemb. : 1906. C. L. F. Boughey, Trin. ; R. P. 
Dodd, Joh. ; A. S. F. Gow, Trin. ; 1907, O. B. Vt'ordsworth. Trin. ; 1909, W. St J. Pvn), Trin. ; W. H. 0. 
Romanis, Trin. ; 1910, P. R. Frost, flare; R. J. M. Lias, Trin. ; E. V. Sturdy, Pemb. 



1896 John Lewis Coe, Joh. "V 
George Francis E.xton, Jesus. { , 
Henry Ronald Taylor Simp- p"^' 

son Perrott, Trin. -' 

1897 Henry Craven Ord Lan- \ 

Chester, Pemb. yAea 

Barrett Lennard Albemarle i^*^^* 
O'Malley. Trin. -' 

1898 Trevor Griffith Johnson, Jesus. 
John Clarke Stobart, Trin. 

1899 IJichavd John Morrice, Trin.| 
Ernest Arthur Edghill, 

King's. 

1900 Henry Reginald Pate, King's. 
Henry Pelham Wentworth 

naghten, King's. 

1901 Clement Vavasor Durell, -j 
Clare. ' 4,.„ 

Francis Carleton Greene, 1 ' ^' 
Pemb. ^ 

1902 Colin Ransford, Emm. 
Charles Frank Russell, Pemb. 

1903 Charles Howard Eyre, Pemb. ^ 
Robert AUason Furness, 

King's. 

1904 Thomas Edward Ainger, King's. 
Geoffrev Hare Clayton, Pemb. I , 
Alfred billwyn Knox, King's, f "''' 

1905 Edward Gordon Selwyn, (1) King's. 
John Crauford Wordsworth, (2) 

Trin. 

1906 George Bertram Redman, (1) Jesus. 
William Telfer, (2) Clare. 

1907 Robert Wilmot Howard, Trin. 
John Harold McCubbin, Trin. 

1908 Harold Ernest Guillebaud, (1) 
Pemb. 

CedricClifton Brown, (2)Trin.| 
Charles Ambrose Storey, > Aeq, 
Trin. I 

1909 William Herbert Carter, Job.") 
John Martin Creed, Caius. 
Gordon Uannington Luce, 

Enmi. 

1910 Arthur AValderne St Clair Tisdall, 
(1) Trill. 

I^hilip Gillespie Bainbrigge, (2) Trin. 



Aeq. 



TYRWHITT HEBREW SCHOLARSHIPS 

The Reverend Robert Tyrwhitt, B.A. 1757, M.A. 1760, 
Fellow of Jesus College, who died in 1817, by his Will bequeathed 
£4000 'for the sole encouragement of a general study of the 
Hebrew Language' in the University. 

• The Senate in 1818 decreed the foundation of three Scholar- 
ships, increased in 1826 to six, but in consequence of successive 



268 



TYRWHITT SCHOLARSHIPS 



reductions in the interest of the stock in which the Benefaction 
was invested, it was found that the Fund was insufficient to 
meet the claims upon it, and in 1862 a sum of £486 was raised 
by private subscription 'for the Augmentation of Mr Tyrwhitt's 
Benefaction for the Encouragement of Hebrew Learnmg.' 

There are now (1915) two Scholarships of the value of £40 and 
£20 a year, each for three years. 



1819 Just Henry Alt, Pemb. 1850 

1820 George Attwoi>d, I'eiiili. 
18-21 Thoums I'ell Piatt, Triii. 

1822 Alfred Ollivant, Trin. 1851 

1823 Frederick Field, Trin. 

1824 Charles Stephens Mathews, Pemb. 1852 

1825 Philip Wentworth Buckham, Job. 

1826 1. Nicholas William Gibson, Trin. 1853 
2. Thomas Hiddell, Trin. 

1827 1. Thomas .Jarrett, t'ath. : 1854 
2. Archibald Campbell, Jcs. ! 1856 

1828 2. Charles Cotton, Pemb. , 

1829 1. William Dodd, Corpus. ; 
i. .James (iorle, Cliire.' 

2. Wodebouse Bernev .\tkyus 

Haven, Trin. " I 1856 

1830 1. William .John Aislabic, Trin.) ^„, i 

1. .John Hopkins Bailey. Trin. f ^**- ' 1857 

1831 1. Christopher t'larke, Joh. j 

2. .John Smith, .Joh. 

1832 1. Hoger Buston, Kmman. | 

2. .John Aemilius Shadwell, Joh. 1858 

1833 1. William Wigan Haney, King's, i 

2. William Alfred Dawson, Christ's. ^ 1860 

1834 1. Edward Harold Browne, Kmman. ( 

2. Alexander Tate, Emman. ' 1861 

1835 1. I-'rancis Forster, Catli. [ 

2. Charles Augustus Hulbert, Sidney. 1862 

1836 1. Philip Carlyon, Kmman. i 
2. I-'rederick Myers, Clare. | 

1837 1. Frederick William CoUison, .Job. 

2. I-Mmund Huff, Queens'. 1863 

1838 1. Thomas Cowanl, Queens'. 

2. Kichard Arthur I'raacis Barrett, 
King's. 

1839 1. William Henrv Koberts, Kmman. 1864 
2. Josiah Walker, Trin. Hall. 

1840 1. Henry Griffin Williams, Kmman. 1865 
2. Nicholas Mortimer Manley, Joh. 

1841 1. Henry Bailey, Joh. 

2. William Henry (Juillemai-d, i 

Pemb. ; 1866 

1842 1. Charles John Elliott, Cath. , 

2. John' Chiuies Cbambei-s, Emman. 1867 

1843 1. .Mvnors Bright, Magd. 
2. Henry I.ovell, Job. 

1844 1. John Headlam, Pemb. 1868 
2. W'illiam Frederick Witts. King's. 

1845 1. Richard Tahi Cockle, Joh. 

2. Hyacinth Kirwan, King's. 1869 

1846 1. Edmund Uaiidolph, Jesus. 

1847 1. Edgar Huxtable, Job. J 1870 

1. Aaron Augustus Morg»u,> Acq. 

Joh. ) 1871 

2. George Wildon I'ieritz, Caius. 

1848 1. John .James .Stewart Perowne, 1872 

Corpus. 
2. Michael Ferrel)ce Sadler, Joh. ' 1873 

1849 1. Frederick Benjamin D'lUwood 1874 

liamadge, Caius. 
2. Clarence jisme Stu.irt, .Job. 



\Ae'i. 



ll,lAeq. 



\Aeq. 



1. lidward John Hillicr, Trin. 

2. Thomas Tliomason I'erowue, 

Corpus. 

1. Peter Hamiiett Mason, Joh. 

2. (leoi-ge Bayldon Rogei-son, Job. 
1. Henry Martyn Jeffery, Cath. \ 
1. Henry Langton, .Joh" 

1. Stanley I.eathes, Jesus. 

2. Kdward Henry Rogere, King's. 
Frank Chance, Trin. 

1. William Henrv Baptist Proby, 

Trin. 

2. Alfred Pownall, C:atb. 
2. William .Middleton Snell,' 

Corpus. 
2. Octavius Glover, Emm. 
2. Beauchamp Tyrwhitt, Clare. 
1. Robert Lubbock Bensly, j 

Caius. \. 

1. William Aldis W^rigbt, l^'^^- 

Trin. ' 

1. William .Jennings Rees, Joh. 

2. Paul Louis Sandberg, Christ's. 

1. William Saumarez Smith, Trin. . 

2. John Mee l<"uller, Joh. 

1. James Jiurrell Curtis, Cath. 

2. Joseph Rawson Lumby, Magd. 
1. Cliarles Thornton F'orster, . 

Jesus. \jf, 

1. Herbert Mortimer Luckock, ( '^^* 

Jeiius. ^ 

1. George Nathaniel Hedges, ■» 

•I"''- \j^ 

1. Richard Cliarles William l^**- 
Ral>au, Eumi. ■' 

1. Charles Taylor, .Job. 

2. Robert .Sinker, Trin. 

1. Arthur Thomas Cliapman, \ 

Emm. Afn 

1. John Henrv Ingram ^-"^l- 

Oakley, Trin. -' 

1. James Snowdon, .Job. 

2. Edward Tucker Leeke, Trin. 
L William Henry Rowlandson, 

Corpus. 
2. Joseph Saunders I'ater, Trin. 
1. John Elliot Fox, Christ's.j 
1. George l-imond Phillips, V Aei/. 

Corpus. I 

1. James Thomason Lang, (,'orpus. 

2. I-Mward George King, Sidney. 
Henrv Melvill Gwatkin, Joh.l j 
JohnSharpe, Christ's. (^'«- 

1. Frederic Watson, Job. 

2. Algernon Howell Smith, Caius. 

1. George Wi Iscley Collins, Corpus. 

2. William Henry Lowe, Christ's. 

1; Arthur Charles Jennings, Jesus. • 

1. Alexander Francis Klrkpatrick, 

Trin. 

2. William Spicer Wood, Job. 



CROSSE SCHOLARSHIPS 



269 



icq. 



1875 1. lieginald Popliani Luscouibe, 

CUare. 
2. Aniiesley William Streaue.C'orpus 

1876 1. Arthur Lukyn Williams, Jesus. 

1877 1. Alfred Townsliend Warren, Magd 
2. Cliarles Richard ISingham, Tiin. 

1878 Charles William Edmund \ 

Body, .loh. [. 

David Griffith Da vies, l^^''- 

Queens'. -' 

1879 2. Hon. Ion Grant Neville Keith- 

Falconer, Trin. 

1881 Alexander George KUis, . 
Queens'. | 

Trederick GeorRC Herbert \A 

Henry Eugene White, j 

I'enib. -' 

1882 1. William Emery Barnes, Pet. 
2. Ernest Alfred Budge, Clirist's. 

1883 2. William Henry Bennett, .Job. 

1884 2. John Fry Saumel Hughes, Pemb. 

1886 1. Harry Samuel Lewis, Joh. 
2. James Henry Wiglesworth, Pemb. 

1887 1. Robert Hatch Kennett, Queens'. 
2. Arthur Blackwell Goulburn 

Lillingston, Queens'. 

1888 Herbert Henry Baker Ayles, j 

Joh. > Aeq. 

Anthony Ashlev Bcvan. Trin.) 

1889 2. Francis Crawford Burkitt, Trin. 

1890 2. James Herbert Burrow, -; 

Selwyn. [. 

2. William Edward Wadding- j ^'^• 
ton, Emm. '' 

1891 Norman M'^Lean, Christ's. ]. j^^ 
George Margoliouth, Queens'.) ^" 

1892 1. Alfred Philip Bender, Joh. 
2. Albert William Greenup, Joh. 

Proxinie accessit. 1865, H. ('. I'asson, Christ's. 

Nejjrly equal to the second Scholar, 1896, W. H. Brooks, C'auis (afterwards Christ's). 
Passed with credit. 1900. R. H. Connolly, Christ's ; R. R. Smith, Selwyn ; 1901, C. A. L. Senior, Joh. ; E. S. 
Woods, Trin. ; 19(B. A. Hood, Chr. 

A gratuity was adjudged to each of the following, in considera- 
tion of the knowledge of the Hebrew Language displayed by them 
in their examination : — 



1893 2. Stanley Charles Edmund! 

Legg, Caius. > Aeq. 

2. Bertram Long, Joh. | 

1894 2. Percy Marlborough Stewart, 

Christ's. 

1895 1. Stanley Arthur Cook, Caius. 
2. Michael Emil Lange, Christ's. 

Alan Hugh M'Neile, Pemb. 

1896 1. Arthur Robert Russell Hutton, 

Joh. 
2. Frank Harold Sangster, Jesus. 

1897 2. William Henry Brooks, Christ's. 

1900 1. Charles Travers Wood, Pemb. 
2. Theodore Harber Hennessy, 

Jesus. 

1901 1. Herman Leonard Pass, Joh. 

2. Richard Hugh Connolly, Christ's. 

1902 1. Charles A le.vander Lorenzo 

Senior, Joh. 
2. Arthur Stuart Duncan Jones, 
Caius. 

1903 1. Henry Craven Ord Lanchester, 

Pemb. 

1904 John Charles Halland How, | 

Joh. > Aeq. 

Charles Wand ilitchell, Emm.l 

1905 Herbert Martin James Loewe, 

Queens'. 

1907 1. John Henry Bentley, Joh. 

2. Fred Shipley Marsh, Selwvn. 

1908 1. Albert Edward Talbot, Emm. 
2. Francis Joseph Padtield, Caius. 

1909 William Alexander Leslie 

Elmslie, Chr. 
Rupert Harold Willey, Caius.. 

1910 Ephvaini Levine, Jesus. 



}Aeq. 

S.I , 



1820 John Jowett Stevens, Jesus. £20. 

1825 William Ford, .Magd. £20. 

1830 Thomas Stone, Joh. £20. 

18:55 William Henry Trentham, Joh. £20. 

1836 Edmund Huff, Queens'. £20. 

1842 .Mynors Bright, Magd. £20. 

1845 William Castlehow Emm. £30. 

1852 William Barnard, Trin. £30. 



1853 Mward Bower Wliyley, Trin. £30. 
1860 Thomas Henry Bush, Joh. £20. 
1866 Joseph Saunders Pater, Trin. £15. 

1871 William Henry Lowe, Christ's. £15. 

1872 Arthur Charles .Jennings, .Jesus. £20. 
1901 Charles Alexander Lorenzo Senior, 

Joh. £20. 



Hebrew Dissertation 

1828 Alfretl Addis, Trin. 
-Whenever there is an omission of a year, no Scholar w.is elected 



CROSSE SCHOLARSHIPS 

The Reverend John Crosse, B.A. Oxford 1768, incorporated 
at King's 1776, M.A. 1776, Vicar of Bradford in Yorkshire, by 
Will dated June 15, 1816, made a bequest to George Buxton 



270 



CROSSE SCHOLARSHIPS 



Browne in Trust, 'earnestly requesting and entreating him 
to expend the same in furthering and promoting the Cause of 
true Rehgion among the Inhabitants of Great Britain and 
Ireland as to him may appear most eligible.' The settlement of 
Mr Crosse's estate was delayed for some years by legal difficulties, 
but in 1832 three Theological Scholarships were founded from the 
sum of £2000. The examination was ' to turn upon a knowledge 
of the Holy Scriptures in their original tongues, Hebrew and 
Greek, of Ecclesiastical History, of the earlier and later Heresies, 
and such other subjects of useful inquiry as may be thought 
most likely to assist in the formation of valuable characters, 
fitted to sustain and adorn "the cause of true rehgion." ' 
Present value (1915), about £40 a year for two years. 

1867 George Esmond Phillips, Corpus. 

1868 Henry Melvill ttwatkiu, Joli. 

1869 John Elliot Fox, Christ's. 

1870 Frederic Watson, Joh. 

1871 John Sliaipc', Christ's. 

1872 William Amherst Hayne, Trin. \ . 
Albert Charles Jennings, Jesus.) ^' 

1875 Arthur Lukyn Williams, Jesus. 

1876 Charles Itichard Bingham, Trin.l 
John Davidson Monro Murray,!- Aeq. 

Joh. I 

1879 Frederick John Foakes- 1 
Jackson, Trin. \ Aeq. 

Douglas Sherwood Guy, Trin. | 

1880 Herbert Mward Kyle, King's. 

1881 William Emery Barnes, Pet. 

1882 John Owen Fiirquhar Murray, Trin. 
1886 Herbert Henry Baker Ayles, Joli. 

Alexander Nairne, Jesus. 

1891 Alfred Valentine Valentine-Richards, 
Christ's. 

1892 Forbes Robinson, Christ's.) , 
Harold Smith, Joh. i^'^^- 

1895 Charles Freer Andrews, Pemb.) . 
Alan Hugh M«Neile, Pemb. H*«' 

1896 Walter Langley Edward Parsons, 
Perab. 

1897 Edward William Winstanlev, Trin. 

1898 Charles Edward Garrad, Jesus. 1 . 
William Outraui, Pemb. i^^l- 

1899 Charles Travers Wood, Pemb. 
1901 Campbell West-Watson, Emm. 
1903 Ernest Arthur Edghill, King's. 

Herbert George Wood. Jesus. 

1905 John Russell Darbyshire, Emm. 

1906 John Kenneth Mozley, Pemb. 

1907 Fred Shijtley Marsh, .Selwvn. 

1909 Percival Gardner-Smith, Jesus. 

1910 George Armitage Chase, -j 
Queens'. ' . 

Joseph Wellington Hunkin, ( ^*^^- 
Caius. ^ 



1833 

18.34 
1X35 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1810 
1811 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
184() 
1847 
1848 

1849 
1850 
1851 
J1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 

1861 
1862 
1863 



1865 
1866 



C Samuel E<lmuud Walker, Trin. 

', 1-Mward Harold Browne, Emmau. 

(^Frederic Myers, Clare. 

Charles .\ugustus Hulbcrt, Sidney. 

S\'illiam Drake, Joh. 

Frederick William CoUison, .Joh. 

Samuel Neale Daltou, Caius. 

William Henry Guillemard, Pemb. 

Henrv Bailey, Joh. 

Charles John Elliott, Cath. 

Henry Lovell, Joh. 

William Frederick Witts, King's. 

Hyacinth Kii-wan, King's. 

Jolm Herl)ert Jones, Jesus. 

.Jolm James Stewart Perowne, Coi-pus. 

Edgar Huxtable, Joh. 

Herbert James, King's. 

Frederick Benjamin D'Elwood 

Ramadge, Caius. 
William Barnard, Trin. 
Edward Bower Wbyley, Trin. 
George Martyn ({orliani, Trin. 
David Nicola, Pet. 
Alfred Pownall, Cath. 
Oetavius (Hover, l-^mman. 
William Jennings Rees, Joh. 
Robert Long, Corpus. 
George Frederick Hitchcock, Trin. 
John Mee Fuller, Joh. 
William .Saumarez Smith, Trin. 
Charles Thornton Forster, Jesus. | . 
Joseph Rawson Luniby, Magd. J^'v- 
Herbert Mortimer Luckock, Jesus. 
Hilton Bothamley, Trin. 
Richard Charles Williaml 

Raban, Emm. > Aeq. 

Robert Sinker, Trin'. I 
John Neale Dalton, Clai-e. 1 . 
Charles Taylor, Joh. i^^l- 

James Snowdon, Joh. 
Joseph Saunders Pater, Trin.l 
William Henry Rowlandson, ■ Aeq. 

Coj-pus. I 



Joli 



Proxime accessit. or nearl.v equal to succeasful candidate, 1S53, W. H. B. Proby, Trin. ; 1899, R. F. Pe-.irce, 

S. Pater, 



Deserving of special commendation, 1855, G. F. Maclear, Trin. ; 1S6S, E. T. Leeke, Trin., 
Trin. 

Passed »itli credit, 1870. J. Sliarpe, Chr. ; 1882, A. Aopleton, Trin. ; 1S(K. W. K. L. Cbrke. Jesus. 

Awarded a donation of £20, 1881, J. H. Battereby, Trin. j 188S), R. O. Hutchinson, Jesus ; 1904. V. VT. 
.Mitchell. Emm. 

Note :— Wlieneyer there is an omission of a year, no Scholar was elected. 



BARNES SCHOLARSHIP; PORSON SCHOLARSHIP 271 



THOMAS BARNES SCHOLARSHIP 

In 1844 John Barnes, of the Middle Temple, proposed to 
place the sum of £2000 in the names of certain Trustees, upon 
Trust that during the hfe of his sister, Anne Barnes, the 
annual income thereof should be applied for her use and 
benefit, or, upon certain contingencies, for the benefit of the 
said Trustees, and that after her death the said sum should be 
transferred to the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the 
University, upon Trust for the foundation of a Scholarship, to 
be called the Thomas Barnes Scholarship, in memory of his 
brother Thomas Barnes, B.A. 1808, M.A. 1811, deceased, late 
of Pembroke College. Mr Thomas Barnes had been educated 
at Christ's Hospital; and in 1817 he became Editor of the Times, 
a post which he held until his death, May 7, 1841. This proposal 
was accepted by Grace, Feb. 7, 1844, but as it did not take 
effect during the lifetime of the Benefactor's sister, the first 
Scholar was not elected until 1867. 

Present value (1915), about £50 a year for four years. 



1S67 Douglas Lee Scott, I'eterliouse. 
1871 Frederick Beatson Tayloi-, Kiiifr's. 
1875 Harcourt George Harnaid, Clirist's. 
1879 Hugh Reiinie Hrowii, Triii. 
1883 Herbert William Richmond, King's. 
1887 Gilbert Thomas Walker, Trin. 
1891 John Herbert Stamp, Trin. 



1895 John Frederic Dobson, Triii. | 

Francis John AVelsh Whipple,)- Aeq. 
Trin. ' | 

1899 Augustus Perronet Thompson, Pemb. 
1903 George Rivers Blanco-White, Trin. 
1907 Sidney James Edwards, Sid. 



PORSON SCHOLARSHIP 

Of a Fund raised for the benefit of Richard Porson, M.A., 
Regius Professor of Greek, and formerly Fellow of Trinity, who 
died 25 September 1808, part was applied in 1816 to found the 
Porson Prize; the rest was left to accumulate to found the 
Porson Scholarship, which by an agreement made in 1848 was 
to be founded as soon as the sum invested for it with its accumu- 
lations would produce £65 a year. The first Porson Scholar 
was elected in 1855. 

Present value (1915), £40 a year. 



1855 Herl)ert Snow {post Kynaston), Joh. 

1859 liichard t'laverhouse Jebb, Trin. 

1861 Arthur Sidgwick, Trin. 

18(>5 Maxwell Corniac CuUinan, Christ's. 

18()8 Alexander Francis Kirkpatrick, Trin. 

1871 Thomas Ethelliert Page, Joh. 

1873 Henry W^ace, Joh. 

1875 John Archibald Sharkey, (Inist's. 

1877 Harry Rede Tottenham, Triu. 

1879 .lolni Cottam Moss, Joh. 

1881 W'illiam Ralph Inge, King'.s. 



1883 John Strachan, Pembroke. 
1888 Gilbert Austin Davies, Trin. 
1892 Thomas Marris Taylor, Caius. 
1896 John Frederic Dobson, Trin. 
1900 William Rennie, Trin. 
1902 John Tresidder Sheppard, King's. 
1904 Ralpli Lewis Giberne Butler, Trin. 
1906 Edward Gordon Selwyn, King's. 
1908 James Ramsay Montagu Butler, Trin. 
1910 Dennis Holme Robertson, Trin. 



Proxime accessit: 1906, P. S. Robertson, Tnn. 



272 



WHEWELL SCHOLARSHIPS 



SHEEPSHANKS ASTRONOMICAL EXHIBITION 

The representatives of the Reverend Richakd Sheepshanks, 
B.A. 1816, M.A. 1819, FeUow of Trinity College, founded in 
1859 an Exhibition to be given to that LTndergraduate of the 
University, elected by Trinity College, who should be found 
'upon notice of competition pubUcly given and examination 
held by them or by persons appointed by them to be best and 
sufficiently versed in Astronomy, theoretical and practical.' 

The person elected is to become a student of Trinity College 
and to retain the Exhibition for three years, on condition that 
he shall keep by residence every University term of that time, 
except so far as he may be excused by express permission of 
the Council of the College. 

Present value (1915), from £30 to £40 a year. 



1859 .Tames Stirling, Triii. 

1861 Tlioiuas »arker, Trin. 

1864 Hon. John ^^■illiam .Sti-utt (Lord 

RayleiKli), Trin. 
1866 Cliaries Niven, Triu. 
1868 Jolm Hopkinson, Trin. 
1871 Horace I.amb, Trin. 
1874 Tliomas C'roinpton Lewis, Trin.) . 

Jolm William Lord, Trin. t "^^l- 

1877 .John Edward Alm-sius Steggall, Triu. 
1879 Joseph John Thomson, Trin. 

Highly recommended : 189J, A. R. Biiiks, Triu, ; 
Wilton, Trill. 



1882 
1888 

1891 
1894 
1897 



1901 
1903 
1907 



Herbert Hall Turner, Trin. 
Frank Watson Uvson, Trin. ) , 
Gilbert Thomas VValker. Trin.l ^'^9- 
Philip Herbert Cowell. Trin. 
Edmund Taylor Whittaker, Trin. 
Charles Martin Martin-Jones, | 

Trin. V Aeq. 

Archibald Henry Pocock, Trin.1 
James flerk Maxwell Gamett, Trin. 
Philip Edward Marrack, Trin. 
Harold Knox Shaw, Trin. 



1907, S. Brodetsky. Trin. ; G. N. W.-»tson, Trin. ; J. R. 



WHEWELL SCHOLARSHIPS FOR INTERNATIONAL 
LAW 

William Whewell, D.D., late Master of Trinity College, by 
Will dated 17 December 1863, made provision by means of a 
Trust to Trinity College for the establishment of Scholarships 
for International Law. Dr Whewell died March 6, 1866, and the 
Scholarships were accepted by Grace of the Senate, Dec. 12, 
1867. 

Value, £100 and £50 a year, each tenable for two years at 
least. 

1868 1. James George Wowl, B.A., LL.B., ; 1874 

Emnian. I 

2. Thomas Joseph LawTence, Down, i 

1869 1. Vincent Indtliamberiajn, B.A., j 1875 

Queens'. I 

2. Henry Bailley Rowan, B.A., Trin. ' 

1870 1. James .Smith Ueid, B.A., Christ's. 1876 
2. Thomas Shepherd Little, Non-Coil. ' 

1871 1. Edmond Henrv Stuart Nugent, 

B.A., Triu. " 1877 

2. Percy Gardner, B..\., Christ's. 

1872 1. Herbert Somerton Foswell, B.A., 

Joh. 1878 

2. Archibald Henry Hamilton, B.A., 
LL.B., Hirists. 

1873 1. Jolm Alderson Foote, B.A., Joh. I 1879 
2. Frederic William Maitlaml, Trin. 



Joseph Edwin Crawford Munro, 

Down. 
Charles James Cooper, Joh.- 
Arthur Woollgar 'V errall, B.A., 

Trin. 
Rol)ert Jones Griffiths, B.A., Joh. 
John Mainwaring Brown, B.A., 

Christ's. 
Joseph William Thompson, Down. 
Percival Maitland Laurence, B.A., 

Corpus. 
Philip FoUiott Scott Stokes. 
Walter Ross Phillips, I-L.B., 

Trin. H. 
Thomas Thornely, LL.B., Ti-iu. H. 
Thomas ICdward Scrutton, Trin. 
Thomas Dale Hart, Down. 



WHEWELL AND WiDDINGTON SCHOLARSHIPS 273 



J880 1. Arthur Hugh Thompson, Trin, 

2. William Frederick Webster, B.A., 
Trin. 

1881 1. James Kennetli Stephen, King's. 
2. Frank Terry, B.A., LL.B., Joh. 

1882 1. James Pounder Whitney, B.A., • 

King's. 
2. Edward Louis de Hart, B.A., 
LL.B., Christ's. 

1883 1. Artliur Reed Ropes, B.A., King's. 
2. Sidney James Webb. 

1884 1. Thomas Alfred Walker, Pet. 

2. David Lewis Harris, B.A., Down. 

1885 2. Peter Giles, B.A., Caius. \ .^ 

Herbert Haines, B. A., King's.) ^^*- 

1886 1. George Edward Green, B.A., Joh. 
2. Sidney Arthur Taylor Rowlatt, 

B.A., Kings. 

1887 1. Arthur Llewelyn Davies, B.A., 

Trin. 
2. Arthur Beresford Cane, B.A., Trin. 

1888 1. William Arthur Jobson Archbold, 

B.A.. LL.B., Pet. 
2. Herbert Edwin Wright, B.A., 
LL.B. Trin. 

1889 1. George 'Townsend- Warner, B.A., 

Jesus. 
2. Henry Smethurst Mundahl, B.A., 
LL.B., Joh. 

1890 1. William Joseph Wliittaker, B.A., 

LL.B., Non-CoU. 
2. George Charles Smith, B.A., 
LL.B., Trin. H. 

1891 1. Percy Houghton Brown, B.A., 

LL.B., Joh. 
2. John Neville Figgis, B.A., Cath. 

1892 1. Clement Anderson MontaguBarlow, 

B.A.. LL.B., King's. 

1893 1. Thomas Baty, B.A., O.xford. 

2. John Frederick Iselin, B.A., Trin. 

1894 1. Cliarles Vickery Hawkins, B.A., 

King's. 
2. Robert Pentland Mahaify, B.A., 
King's. 

1895 1. William Piddian Reddaway.B.A., 

King's. 
1897 (June) 1. Alfred Frank Topham, 
LL.B., Queens'. 
2. Frederic William Payn, B.A., 
LL.B., Trin. H. 



A(q. 



1897 (Dec.) Romril James Robert \ 

Goffin,B.A., LL.B., Jesus. I 

Frederick Waldegrave Head, ( 

B.A., Emm. J 

1898 L Jean Etienne Reenen de Villiers, 

B.A., LL.B., Joh. 
2. Herbert Marcus Adler, B.A., 
LL.B., Joh. 

1899 1. Harold Marcus Wiener, B.A., 

LL.B., Caius. 
a. Robert WalUs Seward, B.A., 
King's. 

1900 1. Percy Jolm Spalding, B.A., Jesus. 
2. Percy Henry Winfteld, B.A., 

LL.B., Joh. 

1901 1. George Claus Rankin, B. A., Trin. 
2. Robert Agar Chadwick, ~j 

B.A., LL.B., Joh. (>,„ 

Herbert Richard Dudfield ( ^*«- 
May, B.A., Joh. ■' 

1902 1. Abdullatif Camrurtin Amirudin 

Abdul Latif, B.A., LUB., Joh. 

2. Sydney Frederick Herbert Goffin, 

B. A., LL.B., .Jesus. 

1903 Roland Burrows, Trin. ,H. 
Manohar LSI, B.A., Joh. 
Charles Bruce Locker 

Tennyson, B.A., King's. 

1904 Vonibathkori Pandrang 

Row, B.A., Joh. 
George Gray Russell, B,A., 
King's. •' 

1905 1. Normande MattosBentwich, B.A.. 

Trin. ' 

1906 2. Walter Douglas Aston, B.A., 

LL.B., Down. 

1907 1. Dudley William Ward, B.A., Joh. 
2. Charles Kingsley Webster, B.A., 

King's. 

1908 1. Arthur Edward Brown, B.A., 

LL.B., Joh. 
2. Norman Gibb Scorgie, B.A., Sid. 

1909 2. William George Constable, B.A., 

Joh. 

1910 2. Aaron Alexander, Joh. | 

Geoffrey Edelston Toulmin,/ Aeq. 
King's. I 



Aeq. 



}Aeq. 



Re-elected to Scholarehips : 1900, J. E. E. de Villiers, B.A., LL.B., Joh. : H. M. Adler, LL.B., Joli. ; 1901, 
H. M. Wiener, M.A., Caius ; 1902, P. J. Spalding, B.A., Jesus; P. H. Winfield, B.A., LL.B., Joh. ; 190Ct, 
G. C. Rankin, B.A., Trin. ; R. A. Chadwick, B.A., LL.B., Joh. : 1906, R. Burrows, Trin. H. ; C. B. L 
Tennyson, King's ; 1907, N. de M. Bentwich, B.A, Trin. ; 1909, D. W. Ward, B.A., Joh. ; 1910, A. E. Brown. 
Joh. ; N. G. Scorgie, Trin. 

Proxinieaccessit: 1882, A. R. Roiies, King's: 1883. G. iM. E. Jones, Pemb., T. A. Walker, Pet. 

Awarded a Scholarship of £50 for three years : 189;!, A. F. Hogg, King's. 

Note : — Whenever there is an omission of a year, no Scholar was elected. 



WADDINGTON SCHOLARSHIP 

In 1870 Miss Anne Waddinqton and Miss Clara Waddington 
offered to transfer to the University a sum of £3000 for the 
purpose of founding a Classical Scholarship in the University, 
to be called the Waddington Scholarship, in memory of their 
brothers, George Waddington, D.D., Dean of Durham, formerly 

H. E. 18 



274 



LIGHTFOOT SCHOLARSHIPS 



Davies University Scholar, and the Right Honourable Horatio 
Waddington, M.A., late Under-Secretary of State for the 
Home Department, formerly Pitt University Scholar. This was 
accepted by Grace of the Senate, 31 March 1870. The first 
Scholar was elected in 1871. 

Present value (191"6), about £80 a year. 



1871 Samuel Henry Butcher, Trin. " 
1876 John Archibald Sharkey, Christ's. 
1881 William Wyse, Trin. 
18S6 Robert Seymour Conway, Caius. 

I'eserving of honourable mention : J891, H, 
Trin., K. Harrison, Trin. 



1891 Theodore Llewelyn Davies, Trin. 
1897 George Cvril Armstrong, Trin. 
1902 Saxon Arnoll Sydney-Turner, Trin. 
1907 Edward Gordon Selwyn, King's. 



J. Edwards, Trin., T. R. Glover, Joh. ; 1897, J. F. Dobeon; 



LIGHTFOOT SCHOLARSHIPS 

In 1870 a proposal was made by Joseph Bakber Lightfoot, 
B.A. 1851, M.A. 1854, D.D. 1864, Fellow of Trinity, Hulsean 
Professor of Divinity, and afterwards Bishop of Durham, to 
transfer to the University a sum of £4500 for the purpose of 
founding Scholarships for the encouragement of the study of 
History, and more especially of Ecclesiastical History. This 
was accepted by Grace of the Senate, Nov. 24, 1870. The sum 
of £73. 7s. 6d., being the surplus of a Fund raised for the purpose 
of procuring a personal memorial in Cambridge of Dr Lightfoot, 
was added to the endowment of this Scholarship in 1893. 
The Regulations for the Scholarships were probably drawn up 
by Dr Lightfoot himself. 

Present value (1915), about £60 a year for three years. 



1874 Charles James Cooper, B.A., Joh. 

1875 Gerald Henry Kendall, B.A., Trin. 

1876 John Davidson Monro Murray, 

B.A., Joh. 

1877 James Henrj- Flather, B.A., Emm. 

1879 Thomas Thomely, B.A., LL,B., 

Trin. H. 

1880 Frederick John Foakes-Jackson, 

B.A., Trin. 
1«81 Thomas Henry Attwater, B,A., 
Pemb. 

1882 James Pounder Whitney, B.A., 

King's. 

1883 Arthur Reed Ropes, B.A., King's. 

1884 Thomas Alfred Walker, Pet. 
18b5 Peter Giles, Caius. 

188ti Henry David Madge, B.A., Pemb. 

1887 Richard Cecil Wilton, RA., Cath. 

1888 George Townsend- Warner, B. A., Jes. 

1889 Waiiam Edward Collins, B.A., 

Selwyn. 



1890 John Neville Figgis, B.A., Cath. 

1891 Charles Vickerv Hawkins, King's. 
1893 William Edward Jordan, RA., 

King's. 

1895 George Peakody Gooch, RA., Trin. 

1896 John Harold Clapham, RA., King's. 

1897 Frederick Waldegrave Head, B.A., 

Emm. 

1898 Reginald Vere Laurence, Trin. 
1901 Denys AHhur Winstanlev, RA., 

Trin. 

1903 Ernest Alfred Benians, B.A., Joh. 

1904 Herbert George Wood, B.A., Jes. 
1906 Arthur William Neville, Jes. 

1906 Eric Milner-White, King's. 

1907 Zachary Nugent Brooke, B.A., Joh. 

1908 Alexander Adam Seaton, B.A., 

Pemb. 

1909 John William Reynolds, B.A., Trin. 

1910 Robert Hugh Snape, B.A., Emm. 



Nearly equal to successful candidate : 1884, F. J. Fulford, B.A., Cbre: 1888, W. E. Collins, RA., Sehmi { 
laff.lR. V.Xaurenre. Trin. 

Acquitted tbemselres with credit : 1879, F. J. FoafcesJarkson, Trin. ; 1886, C. J. Brlstowe, B.A., Trin. H. 
IflRO, W. A. .1. .\rehbold. aA.. Pet. 

DesenrinR of commendation : 1901. B. G. Brown, B.A, Trin. 

neserring of honourable mention : 1910, G. G. G. Butler, RA, Trin. 

Note :— Whenever there is an omission of a year, no Scholar was electeil. 



I 



ABBOTT SCHOLARSHIPS ; BALFOUR STUDENTSHIP 275 



ABBOTT SCHOLARSHIPS 

Iiir the year 1870 the Executors of the late John AbboW, 
a retired merchant, of HaUfax in the county of York, offered to 
the University a sum of £4000 bequeathed by Mr Abbott for the 
purposes of estabhshing two Scholarships at the University, with 
a preference to the sons of clergymen of the Church of England ; 
this offer was accepted by Grace of the Senate, Feb. 9, 
1871. 

Present value (I9I5), about £57 a year for three years. 



First Year 
1872 Arthur Wellington South, .lesus. 
Second Year 
Charles Henry Wilson, King's. 

1874 Henry Elliot Dixon, Christ's.) j^„ 
Edward Meyiick, Trin, f^^'^' 

1875 William Herrick Macaulay, King's. 

1877 Reginiild St .John Parry, Trin. 

1878 Cecil Hill (Jarland, .Joh. 

1880 Basil Langton Edwards, Tiin. 

1881 Alfred North Whitehead, Trin. 

1883 John Augustine Kempthorne, Trin. 

1884 Francis Erskine Rowe, Trin. 

1886 Francis Lewis, Corpus. | 
Arthur Swinton Weatherhead,!- Aeq. 

King's. I 

1887 George Frederick Emery, Trin.) j .„ 
William Hall, King's. j^**' 

1889 Rol)ert Crowther Abbott, Trin. 

1890 Alfred Herbert Cherrill, Pemb. 
1892 Arthur Bevil Browne, Christ's. 

W93 diaries Bower Itadclyffe Ellis, Trin.- 



I 1895 Thomas Erskine Wilson, C'aius. 
1896 Vyvyan .Macleod Ferrers, Trin. 

1898 Maurice Llewellyn Taylor, Pemb. 

1899 William .Scott Ostle, Jesus.j 
William Humphrey Smith, V^?^. 

1901 Thomas Arthur Nock, Pemb.l 
Arthur C'harlewood Turner, > Afq. 

Trin. I 

1902 Robert Quirk, Kuig's. \ ._ 
Philip John Rust, Pemb. i ^"Z- 

1904 Clarence John Threlkeld Sewell, Trin. 

1905 William Hugh Thompson, ) 

Jesus. VAeq. 

Neville Hunter Watts, Pet. J 

1907 Alfred Park Senior, Christ's. 

1908 John Kenneth Best, Queens'. ^ 
Thomas Jackson Elliott Sewell, rAeq. 

Queens'. J 

1910 Frederick George Chevassut, i 

Trin. V Aeq. 

John Roland Wade, Queens'. \ 



BALFOUR STUDENTSHIP 

On the death^ in July 1882 of Francis Maitland Balfour, 
B.A. 1874, M.A. 1877, Fellow of Trinity College, who had been 
elected on May 31, 1882, Professor of Animal Morphology, a 
BaKour Memorial Fund was raised by subscription ; and invest- 
ments made from it amounting to £6500 were accepted by the 
Senate by Grace of June 14, 1883, with Regulations for the 
administration of the Fund. 

The income of the Fund is to be applied 

(1) To endow a Studentship to be called the Balfour Studentships 

the holder of which shall devote liimself to original research in 
Biology, especially Animal Morphology. 

(2) To further by occasional grants of money original research in the 

same subject. 

1 See p. 105, note i. 



18—2 



276 HARKNESS SCHOLARSHIP ; GRAVEN STUDENTSHIP 
Value, £200 a year for three years. 

1883 William Hay Caldwell, B.A., Caius. ; 1902 John Samuel Budgett, M. A., Trin. 

1886 William Hay Caldwell, M.A., Caius. ; 1904 Reginald Crundall Punnett, M.A., 

1887 AVilliam Bateson, M.A., Joh. Caius. 

1890 Walter Heape, M. A., Trin. 190T Reginald Crundall Punnett, M.A., 

1893 Arthur Willey, B.Sc, London. ' Caius. 

1897 Arthur Willey, D.Sc., London. | 1908 Cecil Clifford Dobell, B.A., Trin. 

1898 Arthur Willey, D.Sc, London. 1910 John Claude Fortescue Fryer, B,A., 

1899 John Stanley Gardiner, M.A., Caius. Caius. 



HARKNESS SCHOLARSHIP 

Mrs Pearson of Penrith, being de-sirous of promoting the 
study of Geology and Palaeontology in memory of her brother, 
Robert Harkness, F.R.S., Professor of Geology in Queen's 
College, Cork, from 1854 to his death, 5 October 1878, be- 
queathed to the University the sum of £1750 and the residue 
of her personal estate for the foundation of a Scholarship for 
proficiency in the science of Geology, including Palaeontology, 
to be called "The Harkness Scholarship." Mrs Pearson died in 
1884, and the residue of her personal estate amounted to about 
£1900. The Scholarship was founded in 1885. 

Present value (1915), about £100. 

1887 Philip Lake. Joh. r 1900 F^lward Eaton Walker, Trin. 

1888 Albert CTiarles Seward, B.A., Joh. I 1901 William George Fearnsides, B.A., 

1889 Thomas Theodore Groom, Joh. I Sidney. 

1890 Henry Woods. Joh. I 1902 Edward Battersby Bailev, Clare. 

1891 Herbert Kynaston, King's. I 1«03 Robert Heron Rastall, fi. A., Christ's. 

1892 Frederick Richard Cowper Reed, 1904 Owen Thomas Jones, Trin. 

B..\., Trin. I 1905 Frank .\rmitage Potts, B.A., Trin. H. 

1893 Leonard .Tames Spencer, B.A., Sidney. 1906 Bernard Smith, B.A., Sidney. 

1895 'Arthur William Rogers, B.A., 1907 Leonard Jolmston Wills. B.A., 

Christ's. King's. 

1896 John Edward Grav, King's. 1908 Thomas Owen Boswortli, B. A., Joh. 

1897 Robert Hawthorn "Kitson, B.A.,Trin. 1909 Ben Lightfoot, Pet. 

1898 HerlKsrt Henry Thomas, B.A.,Sidnev. 1910 Ei-ue.st Sheppard Pinfold, Pet 

1899 Arthur Lewis Hall, B.A., Caius. 

Note :— Wheiierer there is an omission of a year, no Scholar was elected. 



CRAVEN student:ship 

As the income of Lord Craven's Foundation of 1649 (see p, 259) 
•shewed a large surplus, an Order was obt-ained in 1886 from the 
Court of Chancery authorising the establishment of a Student- 
ship from the Benefaction for the purpose of facUitating ad- 
vanced study or research away from Cambridge in the Languages, 
Literature, History, Archaeology, or Art of Ancient Greece or 
Rome, or the Comparative Philology of the Indo-European 
Languages. It was also provided by an Order of the Court in 
the same year that the Trustees or Trustee for the time being of 
the Will of Lord Craven should pay the annual sum of £40 to a 



JOHN LUCAS WALKER STUDENTSHIP 



277 



fund called the Craven Fund, from which grants may be made 
from time to time for the furtherance of research in these subjects. 
Value, £200 a year. 



1887 Ernest Arthur Oardner, B.A., Caius. 

1888 Ernest Arthur Gardner, Incept, in 

Arts, Caius. 

1889 Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A., Caius. 

1890 William Loring, B.A., King's. 

1891 William Loring, B.A., King's. 

1892 William Loring, H.A., King's. 

1893 Edward Frederic Benson, B.A., 

King's. 

1894 Arthur George Bather, B.A., King's. 

1895 Rohert Carr Bosanquet, B.A., Trin. 

1896 Robert Carr Bosanquet, B.A., Trin. 

1897 Lionel David Barnett, B.A., Trin. 

1898 John Cuthhert Lawson, B-.A., Pemb. 



1899 John Cuthhert Lawson, B.A.j Pemb. 

1900 Ellis Hovell Minns, Incept, m Arts, 

Pemb. 

1901 John Hubert Marshall, B.A., King's. 

1902 Richard M'^Gillivray Dawkins, Emm. 

1903 Alan John Bayard Wace, Pemb. 

1904 Oliffe Legh Richmond, B.A., King's. 

1905 t)liffe Legh Richmond, B.A., King's. 

1906 Charles Erskine Stuart, B.A., Trin. 

1907 Charles Erskine Stuart, B.A., Trin. 

1908 Harold Mattinglv, B.A., Caius. 

1909 William HoldenUuke, B.A., Jesus. 

1910 Frank Ezra Adcock, B.A., King's. 



MARMADUKE LEVITT SCHOLARSHIP 

Under the Will of Mr Mabmaduke Levitt funds were left 
'for promoting the cause of education whether in middle-class 
schools or otherwise or by founding Scholarships in the University 
of Cambridge,' and in 1886 £1500 was assigned by his Trastees 
for the establishment of a Scholarship to be held at the University 
by persons of small means. The Scholarship is awarded to a 
scholar 'selected for his attainments by the Syndicate appointed 
to conduct the Local Examinations of the University from 
among the candidates presenting themselves for the Local 
Examinations, no such candidate being eligible for selection 
unless satisfactory certificates are produced of his moral character 
and of. the inability of his parents or guardians to send him to 
the University of Cambridge without such assistance.' 

Present value (1915), about £40 a year for three years. 



1890 George Ernest Davis, Queens'. 
1893 Herbert Stanley Allen, Trin. j 

Reginald Gresham Clive Pater-> Aeq. 
son, Queens'. I 

1896 Alfred Ernest Greene, King's. 



1899 Charles William Greene, Emm. 
1902 William Arthur Reginald Wilks, 

Caius. 
1905 Selig Brodetsky, Trin. 
1908 Frederick Carrington Walker, Christ's. 



JOHN LUCAS WALKER STUDENTSHIP AND 
EXHIBITIONS 

John LupAS Walker, LL.B. 1867, of Trinity College, having 
left by Will in 1886 to his friend Sir Richard Everard Webster, 
also of Trinity, then Attorney- General and afterwards Lord 
Chief Justice and Lord Alverstone, a sum of money to be spent 
'in the promotion, without regard to sect or party, of Scientific 
and Literary Research, or of either of those objects in Cambridge 
or in the Metropolis or in both places,' a Scheme and Regulations 
for the establishment of a Studentship for the endowment of 
original research in Pathology, were submitted by the Attorney- 



?78 PRENDERGAST STUDENTSHIP 

General to t^e University, and accepted by Grace of the Senate, 
March 10, 1887. The holder of the Studentship need not 
necessarily be a member of the University, and it is open to 
persons of either sex. The Managers of the Trust Fund are 
jtlso empowered to further original research in Pathology by 
additional Studentships or Exhibitions, Prizes, or Grants, at 
Cambridge or in London. 
Value, £200 a year. 

1887 Williaiii Hunter. M.D. (Edinb.), St .Jiilm's. 

X890 .John George Adami, M. A., M.B.. Christ's. Fellow of Jesus, 1891. M.I). 1S92. 

1891 Alfred Antunes Kantliack, B.A., B.Sc. M.B. (Lond.), St .John's. Professor of 

Pathology, 189". M.A. 1897. Fellow of King's, 1898. 

1892 .1. Lorrain-Smith, M.D. (Edinb.). 
F. F. Wesbrook, Manitoba. 

1895 Louis Cobbett, M.A.. M.B., Trin. M.T). 1899. 

1897 J. hn William Watson Stephens, B.A., M.B., B.C., Caius. M.D. 1899. 

1899 Walter Myers, M.A., .\I.B.. B.C., Caius. 

Edward Sydney St Barbe Sladen, M.A., M.D., B.C., Caius. 
1901 Henrv Cobilen Haslaiu, .M.A., .M.B., B.C., Caius. Sc.D. 1914. 

Edward Sydney St Barbe Sladen, M.A., M.D., B.C., Caiug. 
1904 Herbert Edward Durham, M.A., M.B., King's. Sc.D. 1909. 

George Stuart Graham-Smith, M.A., -M.B., B.C., Pemb. M.D. 1905. 
1906 Leonard Noon, M.A., B.C., Trin. 
J909 William .M-^Donald Scott, M.B., Cli.B., B.Sc. (Edin.). 

CV)nstant Wells Ponder, M.A., M.D., Emm. 

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION 

In 1887 the Council of the Royal Geographical Society offered 
to award in alternate years an Exhibition of £100 to be spent in 
the geographical investigation (physical or historical) of some 
district approved by the CouncU, to a member of the University 
of not more than eight years standing. Xo awards appear to 
have been made. 



PRENDERGAST GREEK STUDENT^SHIP 

Tms Studentship was founded in 1888 by Mrs Pkendebgast 
to commemorate her husband. Colonel Guy Lushington 
PRENDERGAST, Sometime of Trinity College. The Master and 
Fellows of Trinity are Trustee^ of the Fund, which is devoted 
to the furtherance of study and research in the Greek Language, 
Literature, History, Philosophy, Archaeology, and Ail, the 
maintenance of the Studentship being the first charge upon it. 
A Student is elected once in every two years. 

Value, £200. 

1890 Charles Alexander Maclean Pond, 1900 John Hubert Marshall, B.A, King's. 

U.A., Job. 1902 Alan John Bayard Wace,B. A. .Peuib. 

1892 Arthur George Bather, B.A. , King's. 1904 Alan John Bayard Wace,B. A., Pemb. 

1894 Edward Frederic Benson, a A., i 1906 John Perceval Droop, B.A., Trin. 

King's. I 1908 Arnold Wycombe Gorame, Trin, 

1896 Frederick Arthur Cliarles Morrison, ( 1910 Cecil Francis Taylor, B.A., Emm. 

B.A., Jesus. ! 
1898 diaries Douglas Edmonds, RA.. 

Emm. 1 ■ 



NEWTON AND GERSTENBERG STUDENTSHIPS 279 



CLERK MAXWELL SCHOLARSHIP 

This Scholarship was founded in 1890 in accordance with the 
Will of Mrs Clerk Maxwell, widow of James Clerk Maxwell, 
B.A. 1854, M.A. 1857, Honorary Fellow and formerly Fellow of 
Trinity, and first Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, 
who died 5 November 1879. The Scholarship is instituted in 
connexion with the Cavendish Laboratory to promote the 
advancement by original research of Experimental Physics, and 
especially of Electricity, Magnetism, and Heat, the sciences to 
which Professor Clerk Maxwell's researches were chiefly directed. 

Value, £200 a year for three years. 



1S91 William C'assie, M.A., Trin. 

1893 William Cecil Dampier Whetham, 

M.A., Trin. 
1895 Charles Tlionisou Kees Wilson, B.A., 

Sidney. 
1898 John Sealv Edward Townsend, B.A., 

Trin. 
1901 Harold Albert Wilson, H.A., Trin. 
1904 Owen Williams Richardson, H.A., 

Trin. 



1906 Frank Horton, B.A., Joh. 

1909 Edward Montague Wellisch, B.A. 

Emm^ 

1910 Richard Daniel Kleeman, B.A.,") 

Richard Terence Beatty, B.A., f ■""''■ 
Emm. 



ISAAC NEWTON STUDENTSHIPS 

In 1890 Frank M^Clean, B.A. 1859, M.A. 1863, of Trinity 
College, offered about £12,500 for the founding of Studentships 
in Astronomy and Physical Optics in memory of Sir Isaac 
Newton. The offer was accepted and Regulations approved by 
Grace of the Senate, 5 March 1891. 

Value, £200 a year. 

1891 Ralph Allen Sampson, B.A., Joh. 1901 Samuel Bruce M«Laren, B.A., Trin. 

1892 Frank Watson ])yson, B.A., Trin. 1902 Thomas Henry Uavelock, B.A., Joh. 

1893 Robert Hume Davison Mayall, B.A., 1903 Camaji Navroji Cania, B. A., Joh. 

Sidney. " 

lS9-t Philip Herbert Cowell, B.A., Trin. 

1895 Sydney Samuel Hough, B.A., Joh. 

1896 John Gaston Leathern, B.A., Joh. 
189T William Fellows Sedgwick, B.A., 

Trin. 
J898 Charles Godfrey, B.A., Trin. 

1899 Georfie Walker Walker, B.A., Trin. 

1900 James Hopwood Jeans, B.A., Trin. 



1904 Zia Uddin Ahmad, B.A., Trin. 

1905 Frederick John Marrian Stratton, 

B. A., Caius. 

1906 John William Nicholson, B.A., Triiw 

1907 Henry Ronald Hass^, B.A., Joh. 

1908 .Jan ISastiaan Hubrecht, B.A., Chr. 

1909 William John Harrison, B.A., Clare. 

1910 Selig Brodetsky, B.A., Trin. 



ARNOLD GERSTENBERG STUDENTSHIP 

• This Studentship was founded in 1892 by Mrs Leonoija 
PttiLiPPS in accordance with the wishes of her brother, Arnold 
Gebstbnberg, B.A. 1884, late of Trinity College, who be- 
queathed to her £2000 for that purpose with the object of 
promoting the study of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics 
among students of Natural Science, both men and women. 



280 WORDSWORTH AND STEEL STUDENTSHIPS 
Present value (1915), about £90 a year for two years. 

1896 Charles Samuel Myers, B.A., Caius. i 1900 Thomas John Jehu, B.A., Joh. 
Arthur George Tanslev, B. A., Trin. I 1906 Albert Edward Baker, B.A., Trin. 

1897 Charles Frederick Gurney Master- 1909 Charlie Dunbar Broad, B.A., Trin. 

man, B.A., Christ's. | 



WORDSWORTH STUDENTSHIPS 

These Studentships were founded in 1892 by W. Nicholson, 
Esq. of London, in memory of Christopher Wordsworth, D.D., 
Jate Bishop of Lincoln, and sometimg Head Master of Harrow 
School. Candidates, who before the date of the election must 
have taken Honours in some Tripos, are required to present to 
the Electors a declaration in writing of their intention to take 
Holy Orders in the Church of England. Preference is to be 
given to candidates who have been educated for two years at 
Harrow School or at Winchester College. 

Present value (1915), about £40. 



STEEL STUDENTSHIPS 

Candidates before the date of the election must be at least 
twenty-one years of age, and must, generally speaking, have 
taken Honours in some Tripos. In the selection of Students 
the Trustees have regard to the fitness of the candidates for 
entering at once on a course of definite preparation for Holy 
Orders at the University, with a view to their future usefulness 
in parochial or missionary work. 



STEWART OF RANNOCH SCHOLARSHIPS 

Mr John Stewart of Rannoch, sometime resident at Bristol, 
who died 19 July 1884, left all his estate, subject to certain 
charges, to the University of Cambridge, to the intent that 
the University might found Scholarships, tenable for one year, 
of the annual value of twenty-five pounds each, in Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, and Sacred Music, or in the discretion of the 
Governing Body of the said University to be tenable for three 
years for proficiency in some or one of the prescribed subjects, 
the preference in every case to be given to young men natives 
of the Counties of Wilts, Somerset, or Gloucester, including 
the City and County of Bristol. In the list of Scholars which 
follows the emoluments are described as r (restricted) or o (open) 
in all cases in which they were so described in the original awards. 
By Grace of the Senate, 7 December 1893, eighteen Scholarships 
were founded, of the annual value of £25, tenable for three years, 



STEWART OF RANNOCH SCHOLARSHIPS 



281 



six for proficiency in Hebrew, six for proficiency in Greek and 
Latin, and six for proficiency in Sacred Music. 



b, Trin. 
e, U*^- 



Greek and Latin 

1894 1. r John Allen FltzGerald Gregg, 

Christ's. 
2. r Jolm.Cuthbert Lawson, Pemb. 

1895 1. Philip Latham Phelps, Corpus. 
2. Herbert Alfred Montgomery 

Parker, Joh. 

1896 1. Cliarles William Dunn, Trin. 
2. Gilbert Anthony Purton, 

Christ's. 

1897 1. .John Frederic Myddleton 

Haslam, Joh. 
2. William Cyril Mayne, Trin. 

1898 1. George Arthur Thomas, Emm. 
2. John Herbert Sleeman. 

1899 r Cecil Thomas Carr, Trin. 

r Cliarles Basil Tayler, Corpus. 

1900 1. r Henry Reginald Pate, King's. 
2. r Herbert Anthony Webb, Trin. 

1901 r Frank Lugard Brayne, 

Pemb. 
■r William Walter Morrice, 
Clare. 

1902 r Cliarles Robert Plant Cooper, 

Caius. 
*• Philip Charles Thurlow Crick, 
Pemb. 

1903 }• Gilbert Alfred Hamilton Searle, 

Christ's. 

1904 Paul Victor Colin, Trin. ) , 

Percy James Pearse, Trin.j 'i' 
r Edward Hayward, Sid. 

1905 Donald Struan Robertson, Trin. 
r Archibald William Couch, Magd. 

1906 John Douglas Harnard, Jesus. 
190T o Reginald Hackforth, Trin. 

William Holden Duke, Jesus. 
r Theodore Edward James 
Bradsliaw, Trin. 
. r Basil Coleby Roberts, Pemb. 

1908 Robert Wilniot Howard, Trin. 
Algernon Edward Vere- 

Walwyn, Pet. 

1909 1. Arthur Edward Frances Wood, 

Trin. 
2. Geoffrey Stuart Hellings, Joh. 

1910 1. »• Harold George Dennehy, Emm. 
2. r Wilfrid Morgan Peacock, Jesus. 

Music 

1894 Cyril Bradley Rootham. 

Ernest Marshall Radford, Trin. 

1896 r William Douglas Braithwaite, 

Caius. 

1. John St Antony Johnson, Trin. 

2. Bernard Charles Spencer 

Everett, Caius. 

1897 r Francis Gilbert Dyer, Corpus. 
o Harry Edward Piggott. 

1898 Arthur Hugh Rawlins Robinson, 

Clare. 

1899 Geoffrey Turton Shaw, Caius. 

o Frederick Ernest Eklwin Harvey, 
Non Coll. 

1900 Edgar Stanley Roper, Corpus. 
George William Brewster, 

King's. 



A,;i. 



1901 r George Horace Tracy Atchley, 

Sid. 
Frederick William Wadely, 

Selwyn. 
o Robert Sterndale-Bennett, Joh. 

1902 Francis Clive Saville Carey, 

Clare. 

1903 )• Charles John Agnew Trimble, 

Trin. 
Geoffrey Hatten, Caius. 
Harold Sydney Vinning, Queens'. 

1904 Hubert Templar Depree, Clare. 

1905 William Scarth Dixon, Caius. 
Arthur Charles Lestoc Hylton 

Stewart, Pet. 

1906 Percy Robert Tomlinson, Selwyn. 
George Jen'ard Wilkinson, 

Caius. 
r Ralph Norman Shelton, Down. 

1907 John Frederick Chubb, Christ's. 

1908 r John Cliarles Moore Ferguson, 

Emm. 
William Charles Denis 

Browne, Clare. 
Montague Herbert 

Spinney, Selw. 

1909 Frank Percy Haines, Clare. 

1910 r John Mortimer Duniam 

Stanconib, Emm. 
Albert Edward Davison. 
Cliarles Geoffrey Buckland 

Stevens, Emm. 

Hebrew 
1895 1. Herbert Mai'cus Adler, Joh. 
2. George Henry Ardron,-; 

Caius I J 

Herman Leonard Pass, f ^' 
Joh. J 

1897 1. Reginald Campbell Thompson, 

Caius. 
2. Theodore Harber Hennessy, Joh. 

1898 Francis Douglas Cautley, Joh. 
r Charles Alexander Lorenzo 

Senior, Joh. 

1899 Arthur Stuart Duncan Jones, 

Caius. 
Charles Ravenscroft Bull,) 

Cath. \ Acq. 

Alban Hood, Christ's. 

1901 John Charles Halland \ 

How, Joh. I . 

. Hertiert Martin James j ^' 
Loewe, Queens'. ' 

1902 r Hamlin Nowell Whitty, Caius. . 

1. Wilfrid Morley Leadman, Joh. 

2. Norman Christopher Pope, Joh. 

1903 John Henry Bentley, Joh. 

1904 Norman de Mattos 

Bentwich, Trin. 
Francis Joseph Padfield, 
Cai. 

1905 o Fred Shipley Marsh, Selwyn. 

1906 Richard Seymour Cripps, Joh. 

1907 Abraham Cohen, Emm. 
o Rupert Harold Willey, Caius. 



'•I 
iA,'q 



Aetj. 



282 HORT MEMORIAL FUND 

1908 1. u Kciinttli MiiishuU Kobatlian, . 1910 1. o William Brandrit Jefferson, 

Caius. Corpus. 

2. o Eruest Charles Inman, Caius. 2. o Jacob liothfield, Non Coll. 

1909 o Selig Urodetsky, Trin. 



rin. 1 



o Alexauder Jephcott, f Acq. 
Queens'. 

Honourably mentioned : 1908, F. V. Nicholson, Queens'. 

Credit in the Hebrew Paper: 1910, B. M. Pickering. 

Greek and Latin, nearly equal to the second candidate : 1910, J. H. Taunton, Clare. 

Note:— Whenever there is an omission of a year, no f^cholar was electnl. 



HORT MEMORIAL FUND 

In 1893 the sum of £1000 was subscribed with the view of 
founding a Memorial to perpetuate in the University the memory 
of Fenton John Anthony Hoet, B.A. 1850, M.A. 1853, D.D. 
1876, Fellow of Trinity and afterwards of Emmanuel, Hulsean 
Professor of Divinity 1878-87 and Lady Margaret's Reader in 
Divinity 1887-92, who died 30 November 1892. The Trust was 
accepted by the University in the year 1894, and Regulations 
for the administration of the Fund were approved. In 1896 the 
Fund was augmented by a gift of about £1800 offered to the 
University by certain members of the Old and New Testament 
Revision Companies, this sum to be called the Revision Surplus 
Fund and to be administered by the Managers of the Hort 
Memorial Fund. It was accepted by Grace of 18 June 1896. 
The Hort Memorial Fund is devoted to the promotion of Biblical, 
Hellenistic, and Patristic Research. 

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, WINCHESTER 

In 1895 the Charity Commissioners made a Scheme for the 
administration of two Foundations in the City of Winchester: 
(1) Christ's Hospital, founded under the WiU of Peter Symonds, 
dated 24 April 1586; (2) Pemerton's or Pemberton's Donation. 
These Foundations were to be united, and administered by a 
Governing Body under the name of Christ's Hospital in Win- 
chester. This Scheme was approved by the Qween in Council, 
13 May 1896. 

It was provided, among, other things, that the Governors 
should maintain two Exhibitions, each of the yearly value of 
not more than £15, tenable for not more than four years, one at 
Oxford and the other at Cambridge. The Cambridge Exhibiticm 
is given as the reward of merit on the result of the First Part 
of any Tripos Examination to a candidate who is, or intends to 
be, a student in Divinity. It is tenable for one year, but the 
holder is re-eligible. The Governors require from each candidate, 
among other things, a statement of the position and means of 
his parents. 



ALLEN AND SQUIRE SCHOLARSHIPS 283 

ALLEN FUND AND SCHOLARSHIP 

In 1898 the late Ashley William Graham Allen, B.A. 
1890, of Trinity College, bequeathed £10,000 to the University 
for the foundation of a Scholarship or Prize in memory of his 
grandfather, the Right Rev. Joseph Allen, D.D., sometime 
Fellow of Trinity College, Bishop of Bristol 1834, and Bishop of 
Ely 1836 until his death, 20 March 1845. The bequest was 
accepted by Grace, 16 June 1898, and Regulations were approved 
by Grace, 16 Feb. 1899. The Allen Scholar is required to devote 
himself to research, the Scholarship being assigned in alternate 
years to literary and scientific subjects. 

Value, £250. 

1899 HegiiiaM Vere Laurenco, H.A., Trin. 1905 Ernest Alfred Renians, B.A., .loli. 

1900 HaroM Albert Wilson. U.A., Triu. i 1906 Philip I'Mward Bertrand Jourdain, 

1901 John Henry Arthur Hart, H.A., I B.A.,Trin. 

Job. I 1907 John Kenneth Mozlev, B.A., Pemb. 

1902 Frank Noel Hales, K.A., Trin. I 1908 George Ralph Mines, B.A., Sid. 

1903 Harold William Vazeille Temperlev, 1901) John Eric Sidney Green, B.A., Pet. 

B.A., King's. I 1910 Richard Whiddington, B.A., Joh. 

1904 Frank Horton, B.A., Joh. 



SQUIRE SCHOLARSHIPS IN LAW 

In 1901 the Trustees under the Will of Miss Rebecca Flower 
Squire offered a portion of her estate for the foundation, endow- 
ment, and support of Law Scholarships in the University. This 
offer was accepted by Grace, 12 December 1901. A further 
offer of the Trustees to found and endow additional Law Scholar- 
ships in the Universitv was accepted by Grace, 10 December 
1903. 

Value, £50 a year for three years. 

1902 William Robert Colqulioun Adcock, 1907 Barnard Theodore Vine, Joh. 

Pet. I John Russell Sowden, Trin. H. 

1903 Alfred Denys Strickland Rogers, Gerard Masterman Loly. 

Cath. 1908 Oswald Hughes-Jones, Joh. 
George Tennant Rawnslev. Leonard Danvers Sraitli, Joh. 

1904 Hugh Connop Hunter, Trin. IL 1909 Geoffrey Cheeslnougli Pratt, Trin. 
Henry Darlow, Down. FrancisBertram Reecc, Joh. 

1906 Einest Evans. 1910 Harry Hands, Down. 

, Richard Clare Martin. Arthur Percival Bunt, .Job. 

1806 Hul)ert Denis Edlestou Elliott, Sid. Richard Denham SchoIHeld. 

Note :— Whenever there is an oiuiiision of a year, no .Scholir was elected. 



FRANK SMART STUDENTSHIP IN BOTANY 

In 1904 Francis Gray Smart, M.A., M.B., of Gonville and 
CJaius College, offered to establish in the University a Fund for 
the endowment of a Studentship in Botany. The offer was 
■accepted and Regulations approved by Grace, 9 June 1904. 



284 ANTHONY WILKIN STUDENTSHIP 

Value, £100 a year for two years. 

1904 Albert Malins Smith, B. A., Emm. 

190(5 DaWd Tliodav, B.A., Trin. 

1908 Sydney Mangliam, B.A., Emm. 

1910 liobert Harold Compton, B.A., Caius. 



GORDON WIGAN FUND 

A SUM of money, amounting in value to upwards of £9000,. 
bequeathed by the late Gordox Taylor Bentinck Wigan, M.A.,. 
of Trinity CoUege, for the purpose of promoting and encouragmg 
scientific education or research, or scientific education and 
research in the University of Cambridge, was in 1904 trans- 
ferred to the University ; and Regulations for the administration 
of the bequest were approved by Grace of 16 Feb. 1905. Half 
the income of the Fund is administered by the Special Board for 
Physics and Chemistry and the other half by the Special Board 
for Biology and Geology. 



ANTHONY WILKIN STUDENTSHIP 

In 1905 IVIr Frederick Wilkin offered to found a Studentship 
for research in Ethnology and Archaeology in memory of his 
son, Anthony Wilkin, B.A., late of King's College. This offer 
was accepted by Grace of "8 June 1905. 

Value, £200. 

1906 Alfred Regimtld Brown, B. A., Trin. 
1909 Alfred Reginald Brown, M.A., Trin. 

BARNARD RANDOLPH EXHIBITION 

In accordance with a Scheme established by the Board of 
Education in 1906 and amended in 1913, a Barnard Randolph 
Exhibition is offered from time to time, as funds permit, to a 
graduate student of Divinity in the Univei-sity of Cambridge 
who is in need of pecuniary assistance to enable him to pursue 
the study of Divinity in the University, with a preference for 
those whose parents are or have for not less than three years 
been resident in the Administrative County of London, and who- 
have for not less than two years been in attendance at St Paul's, 
Merchant Taylors', or the City of London School; failing can- 
didates who are privileged in any of these respects, any duly 
qualified candidate may be elected who is adjudged worthy tO' 
take the Exhibition. Candidates must have taken Honours in 
a Tripos and must undertake to reside for a period of one year, 
and to enter for such part of the Theological Tripos as the 
Governors, who are the five Professors of Divinity, shall determine. 

Present value (1915), about £30 for one year. 



•OLDHAM SCHOLARSHIPS ; BURNEY STUDENTSHIP 285 

FREDERICK JAMES QUICK FUND 

Frederick James Quick, M.A., of Trinity Hall, by his Will 
left his residuary estate and the income thereof upon Trust to 
the University of Cambridge as a permanent Fund for the 
promotion of study and research in the sciences of Vegetable and 
Animal Biology, and it is from this Fund that the Quick Pro- 
fessorship of Biology (see p. 108) is maintained. But in the 
scheme adopted by Grace of the Senate, 10 May 1906, it is 
provided that one:tenth of the income of the Fund shall be used, 
first, in furnishing assistance for the Professor and in the general 
maintenance of his Laboratory, and afterwards, should there be 
any surplus, in the furtherance of original Biological investi- 
gations, and to the support and development of the study of 
Vegetable and Animal Biology either by contributions towards 
the stipends of existing teaching posts or by the establishment of 
new teaching posts. 

CHARLES OLDHAM SCHOLARSHIPS 

In 1907 Mr Charles James Oldham bequeathed to the 
University the sum of £5000 to be invested by and in the joint 
■names of the Vice-Chancellor and two other members of the 
Senate. The income arising from such investments is -to be 
appUed to the founding and maintaining of one annual Prize or 
Scholarship in the Ancient Classics, Greek and Latin, and one 
annual Prize or Scholarship in the knowledge of William Shake- 
speare's Works. The bequest was accepted by Grace, 14 February 
1907. 

The value of the Classical Scholarship is at present (1915^ 
about £75, and that of the Shakespeare Scholarship about £65. 

Classical Scholarship 

1908 Dunald Sti-uan Robertson, Trinity. 

1909 Andrew Sydenham Farrar Gow, B.A., Trin. 

1910 Andrew Sydenham Farrar Gow, B.A., Trin. 

Shakespeare Scholarship 

1908 Tliomas Smith Sterling, Down. 

1909 Rupert Chawuer Brooke, B.A., King's. 

1910 Richard Faner Patterson, B.A., Joh. 

Proxime accessit : 1909, J. Meek. Trin. ; 1910. F. F. L. Birrell. King's. 
Honourably mentioned ; 1910, S. Grocock, Queens' : W. E. Womersley, Catli. 



BURNEY STUDENTSHIP 

As the endowment of the Burney Prize (see p. 320), established 
in 1846, was more than sufficient for the purposes for which it 
was founded, powers were obtained to establish in 1907 a 



286 WARE SCHOLARSHIP; TIARKS SCHOLARSHIP - - 

Bumey St\identehip as well as a Burney Prize, to encourage 
research in the Philosophy of ReUgion, these words being inter- 
preted so as to include Christian Ethics and questions relating 
to the truth and evidence of the Christian ReUgion. Th6 
Burney Student may be required to publish a thesis embodying 
the results of his study or research. 
Value, £140 for one year. 

1907 Albert Bdwaixl Baker, B. A., Trin. 

1908 Kenneth James Saunders, B.A., Emm. 

1909 Josepli Gordon Walker, B.A., Jesas. 

1910 Alban Gregory Widgery, B.A., Cath. 



GEORGE CHARLES WINTER WARR SCHOLARSHIP 

Mrs Constance Emily Warr bequeathed £5000 for the 
founding of a Fellowship or Scholarship for Classical Research 
in memory of her husband, George Charles Winter Wark< 
M.A., of Trinity College. By Grace of the Senate, 17 June 

1909, Regulations for the Scholarship were adopted, which 
provide for an election in the Easter Term 1911, and in the same 
term in every alternate year thereafter, except that the Scholar- 
ship is not to be awarded in any year in which a vacancy in the 
Prendergast Studentship (see p. 278) is announced. 

Value, £200. 

TIARKS GERMAN SCHOLARSHIP 

In 1909 Mr Henry F. Tiarks offered to the University the 
sum of £5000 for the endowment of one or more Scholarships 
for the encouragement of the study of German in the University. 
The offer was accepted by Grace of the Senate, 11 Nov. 1909, 
and Regulations were approved by Grace of the Senate, 26 May 
1910. 

Value, £150. 

1910 Gilbert Waterhouse, B.A., Joli. 

MAITLAND MEMORIAL FUND 

The Executive Committee of the Frederic William Maitland 
Memorial Fund offered the balance of the Fund (after providing 
a bronze bust) to the University of Cambridge to be held by it 
in Trust for the promotion of research and instruction in the 
History of Law and of Legal Language and Institutions. The 
offer was accepted by Grace of the Senate, 10 Nov. 1909, and 
Regulations were approved by Grace of the Senate, 20 January 

1910. The Managers of the Fund are authorised to make at 
their discretion grants to any person engaged in any research in 
the History of Law or of Legal Language or Institutions; or 



LEVY STUDENTSHIP- ;.-COMPANIES' EXHIBITIONS 287 

may make grants for the delivery of lectures, the publication of 
works, or the promotion of any other undertaking connected 
with these departments of study; and they may attach to any 
grant such conditions as they may think fit. 

BENN W. LEVY STUDENTSHIP IN BIO-CHEMISTRY 

Founded by a Committee formed to perpetuate the memory 
of the late Mr Benn Wolfe Levy. The offer of the Committee 
was accepted and Regulations were approved by Grace of the 
Senate, 10 March 1910. The Studentship is open to members of 
Girton and Newnham Colleges as well as members of the 
University. 

Value, £100 a year. 

1910 Annie Homer, Newnham College (resigned). 

CITY COMPANIES' EXHIBITIONS 

(1) There are four Exhibitions connected with the Bene- 
faction of Sir James Lancaster (a.d. 1618) of the value of £21 a 
year each, in the gift of the Skinners Company. They are 
intended for students of Divinity, two being tenable at Oxford 
and two at Cambridge, and are usually awarded in November 
(whenever a vacancy occurs) to students then at the beginning 
of their second year of residence. 

(2) There is also an Exhibition, tenable only at the University 
of Cambridge, connected with the Benefaction of Mr Edward 
Lewis (a.d. 1673) of the value of £21 a year, in the gift of the 
Skinners Company. It is usually awarded in November (when- 
ever a vacancy occurs) to a student then at the beginning of his 
second year of residence. 

(3) The various Benefactions for the assistance of poor 
students at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, made 
among others by Mrs Ann Elliott, Mr George Humble, Mr William 
Moseley, Mr Robert Rogers, and entrusted to the Leathersellers 
Company, are awarded on the nomination of the Vice-Chancellor. 
A notice relating to these Exhibitions appears in the University 
Reporter, usually in the Lent or Easter Term. 

- (4) Six Goldsmiths' Exhibitions of £50 a year are awarded 
by means of an Examination in Classics, Mathematics, and 
Divinity, held in Cambridge, usually in the month of May. 
Notice of the date of entry and of the exact date of the Exam- 
ination appears, in the University Reporter. 

(5) Two Grocers' Exhibitions of £40 a year each, tenable at 
Cambridge or Oxford, are awarded in January to candidates 
selected from those who make application beforehand. Informa- 
tion should be applied for in the course of the preceding November. 



288 UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIPS 

(6) The Clothworkers Company give six Exhibitions of £30 
a year (with additions on admission to a degree), two of which 
are awarded i& each year on the recommendation of the Censor 
to Non-Collegiate Students reading for Honours and intending 
to take Holy Orders. They are tenable for three years. 

(7) Exhibitions of various values are also given by other 
Companies from time to time. 

SURVEYORS' INSTITUTION SCHOLARSHIPS 

A Surveyors' Institution Scholarship of £80 for three years is 
awarded annually to a Student of the Surveyors' Institution on 
the results of a competitive examination in Natural Science 
held annually at Cambridge in the month of July by the Board 
of Agricultural Studies. [The Regulations for these Scholarships 
were rescinded in 1915.] 

ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES 

By Grace of 2 Dec. 1875, the University agreed to pay £75 
per year for five years from the Worts' Fund for Travelling 
Bachelors to the institution at Naples under Dr Dohm, for 
facilitating the study of Marine Zoology by students nominated 
by the University. This agreement is renewed from time to 
time. By Grace of 13 Dec. 1883, the annual payment was 
raised to £100. Those who go are expected to make reports of 
their investigations to the Vice-ChanceUor. 

MARINE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT PLYMOUTH 

The University has the right to nominate a student to study 
Marine Zoology at the Marine Biological Station at Plymouth. 
The nomination is made by the Special Board for Biology and 
Creology. Students are expected to make reports of their in- 
vestigations to the Vice-Chancellor. 

BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS 

The Managing Committee of the British School at Athens 
places at the disposal of the Vice-Chancellor a Studentship of 
the value of £50 tenable by a student who is prepared to under- 
take archaeological work in connexion with the School, and who 
undertakes to reside three months. The Studentship is raised 
to £100 if the Student completes six months' residence. Students 
of Girton or Newnham are eligible. 



*^* Lists of the holders of Scholarships since 1910, and au 
account of Scholarships founded after 1910, will be found in the 
current issue of the University Calendar. 



University Prizes 



*^,* The general Regulations governing the award of University 
Prizes, and the substance of the special Regulations of each Prize, 
will be found in the Student's Handbook. 



SEATONIAN PRIZE 

The Reverend Thomas Seaton, B.A. 1704, M.A. 1708, Fellow 
of Clare Hall, bequeathed to the Universitj^ in 1741 the rents of 
his Kislingbury estate to be given yearly to that Master of Arts 
who writes the best English Poem on a sacred subject. Mr 
Seaton died 18 August 1741, but the estate was not recovered 
from the heir-at-law until 1748. The Prize was first awarded 
in 1750, but formal Regulations were not drawn up until 1898. 
Value (1915), about £32. 

The Testator's Will assigns the rents of* his estate at Kisling- 
bury to be 

' disposed of yearly by the Vic«-Chancellor for the time being, as he the Vice- 
Chaucellor, the Master of Clare Hall, aud the Greek Professor for the time 
being, or two of them, shall agree. Which three persons aforesaid shall 
give out a subject, which subject shall for the first year be one or other of 
the Perfections or Attributes of the Supreme Being, and so the succeeding 
years till that subject is exhausted; and afterwards the subjects shall be 
either Death, Judgment, Heaven, Hell, Purity of Heart, cfec, or whatsoever 
else may be judged by the Vice-Chancellor, Master of Clare Hall, and Greek 
Professor, to be most conducive to the honour of the Supreme Being and 
recommendation of virtue. 

And they shall yeaiiy dispose of tlie rent of the abovesaid estate to that 
Master of Arts whose poem on the subject given shall be best approved by 
them. Which poem I ordain to be always in English, and to be printed; 
the expense of which shall be deducted out of the product of the Estate, 
and the residue given as a reward for the composer of the poem, or ode, or 
copy of verses. And the reason of my thus ordaining it is, the language 
being changeable, and words growing obsolete, the great God might ever 
have his Attributes and Perfections celebrated and extoUed in a stile 
perfectly adapted to the taste and understanding of every succeeding 
generation, and that virtue may be represented also to the world in the 
most amiable view.' 

H. E. . 1.9 



290 



SEATOXIAN PRIZE 



Christopher Smart, Pemb. 

The same 

The same. 

The same. 

George Bally, King's. 

Christopher"Smart, Pemb. 

George Bally, King's. 

Robert Glynn, King's. 

George Bally, King's. 

Beilby Porteus, Clirist's. 

James .Scott, Trin. 

The same. 

The same. 

John Hey, Sidney. 

John Lettice, Sidney. 

Thomas Zouch, Trin. 

Charles Jenner, Sidney. 

The same. 

William Uodson, Trin. 

William Gibson, Pemb. 

Charles Peter Layard, Job. 

The same. 

Samuel Hayes, Trin. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

Thomas Hughes, Joh. 

William Gil»on, Pemb. 

Spencer Madan, Trin. 

Samuel Hayes, Tiin. ' 

Tlie same. 

The same. 

John Robej-ts, King's. 

Charles Philpot, Emm. 

The same. 

Francis Wrangham, Trin.H. 

Arthur William Trollope, Pemb. 

William BoUand, Trin. 

The same. 

The same. 

Francis Wrangham, Trin. 

William Cockbum, Joh. 

The same. 

Charles Hoyle, Trin. 

Charles Peers, Joh. 

Cliarles Hoyle, Trin. 

Charles James Hoare, Joh. 

Benj amin Thomas Halcott Cole, Magd. 

George Pryme, Trin. 

Francis Wrangham, Trin. 

The same. 

Rlward Smedley, Sidney. 

The same. 

James William Bellamy, Queens'. 

Charles Hughes Terrot, Trin. 

Thomas Smart Hughes, Emm. 

AUdersey Dicken, Pet. 

Edward Bishop Elliott, Trin. 

The same. 

Hamilton Sydney Beresford, Clare. 

.John Overton, "Trin. 

Edward Smedley, Sidney. 

The sama 

John Howard Marsdeu, Joh. 

Richard Parkinson, Joh. 

Winthrop Mackworth Praed, Trin. 



8.31 ^Tliomas Edwards Haukiuson, Corpus. 
°°" The same. 
The same. 
834 The same. 
8.35 2The same. 
838iThe same. 

839 John Murray, Trin. 

840 Thomas Edwards Hankinsou, Corpus. 

841 The same. 

842 The same. 

843 Tliomas Rawson Birks, Trin. 

844 The same. 

845 .John Mason Xeale, Trin. 

846 Robert AVilliam Essington, King's. 

849 John Mason Neale, Trin. 

850 George Birch, Christ's. 

851 Tlie same. 

85*2 John Mason Xeale, Trin. 

854 Edward Henry Bickersteth, Trin. 

856 John Mason Xeale, Trin. 

857 The same. 
8588The same. 
859 The same. 

The same. 

862 The same. 

863 The same. 

864 William Saumarez Smith, Trin. 

865 Henry Russell Do<ld, Trin. 
William Saumarez Smith, Trin. 

.867 Chaiies Stanwell, Joh. 
Jackson Mason, Trin. 

869 Handley Carr Glyn Moule, Trin. 

870 The same. 

871 The same. 

872 The same. 

873 The same. 

874 Edward Anthony Beck, Trin. H. 

876 Handlev Carr Glyn .Moule, Trin. 

877 John William Mills, Pemb. 
.879 John Cyprian Rust, Pemb. 

800 Edward Woodley Bowling, Joh. 
.881 The same. 

882 Gage Earle Freeman, Joh. 

883 Frederick Sweet Arnold, King's. 

885 Alfred William Wlnterslow Dale, 

Trin. H. 

886 Edward Woodley Bowling, Joh. 

887 The same. 

888 Gage Earle Freeman, Joh. 

889 Alfred Stilgoe Newman, Pemb. 

890 Herbert Alfred Birks, Trin. 

891 George William Rowntree, Clare. 
'2 The same. 

893 Gage Earle Freeman, Joh. 

894 The same. 

895 George William Rowntree, Clare. 

896 The same. 

897 Joseph Hirst Lupton, Joh. 
" George William Rowntree, Clare. 

899 John Hudson, Pet. 

900 Francis Aidan Hibbert, Joh. 

901 Percy John Loseby, Emm. 

902 John Hudson, Pet 

903 George William Rowntree, Clare. 

904 francis Henry Wood, Joh. 

905 Anthony Charles Deane, Clare. 



1 The Examiners also save notice, that should any poem appear to them to possess distmniished merit, 
a premium of £100 would be adjudged. In ISSl, and 1838, the premium of £100 was adjudged instead of tbe 
orainary prize. 

•2 A second prize was this year adjudged to J. Gorle, Clare. 

3 A prize of £20 was .■\ warded to J. M. Neale, Trin. and T. Walker, Joh 



CHANCELLOR'S CLASSICAL MEDALS 



291 



1906 George William Rowntree, Clare. 

1907 Percy Joliii Losebv, Emm. 

urn Claude Herbert Alwyu Faure Field, 
Corpus. 



1909 James Edward Geoffrey de Montmo- 

rency, Pet. 

1910 Harry Erskine Currey, Caius. 



Deserving of honourable mention: 1904, J. Huilson, Pet. 

Note :— Whenever there is an omission of a year, no Prize was adjiul^eil. 



CHANCELLOR'S CLASSICAL MEDALS 

These Prizes were instituted in I75I by Thomas Holles 
PelhaMj Duke of Newcastle, and have been continued by- 
succeeding Chancellors. There are two Gold Medals, and until 
1871 inclusive these were awarded to 'each of two commencing 
Bachelors of Arts, who having Senior Optimes shall make the 
best appearance in Classical Learning.' In 1869 the mathe- 
matical restriction was removed, and the competition was thrown 
open to all students qualified to be candidates for the Classical 
Tripos of that year. The present Regulations, which, in sub- 
stance, date from 1881, admit students who have entered on their 
tenth term at least, having previously kept nine terms, provided 
that not more than ten terms shall have passed after the first 
of the said nine terms. 



1752 Francis Maseres, Clare. 
Beilby Portoous, Christ's. 

1753 William Craven, Job. 
Jobn Pilgrim, .Job. 

1754 Samuel Hallifax, Jesus. 
Henry Elmsall, Job. 

1755 East Apthorp, Jesus. 
Tbomas Castley, Jesus. 

175C Jobn Webster, Corpus. 
Elijab Impey, Trin. 

1757 Cbarles Marsh, Trin. 
Josiah .Johnson, Clare. 

1758 Richard Headon, Job. 
Walter Kerricb, Cath. 

1759 Jobn Hawes, Jesus, 
.lobn Cowper, Coi-pus. 

1760 William Tigbe, Job. 
Samuel Drake, Caius. 

1761 William Post, Queens'. 
Robert Maddison, Pet. 

1762 .Jeremiah Pembei-ton, Pemb. 
Henry W^hitfeld, Pemb. 

1763 Joseph Williamson, Trin. 
Asbton Warner Byam, Sidney. 

1764 James Lambert, Trin. 

William Cawtborne Unwin, Christ's. 

1765 George Travis, Joh. 
Ralph Shipperdson, Trin. 

1766 John Law^ Christ's. 
Joseph Milner, Cath. 

1767 Richard Kaikes, Job. 
William Pearee, Job. 

1768 Richard Hey, Magd. 
Benjamin Ferrior, Queens'. 

1769 Richard Ward, Trin. 
William Jones, Pet. 

1770 Samuel Prime, Job. 
William Smith, Job. 



1771 I'Mward Law, Pet. 
Tbomas Bromley, .Job. 

1772 Hilkiah Bedford, Joh. 
Matthew Feild, Pemb. 

1773 .John .Jelliand lirundisb, Caius. 
Robert Wharton, Pemb. 

1774 Alleyne Fitzherbert, Joh. 
•fobn Barlow Scale, Christ's. 

1775 Thomas Hall, Job. 
Charles Hewitt, Caius. 

1776 Samuel Forster, Joh. 
(Jilbert Wakefield, Jesus. 

1777 Jobn Baynes, Trin. 
Thomas Hughes, .Job. 

1778 Henry Bankes, Trin. H. 
James Six, Trin. 

1779 Jobn Lens, Joh. 
Edward Christian, .Joh. 

1780 Thomas Gisbonie, Job. 
.John Morgan, Trin. 

1781 George Law, Queens'. 
Robert Pedley, Job. 

1782 Richard Porson, Trin. 
Bowyer Edward Sparke, Pemb> 

1783 Robert Heslop, Sidney. 
Benjamin Newton, Jesus. 

1784 .lames Tunstall, Christ's. 
George Gordon^ .Job. 

1785 Henry Lloyd, Trin. 
(lervase Whitehead, Jesus. 

1786 Richard Ramsden, "Trin. 
Ralph Leycester, "Trin. 

1787 .Jonathan Rjiine, Trin. 
Clement Cbevallier, Pemb. 

1788 Henry John Hinchliffe, Trin. 
William Heberden, Job. 

1789 John Heys Trin. 
Benjamin Evans, Pemb. 

19—2 



292 



CHANCELLOR'S CLASSICAL MEDALS 



1T90 i-Ysacis Wraughaoi, Trin. H. 
John Tweiidell, Trin. 

1791 Thomas Miller, Trin. 

Artliur William Trollope, Pemb. 

1792 Kdward Maltby, Pemb. 
Williain Cooper, Job. 

1793 Charles Heberden, Joh. 
Thomas f irimwood Taylor, Trin. 

1794 John Doiieaster, Christ's. 
William Tartdy, .Joli. 

1795 (ieorge Caldwell, Jesus. 
Henry Holland, Joh. 

1796 Samuel Butler, Joh. 
John D'Oylv, Corpus. 

1797 Williwn Selwyn, trin. 
Clement I^igh, Clirist's. 

1798 William Frere, Trin. 
Ricliard Parry, Trin. 

1799 Nicholas Conyngham Tiudal, Trin. 
■Bartholomew Frere, Trin. 

1800 Cliaries Webb Le Bas, Trin. 
Lancelot Shadwell, .loli. 

1801 Charles Grant, Magd. 
Robert Grant, Magd. 

1802 Samuel Marcli Phillipps, Sidney. 
Jlobert Palfrrave, Joli. 

1803 James Parke, Trin. 
Cliarles .lames Hoare, Joh. 

1804 John Kaye, flirist's. 
James Henrv Monk, Triu. 

1805 William. Lon'jrley, Job. 
William Grainger Cautley, Pemb. 

1806 Thomas Mitchell, Pemb. 
James Devereux Hustler, Trin. 

1807 Joseph Kirkman Miller, Trin. 
John (loodrich, Trin. 

1808 Charles .James Blomfield, Trin. 
Ridiard Ward, Trin. 

1809 Fxlward Hall Alderson, Calus. 
John Staiidly, Caius. 

1810 Thomas Shaw Braudreth, Trin. 
Georite Hixlson, Trin. 

1811 Kdward Valentine Blomfield, Cains. 
Robert Wilson Evans, Trin. 

1812 Thomas Stephen Gosset, Trin. 
Cornelius Neale, Job. 

1813 James Sclioletield, Trin. 
Thomas Kobinsou, Trin, 

1814 (leorjce Millett, Triu. 
Henry Venn Elliott, Trin. 

1815 George Wa<ldinirton, Tiin. 
William Owen, Joh. 

1816 John (iraliam, Christ's. ) . 
Marmnduke Lawson, Magd.) '" 

1817 Hugh James Rose, Trin. 
Kdward John Gambler, Trin. 

1818 Connop Tliirlwall, Triu. 
George Stainforth, Trin. 

1819 Thomas Thorp, Tiin. 
Alexander Malcolm Wale, Joh. 

1820 Horatio Wa<ldingtou. Trin.) .^ 

■ Thomas Pell Piatt, Trin. f ^*^- 

1821 Alfred Ollivsut, Trin. 

William Henry Fox Talbot, Trin. 

1822 George Long, Trin. 
Henrv Maiden, Trin. 

1823 iVederick Fiel.i, Trin.J .,„ 
Thomas Crick, Joh. t^*^- 

1824 Fre<ler:ck Malkin, Trin. 
William Foster Barham, Trin. 

1825 Jolin Fre<lerick Isaacson, Job. 
Richard Williamson, Trin. 



1826 ThoniM Strattou, Trin. 
John Hodgson, Trin. 

1827 Beiijamin Hall Kennedy, Joh. 
Valentine Fowler Hovenden, Trin. 

1828 William .Selwyn, Joh. 
Thomas ^\'illiamson Peile, Trin. 

1829 William Aldwin Soames, Trin. 
William Martin, .Job. 

1830 Christopher Wordsworth, Trin. 
Tliomas Henry Steel, Trin. 

1831 Joseph Williams Blakesley, Trin. 
William Henry Hoare, Joh. 

1832 Edmund Law Lushington, Trin. 
William Hepworth Thompson, Trin. 

1833 Edward Herbert Bunbury, Trui. 
James Hildyard, tlirist's. 

1834 Thomas Kynaston Selwyn, Trin. 
William Forsyth, Tiin. 

1835 Henry Goulbura, Trin. 
Edward Howes, Trin. 

1836 William Alexander Osborne, Trin. 
.John Smith Mansfield, Trin. 

1837 Tliomas Whytehead, Joh. 
William (iilson Humphry, Trin. 

1838 Charles John Vaughan, Trin.) . 
Lord LyUelton, Trin. I ^''' 

1839 Arthur Shelly Eddis, Trin. 
John (iorham Maitland, Trin. 

1840 Alexander Chisiiolm Gooden, Trin. 
William Spicer Wood, Joh. 

1842 Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro,Trin. 
Benjamin Shaw, Trin. 

1843 Edwin Hamilton GiiTord, Joh. 
George Druce, Pet. ■ 

1844 Henry James Sumner Maine, Pemb. 
William Cieorge (lark, Trin. 

1845 Frederick Rendall, Triu. 
Thomas Francis Knox, Trin. 

1846 Franklin Lusliington, triu. 
Henry Fitzmaurice Hallam, Trin. 

1847 Charles Evans, Trin. 

Augustus Arthur VanSittart, Trin. 

1848 Charies Brodrick Scott, Triu. 
Brooke Foss Westcott, Trin. 

1849 Henry Erskine Rowe. Trin. ) 
AVilliam Henrv Waddington,> Aea. 

Trin. " I 

1850 Charles Schreiber, Trin. 
William John Beamont, Trin. 

1851 Joseph Barber Lightfoot, Trin. 
GeoiTge Bum, Trin. 

1852 Edward White Benson, Trin. 
Edward Macnagliten, "Trin. 

1853 Laurence Ci-aven, Trin. 
F/lward .\shley Scott, Trin. 

1854 Francis Vaughan Hawkins, Trin. 
Samuel Hawksley Bui'bury, Joli. 

1855 Edward Grey Hancock, Job. 
William Jennings Rees, Job. 

1856 Edward Lawford Brown, Trin. 
Theophilus liarton Rowe, Joh. 

1857 John He bert Seeley, Christ's. 
Francis Thomas Piatt, Trin. 

1858 Edwin Charles tiark, Trin. 
Alexander William Potts, Joh. 

1859 Henry Sidgwick, Trin. 
•James Webster Lougmire, Joh. 

1860 Francis Cotterell Hodgson.l 

King's. V Aaj. 

John Peile, Clirist's. | 

1861 Edwin Abbott Abbott, Job. 
Douglas Close Ridimond, Pet. 



CHAl!^CELLOR'S CLASSICAL MEDALS 



293 



1802 John Rickards Mozley, King's.) . 
William Kuyvct Wilson, Tiin. ( ^^"^• 

1863 Arthur Sidgwick, Triii. 

1864 Henry Williams Mozley, King's. 
Albert Richard Vardy, Trin. 

1865 Robert Wliitelaw, Trin. 

Basil Edward Hammond, Trin. 

1866 Philip Vernon Smith, King's. 
Alfred I-Mward Humphreys, Trin. 

1867 Frederick Pollock, Trin. 

Francis Henry Blackburne Uaniell, 
Trin. 

1868 James Heber Taylor, Trin. 
William Lonsdale Hetheriugton, Trin. 

1869 James Smith Reid, Christ's. 
Robert Kedington Rodwell, Emm. 

1870 Edward Rickersteth Birks, Trin.) . 
Fxlward Wilton South, Trin. f ^^*- 

1871 John George Fawcus, Trin. 
Richard Apploton, Trin. 

1872 Richard Dacre Archer-Hind, Trin. 
John Henry Pratt, Trin. 

1873iSamuel Henry Butclier, Trin. | 

Thomas Ethelbert Page, Job. > Aeq. 
Artlmr Woollgar Verrall, Trin.l 
1874 Walter Leaf, Trin. ) . 

Francis Hay Rawlins, Khig's.) '' 
1876 Arthur George Peskett, Magd. 
■ .James Gow, Trin. 

1876 Henry Wace, Job. 

John Percival Postgate, Trin. 

1877 James Edward (Jowell Welldon, 

King's. 
George t'hawner, King's-. 

1878 Alfred Hands Cooke, King's. 
William Wallis English, Jolu 

1879 Harry Rede Tottenham, Trin. 
IMward Vernon Arnold, Trin. 

1880 Gerald Maclean 1<>1 wards, Trin.l .^ 
Reginald St John Parry, Trin. ]"**«• 

1881 Harry Chester Goodhart, Trin. 
Joseph Annitage Robinson, Christ's. 

1882 Thomas George Tucker, Job.) ^„„ 
William Wyse, Trin. f^^^- 

1883 William Ralph Inge, King's. 
William Edward Barker, I'rin. 

1884 James Adam, Caius. 

Stanley Mordaunt Leathes, Trin. 

1885 Hugh Vibart Macnaghten, Trin. 
John Strachan, Pemb. 

1886 Montague Rhodes James, King's. 
Henry Babington Smith, "Trin. 



1887 Connop Williams, Trin. 

John Lewis Alexander Paton, Job. 

1888 Lionel George Bridges Justice Ford, 

King's. 
Norman Kenneth Stephen, Trin. 

1889 Edwin Joseph Brooks, Joh. ) <_ 
William Loring, King's. I^*^" 

1890 Edwin Abbott, Caius. 

Henry Beauclianip Walters, King's. 

1891 Arthur Bernard Cook, Trin. 
Thomas Anton Bertram, Caius. 

1892 Terrot Reaveley Glover, Joh. 
Walter Coventry Summers, Joh. 

1893 1. George Montague Buck, Caius. 

1894 1. Thomas Marris Taylor, Caius. 
2. John Herbert Stamp, Trin. 

1895 1. Edward Howard .Marsh, Trin. 
2. Albert Darby Nightingale, Trin. 

1896 Jolm Arbuthnot Nairn, Trin. 
Lionel David Barnett, Trin. 

1897 Albert Evan Bernays, Trin. | 
Francis Macdonald Cornford,> Ao). 

Trin. I 

1898 1. Alexander William Mair, Caius. 
2. George Cyril Armstrong, Trin. 

1899 1. James Toplis, Trin. 

1900 1. Ernest Harrison, Trin. 

2. Russell Kerr Gaye, Trin. 

1901 1. Frederick Henry .Marshall, Emnr. 
2. Trevor Griffith Johnson, Jesus. 

1902 1. William Rennie, Trin. 

2. John Edwin Clnphani Jukes, 
Pemb. 

1903 1. Roger Charnock Richards, Trin. 
2. Gilbert Norwood, Joh. 

1904 1. John Tresidder Sheppard, King's. 
2. Francis Carleton Greene, Pemb. 

1905 1. Kenneth John Freeman, Trin. 
2. Freeman Archibald Havnes > 

Atkey, Pemb. " \-ie(j. 

Charles Erskine Stuart, Trin. ) 

1906 2. Francis Richard Dale, Trin. I 

Ralph Lewis Giberne Butler,> Aeq. 
Trin. I 

1907 1. Harold Mattingly, Caius. 

2. Alfred Dillwyn Knox, King's. 

1908 1. Donald Struan Robertson, Trin. 
2. Edward Gordon Selwyn, King's. 

1909 Frank Ezra Adcock, King's.^^ ^ 
JReginald Hackforth, Trin. J ^^■^• 



Proxime accessit, or nearly equal to successful candidates: 1880, E. V. Perry, King's: 1882, J. C. Mots, 
,Ioh. : 1866, A. F. Hort, Trin. ; 1892, R. J. G. Mayor, King's; 1898, J. F. Dobeon. Trin. ; 1900, A. £. A. W. 
Smyth, Trin. ; 1907, J. Fraser, Trin. 

Deserving of honourable mention : 188;!, M. S. Dinisdale, King's. A. Macnaniara, Trin., A. C. Pearson, 
Christ's; 1881, F,. A. Gardner, Caius, S. A. T. Kowlatt, King's; 1885, E. von B. Bensly, Trin., F. Dames- 
Longworth. Trin.. M. J. Randall. Trin., H. F. W. Tatliam, Trin. ; 1886, A. F. Hort, Trin., J. A. Kempthome, 
Trin., L Whibley, Pemb. ; 1902, R. McG. Dawkins, Emm. ; 1903. W. B. Anderson. Trin., S. A. gTdney- 
Turner, Trin. ; 1908. A. Y. Campbell, Joh. : 1909, W. H. Duke, Jesus, A. S. F. Gow, Trin. 

Distinguished and highly distinguished : 1887, R. S. Conway. Caius, C. -M. Knatchbull-Hugessen, King's, 
N. Wedd, King's; 1888, A. L. Brown, Trin. : 1889, A. R. P. Hyslop, King's, F. W. Thomas. Trin. ; 1890, 
G. Mildleton, Emm., K. E. Sikes, Joh. ; 1891, G. A. Davies, Tnn., E. H. Miles, King's, R. A. Nicholson. 
Trin., H. Rackham, Christ's; 1892. T. Llewellyn Davies, Trin., H. J. Edwards, Tnn., R. J. G. Mayor, 
King's ; ISa'i, F. B. Malim, Trin. ; 1896, G. E. Aloore, Trin. ; 1898, H. F. Cariill. Trin. ; 1900, E. J. Turner, 
Trin. 

Note :— Whenever there is an omission of a year, no Medals were adjudged. 



1 A third Me<lal was given in this ye.ir by His Grace the Chaucellor. 



294 



MEMBERS' PRIZES 



MEMBERS' PRIZES 

The Representatives in Parliament of this University 
formerly gave four annual Prizes of fifteen guineas each, which 
were adjudged by the Vice-ChanceUor and Heads of Colleges 
for the best Exercises in Latin prose. These Prizes (confined 
until 1827 to Senior and Middle Bachelors) were established in 
1752 by the Honourable Edward Finch and the Honourable 
Thomas Townshend, and were continued by the succeeding 
Members until 1870, when in lieu of four Prizes for Latin Essays 
of £15. 15s. each, the Representatives of the University in 
Parliament desired to give annually two Prizes of £31. 10s. 
each, one for an English Essay on some subject connected 
with British History or Literature, the other for a Latin Essay, 
each Prize to be open for competition to all members of the 
University not of sufficient standing to be created Masters of 
Arts or Law; and Regulations to that effect were confirmed 
by Grace of the Senate, 11 Nov. 1869. 



MiiliVe Bachelors 

1753 Ricliarti Warren, .Jesus. 
Thoinas Holme, Joli. 

1754 .Toliii Foster, King's. 
William Craven, .loli. 

1765 Henry Elnisall, Joli. 
Samuel Hallifax, .Jesus. 

1756 East .-Vptliorp, Jesus. 
William Lobb, Pet. 

1757 Edward Hlakeway, Magd. 
Thomas Didsburv, Pet. 

1768 William Roberts, King's. 
John Jebb, Pet. 

1759 Edward Tew, Kinir's. 
Richard Ucadon, Job. 

1760 John Cowper, Corpus. 
Samuel Kerdmore, .Jesus. 

1761 John Norris, Caius. 
Ambrose Evre, Pet. 

1762 Roltert Ma(idison, Pet. 
Thomas Zouch, Trin. 

176a Henry Whitfeld, Pemb. 

Thomas WaKstaffe, Clirist's. 

1764 Edward C'hamberlayne, King's. 
Ashton Warner Bvam, Pet. 

1765 Charles Moore, Trin. 
James Lambert, Tnn. 

1766 David Stevenson. Kind's. 
Major Dawson, Jesus. 

1767 William Arnald, Job. 
John Clowes, Trin. 

1768 Kicbard Raikes, Job. . 
William Pearce, Job. 

1T69 Richard Hev, Sidney. 
Francis Barnes, King's. 

1770 William Coxe, King's. 
George Atwood, Trin. 

1771 Thomas Hayter, King's. 
William Cooke, King's. 

1772 Thomas James, King's. 
Edward Law, I^et. 

1773 William Moore Tomkyns, King 
Thomas Robinson, Trin. 



Senior liackelorf 
1753 John Warren, Caius. 
John Cott, Corpus. 

1764 John Symonds, Pet. 
Richard Warren, Jesus. 

1765 William Hell, Magd. 
.John Hallam, King's. 

1766 Samuel Hallifax, Jesus. 
Henry Elmsall, .Job. 

1767 William Lobb, Pet. 
I'iist Apthorp, Jesus. 

1758 John Cullum, Cath. 
William Gordon, Queens'. 

1759 Charles Marsh, Trin. 
William Roberts, King's. 

1760 Richard Beadon, Job. 
Walter Kerrich, Cath. 

1761 Henry Bates, Pet 
Peter Forster, .Jes. 

1762 Philip Rosenbagen, Job. 
Ambrose Eyre, Pet. 

1763 Thomas Zouch, Trin. 
Robert Maddison, I'et. 

1764 Jeremiah Peraberton, Pemb. 
William Wyatt, Pemb. 

1765 William Paley, Christ's. 
Edward Chamberlayne, King's. 

1766 William Cawthome Unwin, {Hirist's. 
Cliarles Moore, Trin. 

1767 David Stevenson, King's. 
.John Wiird, .Joh. 

1768 John Clowes, Trin. 
Christopher IJunter, Sidney. 

1769 William Pearce, Joli. 
Josiah Disturnell, Pemb. 

1770 Richard Hey, Sidney. 
Francis Barnes, King's. 

1771 William Coxe, King's. 
William Jones, Pet. 

1772 Thomas Hayter, King's. 

1773 Thomas James, King's. 
Edward Law, Pet. 
John Cranke, Trin. 



MEMBERS' PRIZES 



295 



Middle Bachelors 

1774 Robert Wliarton, Pemb. 

1775 Thomas James Mathias, Trin. 
John Barlow Seale, Christ's. 

1776 John Legh, Trin. 



1777 George (iretton, Trin. 
Gilbert Wakefield, .Jesus. 
John Jackson, Trin. 

1778 Thomas Rennell, King's. 
William Taylor, Corpus. 

1779 James Six, Trin. 

.Samuel Compton Cox, Trin. 

1780 Kdward Christian, Joh. 
Herbert Marsh, .Job. 
Thomas Carpendale, Joh. 

1781 .John Lowther, Trin. 
Joslma Smith, Joh. 

1782 Henry Danipier, King's. 
Robert Pedley, .Joh. 
I'hilip Douglas, Clorpus. 

1783 Matthew Raine, Trin. 
Bowyer fMward Sparke, Pemb. 
John Henry Michell, King's. 

1784 Thomas Clarkson, Joh. 
Itobert Heslop, Sidney. 

1785 William Gregor, Joh." 
George Gordon, Joh. 

1786 William Roberts, King's. 
Harry Robertson, .Job. 

1787 Charlton Byam Wollaston, .Joh. 
.John Roberts, King's. 

1788 Jonathan Raine, Trin. 

1789 John Whishaw, Trin. 
William Heberden, .foil. 

1790 John Heys, Trin. 
Thomas TlioriT, Pet. 
Edward Thornton, Pemb. 

1791 John Tweddell, Trin. 
John Drew Borton, Caius. 

1792 John Hookham Frere, Caius. 
Arthur William Trollope, Pemb. 

1793 Joseph Allen, Trin. 
William Cooper, Joh. 

1794 Robert Smith, King's. 
Thomas Grimwood Taylor, Trin. 

1795 William Jones, Joh. 

1796 Gilbert Beresford, Joh. 
William Tilt, Trin. 
George Adam Browne, Trin. 

1797 Samuel Butler, Joh. 
Christopher Bethell, King's. 

1798 Daniel Cresswell. Trin. 
Clement Leigh, Christ's. 

1799 Francis Howes, Trin. 
John Williams, Trin. 

1800 Charies Peers, Job. 
•Joseph Hallet Batten, Trin. 

1801 Henry Vincent Bayley, Trin. 
George D'Oylv, Corpus. 

1802 Henry Martyn, Joh. 
Charles Grant, Magd. 

1803 William Paley, Pemb. 
Samuel Birch, Job. 

1804 George Pryme, Trin. 
James Parke, Trin. 

1805 Henry Raikes, Job. 
Samuel Bernev Vince, King's. 



Senior Bachelors 

1774 Henry Ingles, King's. 
Richard Humfrey, Corpus. 

1775 Charles Sandiford, Sidney. 

1776 James Fawcett, Joh. 
Thomas James Mathias, Trin. 
John Barlow Seale, Christ's. 

1777 John Legh, Trin. 

Henry William Coulthurst, Job. 

1778 George Grettoii, Trin. 
Gilbert Wakefield, Jesus. 

1779 William Greenwood, Joh. 
David Owen, Trin. 

1780 William Cole, King's. 



1781 Herbert Marsh, Joh. 
Thomas Carpendale, Joh. 

1782 Joshua Smith, Joh. 



1783 Henry Dampier, King's. 
Thomas (latton, Joh. 

1784 Matthew Raine, Trin. 
Bowyer Edward Sparke, Pemb. 

1785 Thomas Clarkson, Job. 
Robert Heslop, Sidney. 

1786 George Gordon, Job. 
William Gregor, Joh. 

1787 Samuel Heyrick, Trin. 

1788 Love Robertson, Caius. 
Charlton Byam Wollaston, Job. 

1789 Jonathan Raine, Trin. 
■Thomas Carlyon, Pemb. 
Clement Chevallier, Pemb. 

1790 William Heberden, Job. 
John Whishaw, Trin. 

1791 John Heys, Trin. 
George Haggitt, Pemb. 

1792 John Tweddell, Trin. 
Abraham Moore, King's. 

1793 Arthur William Trollope, Peinb. 
John Septimus Grover, Iviiig's. 

1794 Joseph Allen, Trin. 
William Cooper, Job. 

1795 Robert Smith, King's. 
Thomas Grimwood Taylor, Trin. 

1796 Thomas Bourdillon, Queens'. 
William Jones, Job. 

1797 William Tilt, Trin. 
George Adam Browne, Trin. 

1798 Samuel Butler, Joh. 
Christopher Wordsworth, Trin. 

1799 Clement Leigh, Christ's. 
Thomas Carr, "Trin. 

1800 Francis Howes, Trin. 
John Willianis, Trin. 

1801 John Brown, Trin. 

Nicholas Conyngham Tindal, Trin. 

1802 Henry Vincent Baylev, Trin. 
Charies Webb Le Bas, Trin. 



1804 William Paley, Pemb. 
George Macfairlan, Trin. 

1805 George Pryme, Trin. 
Thomas Starkie, Catli. 



296 



MEMBERS' PRIZES 



Middle Bachelor* 

1806 William Loiigley, Joh. 
William Grainger C'autley, Pemb. 

1807 Charles Skinner Matthews, Trin. 
John Turner, Joh. 

1808 John Carr, Trin. 
George Burges, Trin. 

1809 Thomas Smart Hughes, Joli. 
Charles James Blomtield, Trin. 

' William Clark, Trin. 

1810 Edward Smedley, Trin. 
Edward Hall Alderson, Caius. 

1811 John Ashbridge, Trni. 
Thomas Musgrave, Trin. 

1812 Robert Wilson Evans, Trin. 
Edward Valentine Blomfield, Emm. 

1813 Charies Heath, King's. 

1814 James Scholefield, Trin. 

Henry Downing Whittington, Joh, 
1816 James Bailey, Trin. 
George Peareon, Joh. 

1816 Hastings Robinson, Joh. 
George Waddington, Trin. 

1817 Jolm James Blunt, Joh. 

1818 Hugh James Rose, Trin. 
Charles John Heathcote, Trin. 

1819 Thomas Flower Ellis, Trin. 

1820 Thomas Thorp, Trin. 
Edward Boteler, Sidney. 

1821 Edward Harvey Maltby, Pemb. 
Arthur Barron, Trin. 

1822 Alfred Ollivant, Trin. 

James Alexander Barnes, Trin. 

1823 Oiarles Edward Kennaway, Joli. 
George l^ong, Trin. 



1826 Cliaries Dade, Caius. 

Bachelorit 

1827 Richard Williamson, Trin. 
William Margetson Heald, Trin. 

1828 Benjamin Hall Kenne<ly, Joh. 
Valentine pQwler Hovenden, Trin. 

1829 George Langshaw, Joh. 

1830 1 Edward Herbert Fitzherbert, Trin. 
Thomas Jodrell Philips, Trin. 

1831 James Spedding, Trin. 

1832 James Spedding, Trin. 
Horatio Samuel Hildyard, Pet. 

1833 James Hildyard, Christ's. 

1835 Edward Thomas Vaughan, Christ's. 
Thomas Bradley Paget, Trin. 

1836 James Jnd Smith, Trin. 

1837 John Saul llowson, Trin. 
Henry Goulburn, 'Trin. 

1838 John Saul Howson, Trin. 

1839 Joseph E<lleston, Trin. 
Charles John Uayley, Trin. 

•1840 Henry Annesley Woodham, Jesus. 
Joseph Edleston, Trin. 

1 Prizes of thlrtjf Kuinetts each were a<ljudged to these Dissertations, and they were printed at 
exijente of the Universitj. 



Senior Bachelort 

1806 Raleigh Trevelyan, Joh. 
John Wray, Trin. 

1807 William Grainger Cautley, Pemb. 



1809 Henry Ford Ainslie, Trin. 
George Burges, Trin. 

1810 Thomas Smart Hughes, Job. 
William Frederick Chambers, Trin. 
William Henry Parry, Joh. 

1811 Edward Hall Alderson, Cftius. 
E<lward Smedley, Trin. 
Cornwallis llewett, Trin. 

1812 Thomas Musgrave, Trin. 
John Ashbridge. Trin. 

1813 Robert Wilson Evans, Trin. 
David .Jefferson Maynard, Cath, 

1814 Robert Monsey Rolfe, Down. 
William Battle Wrightson, Trin. 

1815 James Scholefield, Trin. 

1816 James Bailey, Trin. 
George Pearson, Joh. 
George Walker, Trin. 

1817 Ha-tings Robinson, Joh. 
James Clarke Franks, Trin. 

1818 John James Blunt, Joh. 

1819 Charles John Heathcote, Trin. 



1821 Thomas Thorp, Trin. 
Edward Boteler, Sidney. 

1822 Arthur Barron, Trin. 
Ralph Lyon, Trin. 

1823 Alfred Ollivant, Trin. 

1824 Henry Thompson, Joh. 
William Henrv Marriott, Trin. 

1825 John Buckle, Trin. 

1826 James Amiraux .Jeremie, Trin. 



Undergrail nates 
1827 Edward Herbert Fitzherbert, Trin. 
Thomas Williamson Peile, Trin. 



1830 Allen William Chatfleld, Trin. 

1831 William Hepworth Thompson, Trin 
Henrv Alford, Trin. 

1832 James Hildyard, Christ's. 

1833 Edward Thomas Vaughan, Christ's. 
William Macpherson, Trin. 

1835 John Smith Mansfield, Trin. 
James Ind Smith, Trin.- 

1836 William Gilson Humphrv, Trin. 

1837 Charles John Vaughan, Trin. 
Henry Annesley Woo<lham, Jesus. 

1838 Henry Annesley Woodham, Jesus. 
Henry Thomas Hilev, Clare. 

1839 John Mason Neale, Trin. 



MEMBERS' PRIZES 



297 



Bachelors 

1841 Alexander Blackall Simonds, King's. 
Alexander James Beresford Hope, 

Trin. 

1842 Charles John Ellicott, Joh. 
Reginald Itobert Walpole, Caius. 

1843 Reginald Robert Walpole, Caius. 
George Xug^e, Trin. 

1844 Timothy Byers, Christ's. 
Henry Mildred Birch, King's. 

1S45 Edwyn Henry Vaughan, Christ's. 
Frederick Waymouth Gibbs, Trin. 

1846 John James Stewart Perowne, Corpus. 
Artliur Malortie Hoare, Joh. 

1847 John .James Stewart Perowne, Corpus. 
Cliarles James Monk, Trin. 

1848 John Pilkington Norris, Trin. 
David James Vaughan, Trin. 

1849 Brooke Foss Westcott, Trin. 
1860 Cliarles Brodrick Scott, Trin. 

1851 Henry Carr Archdale Tayler, Trin. 
.Joseph Bickersteth Mayor, Joh. 

1852 Edward Henry Perowne, Corpus. 
Spencer Perceval Butler, Trin. 

1863 John Chambers, .Joh. 

Charles Harcourt Chambers, Trin. 

1854 Matthew Gent, Corpus. 
John Chambers, Joh. 

1855 Matthew Gent, Corpus. 
David Morton Dulley, Caius. 

185fi Cliarles Stuart Calverley, Christ's. 

1867 Richard Hortou Smitli, Joh. 

1868 Frederic Heppenstall, Joh. 
•Joseph Hirst Lupton, Joh. 

1869 Herbert Mortimer Luckcock, Jesus. 

1860 Frederick Whitting, King's. 

1861 William John Hope-Edwardes, Trin. 
Herbert Mortimer Luckock, Jesus. 

1862 Herbert Mortimer Jjuckock, .Jesus. 

1863 Arthur Sidgwick, Trin. 
•Alexander Pririgle, Trin. 

1864 Arthur Sidgwick, Trin. 

Frederic William Henry Myers, Trin. 
1866 Frederic William Henry Myers, Trin. 
Henry Lee Warner, Joh. 

1866 Henry Ernest Fanshawe, Corpus. 

1867 Charles Davys Argles, Trin. 1 
John Edwin Sandys, Joh. V 
Philip Vernon Smith, King's.! 

1868 Henry Ernest Fanshawe, Corp. ) , 
Augustus Samuel Wilkins, Joh.) ^**- 

• 1869 Henry Ernest Fanshawe, Corpus. 



Enjjlish E$sa!i 

1870 John De Soyres, Caius. 

1871 William Blake Odgers, Trin. H. 

1872 Charles William Empson, Trin. 

1873 (ieorge Chrystal, Pet. 

1874 Thomas Clarkson, King's. 
1876 Henry Bond, Trin. H. 

1876 Perceval Maitland Laurence, Corpus. 

1877 Robert Pickett Scott, King's. 

1878 Edward Whytehead Howson, King's. 
1S79 Charles Harold Herford, Trin. 

1880 James Kenneth Stephen, King's. 

1881 Arthur Reed Ropes, King's. 

1883 Allen Arthur Cooper, Corpus. 

1884 John Pawle